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Sea Level Trend and Variability Around the Peninsular Malaysia : Volume 11, Issue 3 (17/06/2014)

By Luu, Q. H.

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Book Id: WPLBN0004020784
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 23
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Sea Level Trend and Variability Around the Peninsular Malaysia : Volume 11, Issue 3 (17/06/2014)  
Author: Luu, Q. H.
Volume: Vol. 11, Issue 3
Language: English
Subject: Science, Ocean, Science
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection (Contemporary), Copernicus GmbH
Publication Date:
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications


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Tay, T. W., Tkalich, P., & Luu, Q. H. (2014). Sea Level Trend and Variability Around the Peninsular Malaysia : Volume 11, Issue 3 (17/06/2014). Retrieved from

Description: Tropical Marine Science Institute, National University of Singapore, Singapore. Peninsular Malaysia is bounded from the west by Malacca Strait and the Andaman Sea both connected to the Indian Ocean, and from the east by South China Sea being largest marginal sea in the Pacific Basin. Resulting sea level along Peninsular Malaysia coast is assumed to be governed by various regional phenomena associated with the adjacent parts of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. At annual scale, sea level anomalies (SLAs) are generated by the Asian monsoon; interannual sea level variability is determined by the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD); while long-term sea level trend is related to global climate change. To quantify the relative impacts of these multi-scale phenomena on sea level trend and variability around the Peninsular Malaysia, long-term tide gauge record and satellite altimetry are used. During 1984–2011, relative sea level rise (SLR) rates in waters of Malacca Strait and eastern Peninsular Malaysia are found to be 2.4 ± 1.6 mm yr−1 and 2.7 ± 1.0 mm yr−1, respectively. Allowing for corresponding vertical land movements (VLM; 0.8 ± 2.6 mm yr−1 and 0.9 ± 2.2 mm yr−1), their absolute SLR rates are 3.2 ± 4.2 mm yr−1 and 3.6 ± 3.2 mm yr−1, respectively. For the common period 1993–2009, absolute SLR rates obtained from both tide gauge and satellite altimetry in Peninsular Malaysia are similar; and they are slightly higher than the global tendency. It further underlines that VLM should be taken into account to get better estimates of SLR observations. At interannual scale, ENSO affects sea level over the Malaysian coast in the range of ±5 cm with a very high correlation. Meanwhile, IOD modulates sea level anomalies mainly in the Malacca Strait in the range of ±2 cm with a high correlation coefficient. Interannual regional sea level drops are associated with El Niño events and positive phases of the IOD index; while the rises are correlated with La Niña episodes and the negative periods of the IOD index. Seasonally, SLAs are mainly monsoon-driven, in the order of 10–25 cm. Geographically, sea level responds differently to the monsoon: two cycles per year are observed in the Malacca Strait, presumably due to South Asian-Indian Monsoon; whereas single annual cycle is noted along east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, mostly due to East Asian-Western Pacific Monsoon. These results imply that a narrow topographic constriction in Singapore Strait may separate different modes of annual and interannual sea level variability along coastline of Peninsular Malaysia.

Sea level trend and variability around the Peninsular Malaysia

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