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Physical Forcing and Physical/Biochemical Variability of the Mediterranean Sea: a Review of Unresolved Issues and Directions for Future Research : Volume 10, Issue 4 (24/07/2013)

By Malanotte-rizzoli, P.

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Book Id: WPLBN0004020706
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 76
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Physical Forcing and Physical/Biochemical Variability of the Mediterranean Sea: a Review of Unresolved Issues and Directions for Future Research : Volume 10, Issue 4 (24/07/2013)  
Author: Malanotte-rizzoli, P.
Volume: Vol. 10, Issue 4
Language: English
Subject: Science, Ocean, Science
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection (Contemporary), Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2013
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

Citation

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Borzelli-Eusebi, G. L., Rubino, A., Crise, A., Sprovieri, M., D'alcalà, M. R., Artale, V.,...Roether, W. (2013). Physical Forcing and Physical/Biochemical Variability of the Mediterranean Sea: a Review of Unresolved Issues and Directions for Future Research : Volume 10, Issue 4 (24/07/2013). Retrieved from http://worldlibrary.net/


Description
Description: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA. The importance of the Mediterranean Sea for the world ocean has long been recognized. First, the Mediterranean sea has a profound impact on the Atlantic ocean circulation and, consequently, on the global thermohaline conveyor belt. Maps of the Mediterranean salty water tongue exiting from the Gibraltar strait at intermediate depths and spreading throughout the Atlantic interior are well known since the 1950s. Through direct pathways to the Atlantic polar regions or through indirect mixing processes, the salty Mediterranean water preconditions the deep convection cells of the polar Atlantic. There the North Atlantic Deep Water is formed which successively spreads throughout the world ocean constituting the core of the global thermohaline circulation.

Even more importantly, the Mediterranean Sea is a laboratory basin for the investigation of processes of global importance, being much more amenable to observational surveys because of its location in mid-latitude and its dimensions. Both the western and eastern basins in fact possess closed thermohaline circulations analogous to the global conveyor belt. A unique upper layer open thermohaline cell connects the eastern to the western basin and, successively, to the north Atlantic through the Gibraltar strait. In it, the Atlantic water entering into Gibraltar in the surface layer, after travelling to the easternmost Levantine basin, is transformed into one of the saltiest water masses through air–sea heat and moisture fluxes. This is the salty water which, crossing the entire basin in the opposite direction below the surface Atlantic water, finally exits from the Gibraltar strait at mid-depths.

Both the western and eastern basins are endowed with deep/intermediate convection cells analogous to the polar Atlantic deep convection cells or to the intermediate mode water ones. Deep and intermediate water masses are therefore formed in different sites of the entire basin. Because of their easily accessible locations, these convection cells are much more amenable to direct observational surveys and mooring arrays.

An ubiquitous, energetic mesoscale and sub-mesoscale eddy field is superimposed to and interacts with the sub-basin scale, wind-driven gyres that characterize the upper thermocline circulation. Three different scales of motion are therefore superimposed producing a richness of interaction processes which typify similar interactions in unexplored ocean regions.

Both wide and narrow shelves are present separated by steep continental slopes from the deep interiors. Cross-shelf fluxes of physical as well biogeochemical parameters are crucial in determining the properties of the shallow versus deep local ecosystems and their trophic chain. Most importantly, the Mediterranean Sea is a basin of contrasting ecosystems, from the strongly oligotrophic deep interiors to the fully eutrophic northern Adriatic characterized by recurrent, anomalous algal blooms and related anoxia events.

This review focuses on the identification of the major unresolved scientific issues and wants also to provide directions for future research which may lead to the formulation of interdisciplinary, collaborative implementation plans to address these issues both theoretically and observationally.


