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Arctic Ocean Circulation and Variability – Advection and External Forcing Encounter Constraints and Local Processes : Volume 8, Issue 6 (01/12/2011)

By Rudels, B.

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Book Id: WPLBN0003978994
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 64
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Arctic Ocean Circulation and Variability – Advection and External Forcing Encounter Constraints and Local Processes : Volume 8, Issue 6 (01/12/2011)  
Author: Rudels, B.
Volume: Vol. 8, Issue 6
Language: English
Subject: Science, Ocean, Science
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, Copernicus GmbH
Publication Date:
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications


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Rudels, B. (2011). Arctic Ocean Circulation and Variability – Advection and External Forcing Encounter Constraints and Local Processes : Volume 8, Issue 6 (01/12/2011). Retrieved from

Description: Department of Physics, University of Helsinki and Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finnland. The first hydrographic data from the Arctic Ocean, the section from the Laptev Sea to the passage between Greenland and Svalbard obtained by Nansen on the drift by Fram 1893–1896, aptly illustrate the main features of Arctic Ocean oceanography and indicate possible processes active in transforming the water masses in the Arctic Ocean. Many, perhaps most, of these processes were identified already by Nansen, who put his mark on almost all subsequent research in the Arctic Ocean. Here we shall revisit some key questions and follow how our understanding has evolved from the early 20th century to present. What questions, if any, can now be regarded as solved and which remain still open? Five different but connected topics will be discussed: (1) The low salinity surface layer and the storage and export of freshwater. (2) The vertical heat transfer from the Atlantic water to sea ice and to the atmosphere. (3) The circulation and mixing of the two Atlantic inflow branches. (4) The formation and circulation of deep and bottom waters in the Arctic Ocean. (5) The exchanges through Fram Strait. Foci will be on the potential effects of increased freshwater input and reduced sea ice export on the freshwater storage and residence time in the Arctic Ocean, on the deep waters of the Makarov Basin and on the circulation and relative importance of the two inflows, over the Barents Sea and through Fram Strait, for the distribution of heat in the intermediate layers of the Arctic Ocean.

Arctic Ocean circulation and variability – advection and external forcing encounter constraints and local processes

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