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The Mediterranean Sea System: a Review and an Introduction to the Special Issue : Volume 9, Issue 5 (06/09/2013)

By Tanhua, T.

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Book Id: WPLBN0004020682
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 15
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: The Mediterranean Sea System: a Review and an Introduction to the Special Issue : Volume 9, Issue 5 (06/09/2013)  
Author: Tanhua, T.
Volume: Vol. 9, Issue 5
Language: English
Subject: Science, Ocean, Science
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2013
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

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Hainbucher, D., Schroeder, K., Álvarez, M., Civitarese, G., Cardin, V., & Tanhua, T. (2013). The Mediterranean Sea System: a Review and an Introduction to the Special Issue : Volume 9, Issue 5 (06/09/2013). Retrieved from http://worldlibrary.net/


Description
Description: GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Department of Chemical Oceanography, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany. The Mediterranean Sea is a semi-enclosed sea characterized by high salinities, temperatures and densities. The net evaporation exceeds the precipitation, driving an anti-estuarine circulation through the Strait of Gibraltar, contributing to very low nutrient concentrations. The Mediterranean Sea has an active overturning circulation, one shallow cell that communicates directly with the Atlantic Ocean, and two deep overturning cells, one in each of the two main basins. It is surrounded by populated areas and is thus sensitive to anthropogenic forcing. Several dramatic changes in the oceanographic and biogeochemical conditions have been observed during the past several decades, emphasizing the need to better monitor and understand the changing conditions and their drivers. During 2011 three oceanographic cruises were conducted in a coordinated fashion in order to produce baseline data of important physical and biogeochemical parameters that can be compared to historic data and be used as reference for future observational campaigns. In this article we provide information on the Mediterranean Sea oceanographic situation, and present a short review that will serve as background information for the special issue in Ocean Science on Physical, chemical and biological oceanography of the Mediterranean Sea. An important contribution of this article is the set of figures showing the large-scale distributions of physical and chemical properties along the full length of the Mediterranean Sea.

Summary
The Mediterranean Sea system: a review and an introduction to the special issue

Excerpt
Álvarez, M., Sanleón-Bartolomé, H., Tanhua, T., Mintrop, L., Luchetta, A., Cantoni, C., Schroeder, K., and Civitarese, G.: The CO2 system in the Mediterranean Sea: a basin wide perspective, Ocean Sci. Discuss., 10, 1447–1504, doi:10.5194/osd-10-1447-2013, 2013.; Astraldi, M., Balopoulos, S., Candela, J., Font, J., Gacic, M., Gasparini, G. P., Manca, B., Theocharis, A., and Tintore, J.: The role of straits and channels in understanding the characteristics of Mediterranean circulation, Prog. Oceanogr., 44, 65–108, doi:10.1016/S0079-6611(99)00021-X, 1999.; Baschek, B., Send, U., Lafuente, J. G., and Candela, J.: Transport estimates in the Strait of Gibraltar with a tidal inverse model, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 31033–31044, DOI:10.1029/2000jc000458, 2001.; Bensi, M., Rubino, A., Cardin, V., Hainbucher, D., and Mancero-Mosquera, I.: Structure and variability of the abyssal water masses in the Ionian Sea in the period 2003-2010, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 118, 931–943, doi:10.1029/2012JC008178, 2013.; Bergamasco, A. and Malanotte-Rizzoli, P.: The circulation of the Mediterranean Sea: a historical review of experimental investigations, Adv. Oceanogr. Limnol., 1, 11–28, doi:10.1080/19475721.2010.491656, 2010.; Béthoux, J. P., Gentili, B., Raunett, J., and Tailiez, D.: Warming trend in the western Mediterranean deep water, Nature, 347, 660–662, 1990.; Béthoux, J. P., Morin, P., Chaumery, C., Connan, O., Gentili, B., and Ruiz-Pino, D. P.: Nutrient in the Mediterranean Sea, mass balance and statistical analysis of concentrations with respect to environmental change, Mar. Chem., 63, 155–169, 1998.; Béthoux, J. P., Morin, P., and Ruiz-Pino, D. P.: Temporal trends in nutrient ratios: chemical evidence of Mediterranean ecosystem chages driven by human activity, Deep-Sea Res. II, 49, 2007–2016, 2002.; Bignami, F., Salusti, E., and Schiarini, S.: Observations on a bottom vein of dense water in the Southern Adriatic and Ionian Seas, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 7249–7259, 1990.; Bonnet, S., Grosso, O., and Moutin, T.: Planktonic dinitrogen fixation along a longitudinal gradient across the Mediterranean Sea during the stratified period (BOUM cruise), Biogeosciences, 8, 2257–2267, doi:0.5194/bg-8-2257-2011, 2011.; Borzelli, G. L. E., Gačić, M., Cardin, V., and Civitarese, G.: Eastern Mediterranean Transient and reversal of the Ionian Sea circulation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L15108, doi:10.1029/2009gl039261, 2009.; Bryden, H. L. and Kinder, T. H.: Steady two-layer exchange through the Strait of Gibraltar, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. A, 38, Supplement 1, S445–S463, doi:10.1016/s0198-0149(12)80020-3, 1991.; Bryden, H. L., Candela, J., and Kinder, T. H.: Exchange through the Strait of Gibraltar, Prog. Oceanogr., 33, 201–248, doi:10.1016/0079-6611(94)90028-0, 1994.; Cardin, V., Bensi, M., and Pacciaroni, M.: Variability of water mass properties in the last two decades in the South Adriatic Sea with emphasis on the period 2006-2009, Cont. Shelf. Res., 31, 951–965, doi:10.1016/j.csr.2011.03.002, 2011.; CIESM: Designing Med-SHIP: a program for repeated oceanographic surveys, CIESM Workshop Monographs, edited by: Briand, F., CIESM, Monaco, 2012.; Civitarese, G., Gacic, M., Vetrano, A., Boldrin, A., Bregant, D., Rabitti, S., and Souvermezoglou, E.: Biogeochemical fluxes through the Strait of Otranto (eastern Mediterranean), Cont. Shelf. Res., 18, 773–789, 1998.; Civitarese, G., Gačić, M., Lipizer, M., and Euse

 

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