World Library  

Add to Book Shelf
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Book

The Influence of Temperature and Salinity Variability on the Upper Ocean Density and Mixed Layer : Volume 7, Issue 4 (17/08/2010)

By Helber, R. W.

Click here to view

Book Id: WPLBN0003979149
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 27
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: The Influence of Temperature and Salinity Variability on the Upper Ocean Density and Mixed Layer : Volume 7, Issue 4 (17/08/2010)  
Author: Helber, R. W.
Volume: Vol. 7, Issue 4
Language: English
Subject: Science, Ocean, Science
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection (Contemporary), Copernicus GmbH
Publication Date:
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications


APA MLA Chicago

Richman, J. G., Barron, C. N., & Helber, R. W. (2010). The Influence of Temperature and Salinity Variability on the Upper Ocean Density and Mixed Layer : Volume 7, Issue 4 (17/08/2010). Retrieved from

Description: Naval Research Laboratory, Ocean Dynamics and Prediction Branch – Code 7321, Stennis Space Center, MS 39529, USA. The relative influence of both temperature and salinity on the mixed layer depth (MLD) is evaluated using a relationship of binned regressions of MLD on vertical density compensation and isothermal layer depth (ILD) from a global set of in situ profile observations. Our approach is inspired by the observations of the difference between the MLD and the sonic layer depth (SLD) that evolve seasonally around the global ocean. In this article, we hypothesize that vertical density compensation governs SLD-MLD differences and can be used for mapping the relative influence of temperature and salinity on upper ocean structure. The Turner angle, computed between the surface and 200 m (bulk Turner angle, BTA), serves as a measure of vertical density compensation that quantifies times and areas where either temperature or salinity is destabilizing. For temperature destabilization the ocean exhibits cool/fresh overlying hot/salty water. For salinity destabilization the ocean exhibits hot/salty overlying cool/fresh water. These two classes of density compensation have seasonal variability with different geographical characteristics. Profiles with salinity controlled stable density and destabilizing temperature gradient are found most often at high latitudes. Profiles with temperature controlled stable density and destabilizing salinity gradient are found in the tropics and subtropics of all oceans. Results indicate that about half of the ocean has vertical density compensation that is a necessary condition for SLD-MLD differences. While density compensation is necessary, it is not a sufficient condition for predicting the dependence of MLD on BTA. Density compensation is the dominant factor in MLD variability in heavy river input and subduction regions that cover only ~14% of the ocean.

The influence of temperature and salinity variability on the upper ocean density and mixed layer

Bathen, K. H.: On the seasonal changes in the depth of the mixed layer in the North Pacific Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 77, 7138–7150, 1972.; Belkin, I. M. and Filyushkin, B. N.: Seasonal variability of upper ocean thermal structure in the POLYMODE study area, Oceanology, 26, 149–154, 1986.; de Boyer Montégut, C., Madec, G., Fischer, A. S., Lazar, A., and Iudicone, D.: Mixed layer depth over the global ocean: an examination of profile data and a pofile-based climatology, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C12003, doi:10.1029/2004JC002378, 2004.; Boyer, T. P., Antonov, J. I., Garcia, H. E., Johnson, D. R., Locarnini, R. A., Mishonov, A. V., Pitcher, M. T., Baranova, O. K., and Smolyar, I. V.: }, in: World Ocean Database 2005, edited by: Levitus, S., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 60, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC/USA, 190 pp., 2006.; Hanawa, K. and Talley, L. D.: Mode waters, in: Ocean Circulation and Climate – Observing and Modeling the Global Ocean, edited by: Siedler, G., Church, J., and Gould, J., Academic Press, 373–386, 2001. }; Johnson, G. C.: Generation and initial evolution of a mode water $\theta $–s anomaly, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 36, 739–751, 2006.; Helber, R. W., Barron, C. N., Carnes, M. R., and Zingarelli, R. A.: Evaluating the sonic layer depth relative to the mixed layer depth, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C07033, doi:10.1029/2007JC004595, 2008.; Kara, A. B., Rochford, P. A., and Hurlburt, H. E.: An optimal definition for ocean mixed layer depth, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 16803–16821, 2000.; Kara, A. B., Rochford, P. A., and Hurlburt, H. E.: Mixed layer depth variability over the global ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 3079, doi:10.1029/2000JC000736, 2003.; Levitus, S.: Climatological atlas of the world ocean, Professional paper 13, NODC Ocean Climate Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1982.; Lorbacher, K., Dommenget, D., Niiler, P. P., and Köhl, A.: Ocean mixed layer depth: a subsurface proxy of ocean-atmosphere variability, J. Geophys. Res., 111, C07010, doi:10.1029/2003JC002157, 2006.; Roemmich, D., Riser, S., Davis, R., and Desaubies, Y.: Autonomous profiling floats: workhorse for broad-scale ocean observations, Mar. Technol. Soc. J., 38, 21–29, 2004.; Ruddick, B.: A practical indicator of the stability of the water column to double-diffusive activity, Deep-Sea Res., 30, 1105–1107, 1983.; Rudnick, D. L. and Martin, J. P.: On the horizontal density ratio in the upper ocean, Dynam. Atmos. Oceans, 36, 3–21, 2002.; Teague, W. J., Carron, M. J., and Hogan, P. J.: A comparison between the Generalized Digital Environmental Model and Levitus Climatologies, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 7167–7183, 1990.; Turner, J. S.: Buoyancy Effects in Fluids, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA/USA, 367 pp., 1973.; Tippins, D. and Tomczak, M.: Meridional Turner angles and density compensation in the upper ocean, O


Click To View

Additional Books

  • An Observed 20 Yr Time-series of Agulhas... (by )
  • Comparing Historical and Modern Methods ... (by )
  • Decadal Variability and Trends of the Be... (by )
  • Sequential Assimilation of Multi-mission... (by )
  • Extreme Winter 2012 in the Adriatic: an ... (by )
  • Temporal Variations of Zooplankton Bioma... (by )
  • The Cora Dataset: Validation and Diagnos... (by )
  • Evaluating Two Numerical Advection Schem... (by )
  • Transient Residence and Exposure Times :... (by )
  • Estimation of Friction Parameters in Gra... (by )
  • Large-scale Temperature and Salinity Cha... (by )
  • Numerical Modeling of Dynamics of Russia... (by )
Scroll Left
Scroll Right


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.