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Toxicological Review of Phenol

By Barron, Monica A.

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Book Id: WPLBN0000063042
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 2.8 MB
Reproduction Date: 2007
Full Text

Title: Toxicological Review of Phenol  
Author: Barron, Monica A.
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Ecology, Natural resource issues, Environemtal protection
Collections: Environmental Awareness Library Collection
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: United States Environmental Protection Agency

Description
Excerpt: FOREWORD: The purpose of this Toxicological Review is to provide scientific support and rationale for the hazard identification and dose-response assessment in IRIS pertaining to chronic exposure to phenol. It is not intended to be a comprehensive treatise on the chemical or toxicological nature of phenol.

Table of Contents
CONTENTS - TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW FOR PHENOL (CAS No. 108-95-2) Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi Authors, Contributors and Reviewers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii 1. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL INFORMATION RELEVANT TO ASSESSMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3. TOXICOKINETICS RELEVANT TO ASSESSMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1 Absorption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.2 Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.3 Metabolism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.4 Excretion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 4. HAZARD IDENTIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 4.1 Studies in Humans - Epidemiology, Case Reports, Clinical Controls . . . . . 25 4.1.1 Oral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 4.1.2 Inhalation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4.2 Pre-chronic, Chronic Studies and Cancer Bioassays in Laboratory Animals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 4.2.1 Oral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 4.2.2 Inhalation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 4.2.3 Dermal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 4.3 Reproductive/Developmental Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 4.4 Other Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 4.4.1 Initiation/Promotion Studies, Other Short-term Tumorigenicity Assays, and Cancer Mechanism Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 4.4.2 Genotoxicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 4.4.3 Neurological Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 4.4.4 Immunotoxicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 4.4.5 Other Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 4.5 Synthesis and Evaluation of Major Noncancer Effects and Mode of Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 4.6 Weight of Evidence Evaluation and Cancer Characterization - Synthesis of Human, Laboratory Animal and Other Supporting Evidence, Conclusions about Human Carcinogenicity, and Likely Mode of Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 4.7 Susceptible Populations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 4.7.1 Possible Childhood Susceptibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

 

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