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Final Tier 2 Rule : Air Quality Estimation, Selected Health and Welfare Benefits Methods, And Benefit Analysis Results

By Environmental Protection Agency

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Book Id: WPLBN0000113073
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 0.9 MB
Reproduction Date: 2007

Title: Final Tier 2 Rule : Air Quality Estimation, Selected Health and Welfare Benefits Methods, And Benefit Analysis Results  
Author: Environmental Protection Agency
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Ecology, Natural resource issues, Environemtal protection
Collections: Environmental Awareness Library Collection
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: United States Environmental Protection Agency

Citation

APA MLA Chicago

Agency, E. P. (n.d.). Final Tier 2 Rule : Air Quality Estimation, Selected Health and Welfare Benefits Methods, And Benefit Analysis Results. Retrieved from http://worldlibrary.net/


Description
Excerpt: This document was developed by Abt Associates Inc. under technical direction from U.S. EPA’s Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. The analysis and conclusions presented in this report are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily reflecting the official views or policies of the U.S. EPA. The analysis is useful to derive estimates of air quality, costs, benefits, and/or economic impacts. However, the analysis inputs and outputs associated with any emissions source, county, or local area are subject to significant uncertainties and should not be used to predict attainment status, costs, benefits, and/or economic impacts at this level of detail.

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 2 DEVELOPMENT OF OZONE AND PM AIR QUALITY INPUTS FOR USE IN BENEFITS ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.1 OZONE AIR QUALITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.2 PM AIR QUALITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.2.1 Forecasting PM Based on CRDM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 3 GENERAL ISSUES IN ESTIMATING HEALTH AND WELFARE BENEFITS . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3.1 ESTIMATING ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3.1.1 Basic Concentration-Response Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3.1.2 Calculation of Adverse Health Effects with CAPMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3.1.3 Population Projections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4 3.1.4 Overlapping Health Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6 3.1.5 Baseline Incidences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6 3.1.6 Thresholds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6 3.1.7 Application of a Single C-R Function Everywhere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8 3.1.8 Estimating Pollutant-Specific Benefits Using Single Pollutant vs. Multi-Pollutant Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8 3.1.9 Pooling Study Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9 3.2 VALUING CHANGES IN HEALTH AND WELFARE EFFECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10 3.2.1 WTP Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10 3.2.2 Change Over Time in WTP in Real Dollars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13 3.2.3 Adjusting Benefits Estimates from 1990 Dollars to 1997 Dollars . . . . . . . . . 3-13 3.2.4 Aggregation of Monetized Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16 3.3 CHARACTERIZATION OF UNCERTAINTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19 3.3.1 Alternative and Supplementary Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21 3.3.2 Sensitivity Analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-25 3.3.3 Statistical Uncertainty Bounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-25 3.3.4 Unquantified Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-26 4 HEALTH BENEFITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 4.1 PREMATURE MORTALITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5 4.1.1 Short-Term Versus Long-Term Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5 4.1.2 Degree of Prematurity of Mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5 4.1.3 Estimating PM-Related Premature Mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6 4.1.4 Valuing Premature Mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8 4.2 CHRONIC ILLNESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13 4.2.1 Chronic Bronchitis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13 4.2.2 Chronic

 

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