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Arctic Ocean Circulation and Variability – Advection and External Forcing Encounter Constraints and Local Processes : Volume 8, Issue 2 (03/04/2012)

By Rudels, B.

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Book Id: WPLBN0004020575
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 26
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Arctic Ocean Circulation and Variability – Advection and External Forcing Encounter Constraints and Local Processes : Volume 8, Issue 2 (03/04/2012)  
Author: Rudels, B.
Volume: Vol. 8, Issue 2
Language: English
Subject: Science, Ocean, Science
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection (Contemporary), Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2012
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

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Rudels, B. (2012). Arctic Ocean Circulation and Variability – Advection and External Forcing Encounter Constraints and Local Processes : Volume 8, Issue 2 (03/04/2012). Retrieved from http://worldlibrary.net/


Description
Description: Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. The first hydrographic data from the Arctic Ocean, the section from the Laptev Sea to the passage between Greenland and Svalbard obtained by Nansen on his drift with Fram 1893–1896, aptly illustrate the main features of Arctic Ocean oceanography and indicate possible processes active in transforming the water masses in the Arctic Ocean. Many, perhaps most, processes were identified already by Nansen, who put his mark on almost all subsequent research in the Arctic. Here we shall revisit some key questions and follow how our understanding has evolved from the early 20th century to present. What questions, if any, can now be regarded as solved and which remain still open? Five different but connected topics will be discussed: (1) The low salinity surface layer and the storage and export of freshwater. (2) The vertical heat transfer from the Atlantic water to sea ice and to the atmosphere. (3) The circulation and mixing of the two Atlantic inflow branches. (4) The formation and circulation of deep and bottom waters in the Arctic Ocean. (5) The exchanges through Fram Strait. Foci will be on the potential effects of increased freshwater input and reduced sea ice export on the freshwater storage and residence time in the Arctic Ocean, on the deep waters of the Makarov Basin, and on the circulation and relative importance of the two inflows, over the Barents Sea and through Fram Strait, for the distribution of heat in the intermediate layers of the Arctic Ocean.

Summary
Arctic Ocean circulation and variability – advection and external forcing encounter constraints and local processes

Excerpt
Shimada, K., McLaughlin, F. A., Carmack, E. C., Proshutinsky, A., Nishino, S., and Itoh, M.: Penetration of the 1990s warm temperature anomaly of the Atlantic Water in the Canada basin, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L20301, doi:10.1029/2004GL020860, 2004.; Shimada, K., Itoh, M., Nishino, S., McLaughlin, F. A., Carmack, E., and Proshutinsky, A.: Halocline structure in the Canada Basin of theARctic Ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L03605, doi:10.1029/2004GL021358, 2005.; Smethie, W. M., Schlosser, P., and Bönisch, G.: Renewal and circulation of intermediate waters in the Canadian Basin observed on the SCICEX 96 cruise, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 1105–1121, 2000.; Smith, J. N., Ellis, K. M., and Boyd, T.: Circulation features in the central Arctic Ocean revealed by nuclear fuel reprocessing tracers from Scientific Ice Expeditions 1995 and 1996, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 29663–29667, 1999.; Stigebrandt, A.: A model for the thickness and salinity of the upper layers of the Arctic Ocean and the relation between the ice thickness and some external parameters, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 11, 1407–1422, 1981.; Stigebrandt, A.: The North Pacific: A global-scale estuary, J. Phys. Oceanogr.,14, 464–470, 1984.; Swift, J. H., Jones, E. P., Carmack, E. C., Hingston, M., Macdonald, R. W., McLaughlin, F. A., and Perkin, R. G.: Waters of the Makarov and Canada Basins, Deep-Sea Res. II, 44, 1503–1529, 1997.; Timmermanns, M.-L. and Garrett, C.: Evolution of the deep water in the Canadian Basin in the Arctic Ocean, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 36, 866–874, 2006.; Timmermanns, M.-L., Garrett, C., and Carmack, E.: The thermohaline structure and evolution of the deep waters in the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean, Deep-Sea Res. I, 50, 1305–1321, doi:10.1016/S0967-0637(03)00125-0, 2003.; Timofeyev, V. T.: Water masses of the Arctic basin, Gidromet. Izdat., Leningrad, 1960.; Walsh, D. and Carmack, E. C.: The nested structure of Arctic thermohaline intrusions, Ocean Modell., 5, 267–289, 2003.; Werenskiold, W.: Coastal Currents, Geophysical publications, 10(13), Oslo, 1935.; Weyl, P. K.: The role of the oceans in climate change, Meteor. Mon., 8, 37–62, 1968.; Wüst, G.: Relief und Bodenwasser im Nordpolarbecken, Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft für Erdkunde zu Berlin, 5/6, 163–180, 1941.; Aagaard, K., Swift, J. H., and Carmack, E. C.: Thermohaline circulation in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, J. Geophys. Res., 90, 4833–4846, 1985.; Aaboe, S. and Nøst, O. A.: A diagnostic model of he Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean circulation: Quantifying the effects of a variable bottom density along a sloping topography, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38, 2685–2703, doi:10.1175/2008JPO3862.1, 2008.; Aagaard, K. and Coachman, L. K.: Toward an ice-free Arctic Ocean, Eos, 56, 484–486, 1975.; Aagaard, K. and Greisman, P.: Towards a new mass and heat budget for the Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 80, 3821–3827, 1975.; Aagaard, K., Darnall, C., and Greisman, P.: Year-long measurements in the Greenland-Spitsbergen passage, Deep-Sea Res., 20, 743–746, 1973.; Aagaard, K., Coachman, L. K., and Carmack, E. C.: On the halocline of the Arctic Ocean, Deep-Sea Res., 28, 529–545, 1981.; Anderson, L. G., Björk, G., Holby, O., Jones, E. P., Kattner, G., Koltermann, K.-P., Liljeblad, B., Lindegren, R., Rudels, B., and Swift, J. H.: Water masses and circulation in the Eurasian Basin: Results from the Oden 91 Expedition, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 3273–3283, 1994.; Björk, G. and Winsor, P.: The deep waters of the Eurasian Basin, Arctic Ocean: geothermal heat flow, mixing and renewal, Deep-Sea Res. I, 53, 1253–1271, 2006.; Björk, G., Jakobsson, M., Rudels, B., Swift, J. H., Anderson, L. G., Darby, D. A., Backman, J., Coakley, B., Winsor, P., Polyak, L., and Edwards, M.: Bathymetry and d

 

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