World Library  


Add to Book Shelf
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Book

Assessment of the 3-d Temperature and Salinity Observational Networks in the Baltic Sea and North Sea : Volume 7, Issue 5 (01/09/2010)

By Fu, W.

Click here to view

Book Id: WPLBN0003973025
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 42
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Assessment of the 3-d Temperature and Salinity Observational Networks in the Baltic Sea and North Sea : Volume 7, Issue 5 (01/09/2010)  
Author: Fu, W.
Volume: Vol. 7, Issue 5
Language: English
Subject: Science, Ocean, Science
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2010
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

Citation

APA MLA Chicago

Fu, W., She, J., & Høyer, J. L. (2010). Assessment of the 3-d Temperature and Salinity Observational Networks in the Baltic Sea and North Sea : Volume 7, Issue 5 (01/09/2010). Retrieved from http://worldlibrary.net/


Description
Description: Center for Ocean and Ice (COI), Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI), Copenhagen, Denmark. The spatial averaged correlations are presented in 1.5° × 1.5° bins for the North and Baltic Sea region. The averaged correlations are computed based on the proxy ocean data generated by the operational forecat model of Danish Meteorology Institute (DMI). It is shown that the spatial distribution of the averaged correlations could reflect the overall influence of the local atmospheric forcing, complex topography, coastlines, boundary and bottom effect, etc. Comparisons with the satellite SST data demonstrate that the proxy ocean data reproduces quite realistic results at the surface. Based on the spatial bin-averaged correlations, a general correlation model is assumed to approximate the spatial and temporal correlation structure. Parameters of the correlation model are obtained on the standard Levitus levels. It is found that the correlation model is not the typical Guaussian-type function. For instance, the exponents of the correlation model vary in the longitudinal direction from 0.75 at the surface to 1.33 at the depth of 250 m for temperature. For salinity, the temporal correlation can be approximated with an exponential function.

Two complementary quality-indicators, effective coverage rate and explained variance, are defined based on the correlation models obtained above. The two indicators are able to identify the influence area of the information content in a given observation network and the relative importance of observations at different locations. By these indicators, the 3-D temperature and salinty observational networks are assessed in the Baltic Sea and North Sea for the period 2004–2006. It is found that the surface level is more effectively covered with existing netwroks. In addition, the Belt Sea and the Baltic Proper also have good observation coverage for both temperature and salinity. However, more observations are required in the Norwegian Trench and Kattegat. In the vertical, the two indicators show smaller values from 50 m to 125 m in this region, indicating the need for more observations.


Summary
Assessment of the 3-D temperature and salinity observational networks in the Baltic Sea and North Sea

