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Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 1961; Volume 25, Number 2, Year 1961, Pages 209-217: DDT-Resistance in Anopheles Stephensi

By G. Davidson

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Book Id: WPLBN0000172440
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 0.6 MB
Reproduction Date: 2005

Title: Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 1961; Volume 25, Number 2, Year 1961, Pages 209-217: DDT-Resistance in Anopheles Stephensi  
Author: G. Davidson
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Health., Public health, Wellness programs
Collections: Medical Library Collection, World Health Collection
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: World Health Organization

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Davidson, G. (n.d.). Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 1961; Volume 25, Number 2, Year 1961, Pages 209-217. Retrieved from http://worldlibrary.net/


Description
Medical Reference Publication

Excerpt
1. INTRODUCTION Following the Interregional Conference on Malaria in Brazzaville (21-25 October 1991) and the Ministerial Conference in Amsterdam (26-27 October 1992), a Regional Working Group on Malaria Control for the African Region was convened at the WHO Regional Ofice for Africa in Brazzaville, The Group held its first meeting from 15 to 18 March 1993. This guideline is one of the outcomes of this meeting. Their aim is to define how malaria control programmes can be evaluated and what information systems are required for epidemiological surveillance. The text is intended to be practical and adapted to the epidemiological, economical and ecological realities of the health systems in Africa, and to the continuity of existing malaria control programmes. These guidelines foresee an initial evaluation as the essential element in planning. This evaluation is carried out as a support for planning and implementation, in close collaboration between the evaluators, planners, and implementers of the programme. Then, in the same spirit, the process and outcome targets and impact (epidemiological) ohjectives and their indicators are defined. Other indicators are discussed - for risks and special problems - which could be useful for a malaria control programme. lnformation systems are established taking into account the necessary indicators and their interpretation. Information systems in relation to malaria epidemics which may occur in countrim with unsrahle malaria arc treated in a separate chapter. Finally, it is recognized and emphasized that any control programme requires applied research to complete the information provided through routine information systems. Annex 1 gives the objectives for malaria control in the African Region adopted by the Regional Working Group on Malaria Control at its first meeting held in 1993.

Table of Contents
CONTENTS 1 . INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 . EVALUATION OF MALARIA CONTROL PROGRAMMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.1 Primiples of evalrratiolv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.2 Evahmtian as pa~Ot Fp rogmm p M n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.3 EvahtEoa of pmgramnur policy and plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.4 &amxs and periodicity of m!Icctb~O F indicatordatato & . . . . . . . . 8 2.5 OrgaGng the evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.6 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3 . PROCESS TARGETS AND INDICATORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4 . OUTCOME TARGETS AND INDICATORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.1 Disease management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.2 Prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 5 . IMPACT OBJECTIVES AND INDICATORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 5.1 Selection of impact objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 5.2 .Quantification of impact ubjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 5.3 Selection of indicators in relation to the objectives . . . . . . . . . 24 5.4 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 6 . INDICATORS OF RISK AND SPECIAL PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . 32 6.1 Indicators of risk of nularia in a given population . . . . . . . . . 32 6.2 Indicators of endemicity of malaria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 6.3 Indicators of resistance to drugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 6.4 Entomological data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 7 . INFORMATION SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 7.1 General comments on existing information systems ......... 35 7.2 Establishing information systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 8 . TARGETS, OBJECTIVES AND INDICATORS RELATIVE TOEPIDEMICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 8.1 Indicators for forecasting epidemics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 8.2 Indicators for early detection of epidemics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 8.3 Targets, objectives and indicators for epidemic control . . . . . . 42 9 . APPLIED RESEARCH FOR MALARIA CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . 46 9. 1 The role of research in malaria control programmes . . . . . . . . 46 9.2 Research priorities of malaria control programmes . . . . . . . . . 47

 

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