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Mixing, Heat Fluxes and Heat Content Evolution of the Arctic Ocean Mixed Layer : Volume 7, Issue 3 (18/05/2011)

By Sirevaag, A.

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Book Id: WPLBN0004020513
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 15
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Mixing, Heat Fluxes and Heat Content Evolution of the Arctic Ocean Mixed Layer : Volume 7, Issue 3 (18/05/2011)  
Author: Sirevaag, A.
Volume: Vol. 7, Issue 3
Language: English
Subject: Science, Ocean, Science
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection (Contemporary), Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2011
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

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Nicolaus, M., Fer, I., La Rosa, S. D., Mcphee, M. G., Tjernström, M., & Sirevaag, A. (2011). Mixing, Heat Fluxes and Heat Content Evolution of the Arctic Ocean Mixed Layer : Volume 7, Issue 3 (18/05/2011). Retrieved from http://worldlibrary.net/


Description
Description: Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Norway. A comprehensive measurement program was conducted during 16 days of a 3 week long ice pack drift, from 15 August to 1 September 2008 in the central Amundsen Basin, Arctic Ocean. The data, sampled as part of the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS), included upper ocean stratification, mixing and heat transfer as well as transmittance solar radiation through the ice. The observations give insight into the evolution of the upper layers of the Arctic Ocean in the transition period from melting to freezing. The ocean mixed layer was found to be heated from above and, for summer conditions, the net heat flux through the ice accounted for 22 % of the observed change in mixed layer heat content. Heat was mixed downward within the mixed layer and a small, downward heat flux across the base of the mixed layer accounted for the accumulated heat in the upper cold halocline during the melting season. On average, the ocean mixed layer was cooled by an ocean heat flux at the ice/ocean interface (1.2 W m−2) and heated by solar radiation through the ice (−2.6 W m−2). An abrupt change in surface conditions halfway into the drift due to freezing and snowfall showed distinct signatures in the data set and allowed for inferences and comparisons to be made for cases of contrasting forcing conditions. Transmittance of solar radiation was reduced by 59 % in the latter period. From hydrographic observations obtained earlier in the melting season, in the same region, we infer a total fresh water equivalent of 3.3 m accumulated in the upper ocean, which together with the observed saltier winter mixed layer indicates a transition towards a more seasonal ice cover in the Arctic.

Summary
Mixing, heat fluxes and heat content evolution of the Arctic Ocean mixed layer

Excerpt
Sirevaag, A. and Fer, I.: Early Spring Oceanic Heat Fluxes and Mixing Observed from Drift Stations North of Svalbard, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39, 3049–3069, doi:10.1175/2009jpo4172.1, 2009.; Smedsrud, L. H., Sorteberg, A., and Kloster, K.: Recent and future changes of the Arctic sea-ice cover, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, doi:10.1029/2008gl034813, 2008.; Aagaard, K., Coachman, L. K., and Carmack, E.: On the halocline of the Arctic Ocean, Deep-Sea Res., 28, 529–545, 1981.; Alkire, M. B., Falkner, K. K., Rigor, I., Steele, M., and Morison, J.: The return of Pacific waters to the upper layers of the central Arctic Ocean, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 54, 1509–1529, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2007.06.004, 2007.; Stroeve, J., Serreze, M., Drobot, S., Gearheard, S., Holland, M. M., Maslanik, J., Meier, W., and Scambos, T.: Arctic Sea Ice Extent Plummets in 2007, Eos Trans. AGU, 89, doi:10.1029/2008EO020001, 2008.; Woodgate, R. A., Weingartner, T., and Lindsay, R.: The 2007 Bering Strait oceanic heat flux and anomalous Arctic sea-ice retreat, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, doi:10.1029/2009gl041621, 2010.; Comiso, J. C.: Warming trends in the Arctic from clear sky satellite observations, J. Climate, 16, 3498–3510, 2003.; Comiso, J. C., Parkinson, C. L., Gersten, R., and Stock, L.: Accelerated decline in the Arctic Sea ice cover, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, doi:10.1029/2007gl031972, 2008.; Dillon, T. M. and Caldwell, D. R.: The Batchelor spectrum and dissipation in the upper ocean, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 85, 1910–1916, 1980.; Dmitrenko, I. A., Polyakov, I. V., Kirillov, S. A., Timokhov, L. A., Frolov, I. E., Sokolov, V. T., Simmons, H. L., Ivanov, V. V., and Walsh, D.: Toward a warmer Arctic Ocean: Spreading of the early 21st century Atlantic Water warm anomaly along the Eurasian Basin margins, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 113, doi:10.1029/2007jc004158, 2008.; Fer, I.: Scaling turbulent dissipation in an Arctic fjord, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 53, 77–95, 2006.; Fer, I. and Sundfjord, A.: Observations of upper ocean boundary layer dynamics in the marginal ice zone, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 112, C04012, doi:10.1029/2005JC003428, 2007.; Fer, I.: Weak vertical diffusion allows maintenance of cold halocline in the central Arctic, Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, 2, 148–152, 2009.; Grotefendt, K., Logemann, K., Quadfasel, D., and Ronski, S.: Is the Arctic Ocean warming?, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 103, 27679–27687, 1998.; Haas, C., Pfaffling, A., Hendricks, S., Rabenstein, L., Etienne, J. L., and Rigor, I.: Reduced ice thickness in Arctic Transpolar Drift favors rapid ice retreat, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, doi:10.1029/2008gl034457, 2008.; Inoue, J., Kikuchi, T., and Perovich, D. K.: Effect of heat transmission through melt ponds and ice on melting during summer in the Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 113, doi:10.1029/2007jc004182, 2008.; Itoh, M., Inoue, J., Shimada, K., Zimmermann, S., Kikuchi, T., Hutchings, J., McLaughlin, F., and Carmack, E.: Acceleration of sea-ice melting due to transmission of solar radiation through ponded ice area in the Arctic Ocean: results of in situ observations from icebreakers in 2006 and 2007, Ann. Glaciol., 52, 249–260, 2011.; Kinnard, C., Zdanowicz, C. M., Koerner, R. M., and Fisher, D. A.: A changing Arctic seasonal ice zone: Observations from 1870–2003 and possible oceanographic consequences, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35,

 

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