World Library  

Add to Book Shelf
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Book

Comparison of the Fall Rate and Structure of Recent T-7 Xbt Manufactured by Sippican and Tsk : Volume 7, Issue 2 (07/04/2011)

By Kizu, S.

Click here to view

Book Id: WPLBN0004020505
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 14
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Comparison of the Fall Rate and Structure of Recent T-7 Xbt Manufactured by Sippican and Tsk : Volume 7, Issue 2 (07/04/2011)  
Author: Kizu, S.
Volume: Vol. 7, Issue 2
Language: English
Subject: Science, Ocean, Science
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection (Contemporary), Copernicus GmbH
Publication Date:
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications


APA MLA Chicago

Kizu, S., Sukigara, C., & Hanawa, K. (2011). Comparison of the Fall Rate and Structure of Recent T-7 Xbt Manufactured by Sippican and Tsk : Volume 7, Issue 2 (07/04/2011). Retrieved from

Description: Physical Oceanography Laboratory, Department of Geophysics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aza Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578, Japan. The fall rate of recent T-7 expendable bathythermograph (XBT; 760 m) is evaluated based on a series of concurrent measurement with a calibrated Conductivity Temperature Depth profiler (CTD) in the sea east of Japan. An emphasis is placed on comparing the fall rates of T-7 produced by the two present manufacturers, the Lockheed Martin Sippican Inc., and the Tsurumi Seiki Co. Ltd., which have been believed to be identical but had never been compared directly. It is found that the two manufacturers' T-7 fall at rates different by about 3.5%. The Sippican T-7 falls slower than given by the fall-rate equation (FRE) of Hanawa et al. (1995) by about 2.1%, and the TSK T-7 falls faster by about 1.4%. The fall-rate coefficients estimated based on the sea test by applying the equation of traditional quadratic form, d(t)=at−bt2 where d is depth in meters and t is the time elapsed, in seconds, are a=6.553 (m s−1) and b=0.00221 (m s−2) for the LMS T-7, and a=6.803 (m s−1) and b=0.00242 (m s−2) for the TSK T-7. By detail examination of the probes, we found that the two companies' T-7 have different total weight and many structural differences. Because the difference in the fall rate is about twice larger than the difference in weight (about 2%), it is inferred that the structural differences give sizable impact to the difference in their fall rates. Our results clearly show that the recent T-7 of the two companies needs to be discriminated.

Comparison of the fall rate and structure of recent T-7 XBT manufactured by Sippican and TSK

Anderson, E. R.: Expendable bathythermograph (XBT) accuracy studies – final report for period May 1971–December 1979, NOSC-TR-550, Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, CA, USA, 212 pp., 1980.; Biggs, D. C.: Nutrients, plankton, and productivity in a warm-core ring in the western Gulf of Mexico, J. Geophys. Res., 97(C2), 2143–2154, 1992.; Baker, D. J.: Ocean instruments and experiment design, in: Evolution of Physical Oceanography, edited by: Warren, B. A. and Wunsch, C., MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 396–433, 1981.; Barnett, T. P. and Bernstein, R. L.: Expendable measuring devices, in: Air-Sea Interaction: Instruments and Methods, edited by: Dobson, F., Hasse, L., and Davis, R., Plenum Press, 801 pp., 1980.; Bindoff, N. L., Willebrand, J., Artale, V., Cazenave, A., Gregory, J., Gulev, S., Hanawa, K., Le Quèrè, C., Levitus, S., Nojiri, Y., Shum, C. K., Talley, L. D., and Unnikrishnan, A.: Observations: Oceanic Climate Change and Sea Level, in: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by: Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K. B., Tignor, M., and Miller, H. L., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 2007.; Boyer, T. P., Antonov, J. I., Baranova, O. K., Garcia, H. E., Johnson, D. R., Locarnini, R. A., Mishonov, A. V., Seidov, D., Smolyar, I. V., and Zweng, M. M.: World Ocean Database 2009, edited by: Levitus, S., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 66, US Gov. Printing Office, Wash., D. C., DVDs, 216 pp., 2009.; Carton, J. A. and Santorelli, A.: Global decadal upper-ocean heat content as viewed in nine analyses, J. Climate, 21, 6015–6035, 2008.; Demeo, R. P.: The validity of expendable bathythermograph measurements, Transactions: Marine Temperature Measurement Symposium, 155–179, June 1969.; Emery, W. J. and Thomson, R. E.: Data analysis methods in physical oceanography, Second and revised edition, Elsevier, 638 pp., 2004.; Federov, K. N., Ginsburg, A. I., and Zatsepin, A. G.: Systematic differences in isotherm depths derived from XBT and CTD data, POLYMODE News, 50, 30 June 1978.; Flierl, G. R. and Robinson, A. R.: XBT measurements of thermal gradients in the MODE eddy, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 7, 300–302, 1977.; Francis, S. A. and Campbell, G. C.: A low cost expendable bathythermograph, Marine Sciences Instrumentation, vol. 3, Proc. 3rd National Marine Sciences Symposium, Miami, Florida, 21–23 April 1965.; Good, S.: Depth biases in XBT data diagnosed using bathymetry data, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 28, 287–300, doi:10.1175/2010JTECHO773.1, 2011.; Gouretski, V.: Instrument-related temperature biases and their impact on estimation of the long-term ocean temperature, NOAA XBT Fall Rate Workshop, Miami, USA, 10–12 March 2008.; Gouretski, V. and Koltermann, K. P.: How much is the ocean really warming, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L01610, doi:10.1029/2006GL027834, 2007.; Gouretski, V. and Reseghetti, F.: On depth and temperature biases in bathythermograph


Click To View

Additional Books

  • Coastal Observing and Forecasting System... (by )
  • Turbulence Closure: Turbulence, Waves an... (by )
  • Argo Data Assimilation Into Hycom with a... (by )
  • Daily Oceanographic Analyses by the Medi... (by )
  • Results from the Implementation of the E... (by )
  • The Subtropical Deacon Cells : Volume 3,... (by )
  • Seasonal Variability of the Caspian Sea ... (by )
  • The Wind-driven Overturning Circulation ... (by )
  • Accuracy of the Mean Sea Level Continuou... (by )
  • Scale Oriented Embedded Modeling of the ... (by )
  • The Mediterranean Ocean Colour Observing... (by )
  • Nemo on the Shelf: Assessment of the Ibe... (by )
Scroll Left
Scroll Right


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.