Summary
Physical forcing and physical/biochemical variability of the Mediterranean Sea: a review of unresolved issues and directions for future research

Excerpt
Alemany, F., Quintanilla, L., Velez-Belchí, P., García, A., Cortés, D., Rodríguez, J. M., Fernández de Puelles, M. L., González-Pola, C., and López-Jurado, J. L.: Characterization of the spawning habitat of Atlantic bluefin tuna and related species in the Balearic Sea (western Mediterranean), Prog. Oceanogr., 86, 21–38 , 2010.; Alhammoud, B., Beranger, K., Mortier, L., Crepon, M., and Dekeyser, I.: Surface circulation of the Levantine Basin: comparison of model results with observations, Prog. Oceanogr., 66, 299–320, 2005.; Allen, J. I., Blackford, J. C., and Radford, P. J.: A 1-D vertically resolved modelling study of the ecosystem dynamics of the middle and southern Adriatic sea, J. Marine Syst., 18, 265–286, 1998.; Allen, J. T., Smeed, D. A., Tintoré, J., and Ruiz, S.: Mesoscale subduction at the Almeria–Oran front, Part 1: Agesotrophic flow, J. Marine Syst., 30, 263–285, doi:10.1016/S0924-7963(01)00062-8, 2001.; Anderson, T. R. and Turley, C. M.: Low bacterial growth efficiency in the oligotrophic eastern Mediterranean Sea: a modelling analysis, J. Plankton Res., 25, 1011–1019, 2003.; Artale, V., Calmanti, S., Malanotte-Rizzoli, P., Pisacane, G., Rupolo, V., and Tsimplis, M.: The Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea as connected systems, in: Mediterranean Climate Variability, edited by: Lionello, P., Malanotte-Rizzoli, P., and Boscolo, R., Elsevier, 283–323, 2006.; Ashkenazy, Y., Stone, P. H., and Malanotte-Rizzoli, P.: Box modelling of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, Physica A, 391, 1519–1531, 2012.; Borzelli, G. and Ligi, R.: Empirical orthogonal function analysis of sst image series: a physical interpretation, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 16, 682–690, 1999a.; Astraldi, M., Balopoulos, E., Candela, J., Font, J., Gacic, M., Gasparini, G. P., Manca, B., Theocharis, A., and Tintore, J.: The role of straits and channels in understanding the characteristics of Mediterranean circulation, Prog. Oceanogr., 44, 65–108, 1999.; Baldacci, A., Corsini, G., Grasso, R., Manzella, G., Allen, J. T., Cipollini, P., Guymer, T. H., and Snaith, H. M.: A study of the Alboran Sea mesoscale system by means of empirical orthogonal function decomposition of satellite data, J. Marine Syst., 29, 293–311, doi:10.1016/S0924-7963(01)00021-5, 2001.; Barron, C. N. and Kara, A. B.: Satellite based daily SSTs over the global ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L15603, doi:10.1029/2006GL026356, 2006.; Bethoux, J. P., Gentili, B., Morin, P., Nicolas, E., Pierre, C., and Ruiz-Pino, D.: The Mediterranean Sea: a miniature ocean for climatic and environmental studies and a key for the climatic functioning of the North Atlantic, Prog. Oceanogr., 44, 131–146, 1999.; Beuvier, J., Sevault, F., Hermann, M., Kontoyiannis, H., Ludwig, W., Rixen, M., Stanev, E., Béranger, K., and Somot, S.: Modelling the Mediterranean Sea inter annual variability during 1961–2000: focus on the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT), J. Geophys. Res., 115, C08017, doi:10.1029/2009JC005950, 2010.; Bianchi, C. N. and Morri, C.: Marine biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: situation, problems and prospects for future research, Mar. Pollut. Bull., 40, 367–376, 2000.; Bignami, F., Mattietti, G., Rotundi, A., and Salusti, E.: On a Suigimoto-Whitehead effect in the Mediterranean Sea: sinking and mixing of a bottom current in the Bari Canyon, southern Adriatic Sea, Deep-Sea Res., 37, 657–665, 1990.; Bignami, F., Böhm, E., D'Acunzo, E., D'Archino, R., and Salusti, E.: On the dynamics of surface cold filaments in the Mediterranean Sea, J. Marine Syst., 74, 429–442, 2008.; Bingel, F., Özsoy, E., and Ünluata, Ü.: A review of the state of the fisheries and the environment of the northeastern Mediterranean (Northern levantine Basin), General Fisherie

 

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