World Library  

Add to Book Shelf
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Book

A Global Algorithm for Estimating Absolute Salinity : Volume 8, Issue 6 (21/12/2012)

By McDougall, T. J.

Click here to view

Book Id: WPLBN0004020564
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 12
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: A Global Algorithm for Estimating Absolute Salinity : Volume 8, Issue 6 (21/12/2012)  
Author: McDougall, T. J.
Volume: Vol. 8, Issue 6
Language: English
Subject: Science, Ocean, Science
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection (Contemporary), Copernicus GmbH
Publication Date:
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications


APA MLA Chicago

Millero, F. J., Jackett, D. R., Pawlowicz, R., Mcdougall, T. J., & Barker, P. M. (2012). A Global Algorithm for Estimating Absolute Salinity : Volume 8, Issue 6 (21/12/2012). Retrieved from

Description: School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater – 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density) than does Practical Salinity.

When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic), Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg−1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p) in the world ocean.

To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811). In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally).

A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

Brewer, P. G. and Bradshaw, A.: The effect of non-ideal composition of seawater on salinity and density, J. Mar. Res., 33, 157–175, 1975.; Feistel, R.: A Gibbs function for seawater thermodynamics for −6 to 80 \textdegree C and salinity up to 120 g kg−1, Deep-Sea Res. I, 55, 1639–1671, 2008.; Feistel, R., Wright, D. G., Miyagawa, K., Harvey, A. H., Hruby, J., Jackett, D. R., McDougall, T. J., and Wagner, W.: Mutually consistent thermodynamic potentials for fluid water, ice and seawater: a new standard for oceanography, Ocean Sci., 4, 275–291,, 2008.; Feistel, R., Weinreben, S., Wolf, H., Seitz, S., Spitzer, P., Adel, B., Nausch, G., Schneider, B., and Wright, D. G.: Density and Absolute Salinity of the Baltic Sea 2006–2009, Ocean Sci., 6, 3–24,, 2010.; Gouretski, V. V. and Koltermann, K. P.: WOCE global hydrographic climatology. Berichte des Bundesamtes für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie Tech. Rep. 35/2004, 49 pp., this atlas is available at:, 2004.; IAPWS: Release on the IAPWS Formulation 2008 for the Thermodynamic Properties of Seawater. The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam, available at:, Berlin, Germany, September 2008.; IOC, SCOR, and IAPSO: The international thermodynamic equation of seawater – 2010: Calculation and use of thermodynamic properties. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, Manuals and Guides No. 56, UNESCO (English), available at:, 196 pp., 2010.; Knudsen, M.: Hydrographische Tabellen, G. E. C. Gad, Copenhagen; L. Friedrichsen & Co., Hamburg; Williams & Norgate, London; and Buchdruckerei Bianco Luno, 63pp., 1901.; Kremling, K.: New Method for measuring density of seawater, Nature, 229, 109–110, 1971.; McDougall, T. J.: The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater – 2010; Introductory Lecture Slides, available at:, 2012.; Millero, F. J.: Effect of changes in the composition of seawater on the density-salinity relationship, Deep-Sea Res. I, 47, 1583–1590, 2000.; McDougall, T. J. and Barker, P. M.: Getting started with TEOS-10 and the Gibbs Seawater (GSW) Oceanographic Toolbox,, SCOR/IAPSO WG127, ISBN 978-0-646-55621-5, 28 pp., 2011.; Millero, F. J.: History of the equation of state of seawater, Oceanography, 23, 18–33, 2010.; Millero, F. J. and Kremling, K.: The densities of Baltic Sea waters, Deep-Sea Res., 23, 1129–1138, 1976.; Millero, F. J., Gonzalez, A., Brewer, P. G., Bradshaw, A.: The density of North Atlantic and North Pacific deep waters, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 32, 468–472, 1976a.; Millero, F. J., Chetirkin, P. V., and Culkin, F.: The relative conductivity and density of standard seawaters, Deep-Sea Res., 24, 315–321, 1976b.; Millero, F. J., Forsht, D., Means, D., Giekes, J., and Kenyon, K.: The density of North Pacific Ocean waters, J. Geophys. Res., 83, 2359–2364, 1978.; Millero, F. J., Feistel, R., Wright, D. G., and McDougall, T. J.: The composition of Standard Seawater and the definition of the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale, Deep-Sea Res. I, 55, 50–72, 2008a.; Millero, F. J., Waters, J., Woosley, R., Huang, F., and Chanson, M.: The effect of composition of the density of Indian Ocean waters, Deep-Sea Res. I, 55, 960–470, 2008b.; Millero, F. J., Mirzaliyev, A., Safarov, J., Huang, F., Chanson, M., Shahverdiyev, A., and Hassel, E.: The equation of state for Caspian Sea waters, Aqua. Geochem., 14, 289–299, 2008c.; Millero, F. J., Huang, F., Williams, N., Waters, J., and R. Woosley: The effect of composition on the density of South Pacific Ocean waters, Mar. Chem., 114, 56–62, 2009.; Pawlowicz, R.: A model for predicting changes in the electrical conductivity, practical salinity, and absolute salinity of seawater due to variations in relative chemical composition, Ocean Sci., 6, 361-378, http://dx.doi.or


Click To View

Additional Books

  • Integration of a Relocatable Ocean Model... (by )
  • X-band Cosmo-skymed© Sar Data for Sea Wa... (by )
  • Seasonal Cycles of Mixed Layer Salinity ... (by )
  • Volume, Heat, and Freshwater Fluxes Towa... (by )
  • On the Time to Tracer Equilibrium in the... (by )
  • Sensitivity Study of Wind Forcing in a N... (by )
  • Simulation of Tsunami Generation, Propag... (by )
  • Net Primary Productivity, Upwelling and ... (by )
  • Seawater Capacitance – a Promising Proxy... (by )
  • Sunda Shelf Seas: Flushing Rates and Res... (by )
  • The Role of Atmosphere and Ocean Physica... (by )
  • Variability in the Air–sea Interaction P... (by )
Scroll Left
Scroll Right


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.