Excerpt
Barth, N. and Wunsch, C.: Oceanographic experiment design by simulated annealing, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 20, 1249–1263, 1990.; Barth, A., Alvera-Azcarate, A., Rixen, M., and Beckers, J.-M.: Two-way nested model of mesoscale circulation features in the Ligurian Sea, Prog. Oceanogr., 66(2–4), 171–189, 2005.; Bartello, P. and Mitchell, H. L.: A continuous three-dimensional model of short-range forecast error covariances, Tellus A, 44, 217–235, 1992.; Berg, P.: MIKE 3, Estuarine and Coastal Hydraulics and Oceanography, Hydrodynamic Module, Hydrostatic Version, DHI Software, DHI Water & Environment, 2003.; Bishop, C. H., Etherton, B. J., and Majumdar, S. J.: Adaptive sampling with the ensemble transform Kalman filter, Part I: Theoretical aspects. Mon. Weather Rev., 129, 420–436, 2001.; Buch, E., Elken, J., Gajewsk, J., Håkansson, B., Kahma, K., and Soetje, K.: Present Status of the Baltic Operational Oceanographic System. European Operational Oceanography: Present and Future, EuroGOOS Office, Sweden, and European Commission, Belgium, 276–280, 2006.; Canuto, V. M., Howard, A., Cheng, Y., and Dubovikov, M. S.: Ocean Turbulence, Part II: Vertical Diffusivities of Momentum, Heat, Salt, Mass, and Passive Saclars, J. Phys. Ocean., 32, 240–264, 2002.; Chen, C. S. and Wang, D. P.: Assimilation model study of the Santa Barbara Channel circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 15727–15741, 1999.; Chen, D. and Omstedt, A.: climate-induced variability of sea level in Stockholm: Influence of air temperature and atmospheric circulation, Adv. Atmos. Sci., 22(5), 655–664, 2005.; Cohn, S. E. and Parrish, D. F.: The behaviour of forecast error covariances for a Kalman filter in two dimensions, Mon. Weather Rev., 119, 1757–1785, 1991.; Daley, R.: Atmospheric Data Analysis, Cambridge Univ. Press, New York, 45 pp., 1993.; Dick, S., Kleine, E., Mueller-Navarra, S. H., Kleine, H., and Komo, H.: The Operational Circulation Model of BSH (BSHcmod) – Model description and validation, Berichte des BSH 29/2001, Bundesamt fur Seeschifffart und Hydrographie , 48 pp., 2001.; Hackert, E. C., Miller, R. N., and Busalacchi, A. J.: An optimized design for a moored instrument array in the tropical Atlantic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 7491–7509, 1998.; Hirschi, J., Baehr, J., Marotzke, J., Stark, J., Cunningham, S., and Beismann, J.-O.: A monitoring design for the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1413, doi:10.1029/2002GL016776, 2003.; Høyer, J. L. and She, J.: Optimal interpolation of SST for the North Sea and Baltic Sea systems, J. Mar. Syst., 65, 176–189, 2007.; Kelly, G. A.: Influence of observations on the Operational ECMWF System, WMO Bull., 46, 336–342, 1997.; Kharne, S. P. and Anderson, J. L.: An examination of ensemble filters based adaptive observation methodologies, Tellus A, 58, 179–195, 2006.; Kleine, E.: Das operationelle Modell des BSH feur Nordsee und Ostsee, Konzeption und Uebersicht, Bundesamt fur Seeschifffart und Hydrographie, Technical Report vol. 126S, 1994.; Kuo, T. H., Zou, X., and Huang, W.: The impact of global positioniing system data and prediction of and extratropical cyclone: An observing system simulation experimetn, Dynam. Atmos. Oceans, 27, 439–470, 1998.; Langland, R. H.: Issues in targeted observations, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 131, 3409–3425, 2005.; Larsen, J., Høyer, J. L., and She, J.: Validation of a hybrid optimal interpolation and Kalman filter scheme for sea surface temperature assimilation, J. Mar. Syst., 65, 122–133, 2007.; Leeuwenburgh, O.: Combined Analysis of Sea Surface Height and Temperature for Mapping and Climate Studies, Ph.D. thesis, National Survey and Cadastre, Denmark, 2001.; Le Hénaff, M., De Mey, P., and Marsaleix, P.: Assessment of observational networks with the Representer Matrix Spectra method-application to a 3D coastal model of the Bay of Biscay, Ocean Dynam., 59, 3

 

Click To View

Additional Books


  • Interactions Between the Somali Current ... (by )
  • Dynamics of Turbulent Western Boundary C... (by )
  • Sea Surface Height and Mixed Layer Depth... (by )
  • Eddy Length Scales and the Rossby Radius... (by )
  • On the Assimilation of Ice Velocity and ... (by )
  • Modelling Origin and Transport Fate of W... (by )
  • Application of a Hybrid Enkf-oi to Ocean... (by )
  • Enhancing Temporal Correlations in Eof E... (by )
  • Daily Scale Winter-time Sea Surface Temp... (by )
  • Deep Currents in the Gulf of Guinea: Alo... (by )
  • Spectral Studies of Ocean Water Using Do... (by )
  • Variability of Water Mass Properties in ... (by )
Scroll Left
Scroll Right

 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.