World Library  

Add to Book Shelf
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Book

Energetics of the Layer-thickness Form Drag Based on an Integral Identity : Volume 2, Issue 2 (12/10/2006)

By Aiki, H.

Click here to view

Book Id: WPLBN0004020291
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 11
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Energetics of the Layer-thickness Form Drag Based on an Integral Identity : Volume 2, Issue 2 (12/10/2006)  
Author: Aiki, H.
Volume: Vol. 2, Issue 2
Language: English
Subject: Science, Ocean, Science
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, Copernicus GmbH
Publication Date:
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications


APA MLA Chicago

Yamagata, T., & Aiki, H. (2006). Energetics of the Layer-thickness Form Drag Based on an Integral Identity : Volume 2, Issue 2 (12/10/2006). Retrieved from

Description: Frontier Research Center for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokohama-city 236-0001, Japan. The vertical redistribution of the geostrophic momentum by the residual effects of pressure perturbations (called the layer-thickness form drag) is investigated using thickness-weighted temporal-averaged mean primitive equations for a continuously stratified fluid in an adiabatic formulation. A four-box energy diagram, in which the mean and eddy kinetic energies are defined by the thickness-weighted mean velocity and the deviation from it, respectively, shows that the layer-thickness form drag reduces the mean kinetic energy and endows the eddy field with an energy cascade. The energy equations are derived using an identity (called the pile-up rule) between cumulative sums of the Eulerian mean quantity and the thickness-weighted mean quantity in each vertical column. The pile-up rule shows that the thickness-weighted mean velocity satisfies a no-normal-flow boundary condition at the top and bottom of the ocean, which enables the volume budget of pressure flux divergence in the energy diagram to be determined. With the pile-up rule, the total kinetic energy based on the Eulerian mean can be rewritten in a thickness-weighted form. The four-box energy diagram in the present study should be consistent with energy diagrams of layer models, the temporal-residual-mean theory, and Iwasaki's atmospheric theory. Under certain assumptions, the work of the layer-thickness form drag in the global ocean circulation is suggested to be comparable to the work done by the wind forcing.

Energetics of the layer-thickness form drag based on an integral identity

Aiki, H., Jacobson, T., and Yamagata, T.: Parameterizing ocean eddy transports from surface to bottom, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L19 302, doi:10.1029/2004GL020703, 2004.; Andrews, R. G.: A finite-amplitude Eliassen-Palm theorem in isentropic coordinates, J. Atmos. Sci., 40, 1877–1883, 1983.; Andrews, R. G. and McIntyre, M. E.: An exact theory of nonlinear waves on a Lagrangian-mean flow, J. Fluid Mech., 89, 609–646, 1978.; Andrews, R. G. and McIntyre, M. E.: Planetary waves in horizontal and vertical shear: the generalized Eliassen-Palm relation and the mean zonal acceleration, J. Atmos. Sci., 33, 2031–2053, 1976.; Bleck, R.: On the conversion between mean and eddy components of potential and kinetic energy in isentropic and isopycnic coordinates, Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 9, 17–37, 1985.; Böning, C. W. and Budich, R. G.: Eddy dynamics in a primitive equation model: sensitivity to horizontal resolution and friction, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 22, 361–381, 1992.; Canuto, V. M. and Dubovikov, M. S.: Dynamical model of mesoscales in z-coordinates, Ocean Modelling, 11, 123–166, 2006.; Charney, J. G.: The dynamics of long waves in a baroclinic westerly current, J. Meteorol., 4, 135–163, 1947.; Conkright, M. E., Locarnini, R. A., Garcia, H. E., O'Brien, T. D., Boyer, T. P., Stephens, C., and Antonov, J. I.: World Ocean Atlas 2001: Objective Analyses, Data Statistics, and Figures, CD-ROM Documentation, National Oceanographic Data Center, Silver Spring, MD, 2002.; Cushman-Roisin, B., Chassignet, E. P., and Tang, B.: Westward motion of mesoscale eddies, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 20, 758–768, 1990.; Danabasoglu, G. and McWilliams, J. C.: The role of mesoscale tracer transport in the global ocean circulation, Science, 264, 1123–1126, 1994.; de Szoeke, R. A. and Bennett, A. F.: Microstructure fluxes across density surfaces, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23, 2254–2264, 1993.; Eady, E. T.: Long waves and cyclone waves, Tellus, 1, 33–52, 1949.; Johnson, G. C. and Bryden, H. L.: On the size of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, Deep-Sea Res., 36, 39–53, 1989.; Ferreira, D., Marshall, J., and Heimbach, P.: Estimating eddy stresses by fitting dynamics to observations using a residual-mean ocean circulation model and its adjoint, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35, 1891–1910, 2005.; Gent, P. R. and McWilliams, J. C.: Isopycnal mixing in ocean circulation models, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 20, 150–155, 1990.; Gent, P. R., Willebrand, J., McDougall, T. J., and McWilliams, J. C.: Parameterizing eddy-induced tracer transports in ocean circulation models, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25, 463–474, 1995.; Greatbatch, R. J.: Exploring the relationship between eddy-induced transport velocity, vertical momentum transfer, and the isopycnal flux of potential vorticity, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28, 422–432, 1998.; Greatbatch, R. J. and Li, G.: Alongslope mean flow and associated upslope bolus flux of tracer in a parameterization of mesoscale turbulence, Deep-Sea Res., 47, 709–735, 2000.; Greatbatch, R. J. and McDougall, T. J.: The non-Boussinesq temporal residual mean, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33, 1231–1239, 2003.; Griffies, S. M.: Fundamentals of Ocean Climate Models, Princeton University Press, 2004.; Holton, J. R.: An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology, 3rd ed., Academic Press, 1992.; Huang, R. X. and Wang, W.: Gravitational potential energy sinks in the oceans, in: Proceedings of the 13th Aha Huliko a Hawaiian Winter Workshop, pp. 239–247,, 2003.; Iwasaki, T.:


Click To View

Additional Books

  • Daily Scale Wintertime Sea Surface Tempe... (by )
  • Depth Dependence of Westward-propagating... (by )
  • Long-term Monitoring Programme of the Hy... (by )
  • Geostrophic Currents and Kinetic Energie... (by )
  • Variability of Antarctic Intermediate Wa... (by )
  • Relating Agulhas Leakage to the Agulhas ... (by )
  • Exploring the Isopycnal Mixing and Heliu... (by )
  • Analysis of the Circulation and Shelf-sl... (by )
  • Assessment of One Year of High-resolutio... (by )
  • Improvement to the Phytodoas Method for ... (by )
  • Impact of a 30% Reduction in Atlantic Me... (by )
  • Reduced-order Optimal Interpolation for ... (by )
Scroll Left
Scroll Right


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.