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Thermodynamic Properties of Sea Air : Volume 6, Issue 3 (13/10/2009)

By Feistel, R.

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Book Id: WPLBN0004021078
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 133
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Thermodynamic Properties of Sea Air : Volume 6, Issue 3 (13/10/2009)  
Author: Feistel, R.
Volume: Vol. 6, Issue 3
Language: English
Subject: Science, Ocean, Science
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, Copernicus GmbH
Publication Date:
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications


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Hagen, E., Span, R., Kretzschmar, H., Feistel, R., Wright, D. G., & Herrmann, S. (2009). Thermodynamic Properties of Sea Air : Volume 6, Issue 3 (13/10/2009). Retrieved from

Description: Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, 18119 Warnemünde, Germany. Very accurate thermodynamic potential functions are available for fluid water, ice, seawater and humid air covering wide ranges of temperature and pressure conditions. They permit the consistent computation of all equilibrium properties as, for example, required for coupled atmosphere–ocean models or the analysis of observational or experimental data. With the exception of humid air, these potential functions are already formulated as international standards released by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS), and have been adopted in 2009 for oceanography by IOC/UNESCO.

In this paper, we derive a collection of formulas for important quantities expressed in terms of the thermodynamic potentials, valid for typical phase transitions and composite systems of humid air and water/ice/seawater. Particular attention is given to equilibria between seawater and humid air, referred to as ''sea air'' here. In a related initiative, these formulas will soon be implemented in a source-code library for easy practical use. The library is primarily aimed at oceanographic applications but will be relevant to air-sea interaction and meteorology as well.

The formulas provided are valid for any consistent set of suitable thermodynamic potential functions. Here we adopt potential functions from previous publications in which they are constructed from theoretical laws and empirical data; they are briefly summarized in the appendix. The formulas make use of the full accuracy of these thermodynamic potentials, without additional approximations or empirical coefficients. They are expressed in the temperature scale ITS-90 and the 2008 Reference-Composition Salinity Scale.

Thermodynamic properties of sea air

Feistel, R. and Feistel, S.: Die Ostsee als thermodynamisches System, in: L. Schimansky-Geier, H. Malchow, T. Pöschel (Hrsg.), Irreversible Prozesse und Selbstorganisation, Logos-Verlag, Berlin, 247–264, 2006.; Feistel, R. and Hagen, E.: On the GIBBS thermodynamic potential of seawater, Progr. Oceanogr., 36, 249–327, 1995.; Feistel, R. and Hagen, E.: A Gibbs thermodynamic potential of sea ice, Cold Regions Sci. Technol., 28, 83–142, 1998.; Feistel, R. and Marion, G. M.: A Gibbs-Pitzer Function for High-Salinity Seawater Thermodynamics, Progr. Oceanogr., 74, 515–539, 2007.; Feistel, R. and Wagner, W.: High-pressure thermodynamic Gibbs functions of ice and sea ice, J. Mar. Res., 63, 95–139, 2005.; Feistel, R. and Wagner, W.: A new equation of state for \chem{H_{2}O} ice Ih, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 35, 1021–1047, 2006.; Feistel, R. and Wagner, W.: Sublimation pressure and sublimation enthalpy of \chem{H_{2}O} ice Ih between 0 and 273.16 K, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 71, 36–45, 2007.; Feistel, R., Wright, D. G., Jackett, D. R., Miyagawa, K., Reissmann, J. H., Wagner, W., Overhoff, U., Guder, C., Tchijov, V., Feistel, A., and Marion,  G. M.: Numerical implementation and oceanographic application of the thermodynamic potentials of water, vapour, ice, seawater and air. Part I: Background and Equations, Ocean Sci., in preparation, 2009.; Feistel, R., Feistel, S., Nausch, G., Szaron, J., Lysiak-Pastuszak, E., and Ǽrtebjerg, G.: BALTIC: Monthly time series 1900–2005, in: State and Evolution of the Baltic Sea, 1952–2005, edited by: Feistel, R., Nausch, G., and Wasmund, N., A Detailed 50-Year Survey of Meteorology and Climate, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Marine Environment, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, 311–336, 2008a.; Feistel, R., Wright, D. G., Miyagawa, K., Harvey, A. H., Hruby, J., Jackett,  D. R., McDougall, T. J., and Wagner, W.: Mutually Consistent Thermodynamic Potentials for Fluid Water, Ice, and Seawater: A New Standard for Oceanography, Ocean Sci., 4, 275–291, available , 2008b.; Fofonoff, N. P.: Physical properties of sea-water, in: The Sea, edited by: Hill, M. N., Wiley, New York, 3–30, 1962.; Fofonoff, N. P. and Millard, R. C.: Algorithms for the computation of fundamental properties of seawater, Unesco Techn. Pap. Mar. Sci., 44, available at: , 1983.; Gatley, D. P.: Understanding Psychrometrics, 2nd ed., American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning ASHRAE, Atlanta, 2005.; Giacomo, P.: Equation for the determination of the density of moist air (1981), Metrologia, 18, 33–40, 1982.; Gibbs, J. W.: Graphical methods in the thermodynamics of fluids, Trans. Connecticut Acad. Arts and Sci., 2, 309–342, 1873.; Gill, A. E.: Atmosphere Ocean Dynamics, Academic Press, San Diego, 1982.; Glansdorff, P. and Prigogine, I.: Thermodynamic Theory of Structure, Stability, and Fluctuations, Wiley Interscience, New York, 1971.; Glasstone, S.: Thermodynamics for Chemists, D. van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, 1947.; Goldberg, R. N. and Weir, R. 


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