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Environmental Enrichment for Primates in Laboratories : Volume 5, Issue 1 (14/06/2011)

By Buchanan-smith, H. M.

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Book Id: WPLBN0003988699
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 16
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Environmental Enrichment for Primates in Laboratories : Volume 5, Issue 1 (14/06/2011)  
Author: Buchanan-smith, H. M.
Volume: Vol. 5, Issue 1
Language: English
Subject: Science, Advances, Science
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, Copernicus GmbH
Publication Date:
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications


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Buchanan-Smith, H. M. (2011). Environmental Enrichment for Primates in Laboratories : Volume 5, Issue 1 (14/06/2011). Retrieved from

Description: Behaviour and Evolution Research Group, Psychology, School of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland. Environmental enrichment is a critical component of Refinement, one of the 3Rs underlying humane experimentation on animals. In this paper I discuss why primates housed in laboratories, which often have constraints of space and study protocols, are a special case for enrichment. I outline a framework for categorising the different types of enrichment, using the marmoset as a case study, and summarise the methods used to determine what animals want/prefer. I briefly review the arguments that enrichment does not negatively affect experimental outcomes. Finally I focus on complexity and novelty, choice and control, the underlying features of enrichment that makes it successful, and how combined with a thorough understanding of natural history we can put effective enrichment into practice in laboratories. Throughout the paper I emphasise the need to evaluate enrichment to ensure it is having the desired effect.

Environmental enrichment for primates in laboratories

Badihi I (2006) The effects of complexity, choice and control on the behaviour and the welfare of captive common marmosets (\textitCallithrix jacchus) [PhD thesis]. Stirling: University of Stirling; Badihi I, Buchanan-Smith HM (2005) Anticipatory behaviour - a new indicator of the significance of environmental enrichment in laboratory-housed common marmosets. Am J Primatol 66 (suppl 1):178; Badihi I, Morris K, Buchanan-Smith HM (2007) The effects of complexity and choice, together with the loss of them, on the behaviour of a family group of common marmosets (\textitCallithrix jacchus). Lab Prim Newsl 46(4):1–5; Baer JK (1998) A veterinary perspective of potential risk factors in environmental enrichment. In: Shepherdson DJ, Mellen JD, Hutchins M (eds) Second nature: environmental enrichment for captive animals. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press. p~277–301; Barber J, Kuhar C (2006) Keeping birds in bushes, not in hands: the use of cognitive tasks as individually paced enrichment. In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Environmental Enrichment, 31~July–5~August 2005, New York. p~15-20; Bassett L, Buchanan-Smith HM, McKinley J, Smith TE (2003) Effects of training on stress-related behavior of the common marmoset (\textitCallithrix jacchus) in relation to coping with routine husbandry procedures. J Appl Animal Wel Sci 6:221–233; Bassett L, Buchanan-Smith HM (2007) Effects of predictability on the welfare of captive primates. Appl Anim Beh Sci 102:223–245; Bateson M (2004) Mechanisms of decision-making and the interpretation of choice tests. Anim Welfare 13 (suppl 1):115–120; Bayne KAL (1989) Environmental enrichment alternatives for laboratory nonhuman primates. In: Driscoll JW (ed) Animal care and use in behavioral research: regulations, issues and applications. Beltsville, Maryland: United States Department of Agriculture. p~91–102; Bekoff M (2002) Animal reflections. Nature 419:255; Benefiel AC, Dong WK, Greenough WT (2005) Mandatory enriched housing of laboratory animals: the need for evidence-based evaluation. ILAR J 46:95–105; BHAG (Behavior and Husbandry Advisory Group) (1999) Workshop of the Scientific Advisory Group of the American Zoo and Aquarium Association held at Disney's Animal Kingdom; Bloomsmith MA, Brent LY, Schapiro SJ (1991) Guidelines for developing and managing an environmental enrichment program for nonhuman primates. Lab Anim Sci 41:372–377; Broom DM (2010) Cognitive ability and awareness in domestic animals and decisions about obligations to animals. Appl Anim Behav Sci 126:1–11; Buchanan-Smith HM (1997a) Environmental control: an important feature of good captive callitrichid environments. In: Pryce C, Scott L, Schnell C (eds) Marmosets and tamarins in biological and biomedical research. Salisbury, UK: DSSD Imagery. p~47–53; Buchanan-Smith HM (1997b) Considerations for the housing and handling of New World primates in the laboratory. In: Reinhardt V (ed) Comfortable quarters for laboratory animals. Washington, DC: Animal Welfare Institute. p~75–84; Buchanan-Smith HM (2005) Recent advances in color vision research. Am J Primat 67:393–398; Buchanan-Smith HM (2010) Marmosets and tamarins. In: Hubrecht RC, Kirkwood J (eds) The UFAW handbook on the care and management of laboratory and other research animals. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. p~543–563; Buchanan-Smith HM, Anderson DA, Ryan CW (1993) Response of cotton-top tamarins (\textitSaguinus oedipus) to faecal scents of predators and non-predators. Anim Welfare 2:17–32; Buchanan-Smith HM, Prescott MJ, Cross NJ (2004) What factors should determine cage sizes for primates in the laboratory? Anim Welfare 13 (suppl 1):197–201; Buchanan-Smith HM, Rennie AE, Vitale A, Pollo S, Prescott MJ, Morton DB (2005) Harmonising the definition of refinement. Anim Welfare 14:379–384; Carlstead K (1996) Effects of captivity on the behavior of wild mammals. In: Kleiman DG, Allen ME, Thompson KV, Lumpkin S (eds) Wild mammals in captivity: principles a


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