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The Density of Seawater as a Function of Salinity (5 to 70 G Kg

By Millero, F. J.

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Book Id: WPLBN0004021054
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 17
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: The Density of Seawater as a Function of Salinity (5 to 70 G Kg  
Author: Millero, F. J.
Volume: Vol. 6, Issue 1
Language: English
Subject: Science, Ocean, Science
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection (Contemporary), Copernicus GmbH
Publication Date:
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications


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Huang, F., & Millero, F. J. (2009). The Density of Seawater as a Function of Salinity (5 to 70 G Kg. Retrieved from

Description: Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33149, USA. New seawater density measurements were made as a function of temperature (0 to 90°C) and salinity (5 to 70). The measurements (N=230) from 0 to 40°C and Practical Salinity from 0 to 40 were found to be in good agreement (Σ=0.0036) with the equation of state of seawater (Millero and Poisson, 1981) made on samples with a known chlorinity (Cl). These results indicate that the Practical Salinities (S) are in agreement to within ±0.003 with the values calculated from the Chlorinity, SCl=1.80655 Cl. The measurements from 25 to 90°C were used to extend the equation of state to high temperatures and salinities. All the relative densities (ΡΡ0, where Ρ0 is the density for pure water) were fitted to equations of the form

(ΡΡ0)/kg m−3 = ASA + BSA0.5 + CSA2

where A, B, and C are functions of temperature and SA (g kg−1) is the absolute salinity, SA=(35.16504/35)S. The fitted results from SA=0 to 50 and 0 to 40°C (N=247) gave standard errors of 0.0037 kg m−3. The fitted results from 25 to 90°C (N=271) gave standard errors of 0.0063 kg m−3 and all the results (N=501) from 0 to 90°C gave standard errors of 0.0062 kg m−3. The earlier density measurements used to determine the equation of state of seawater were combined to derive equations that are valid from 0 to 40°C and 0 to 90°C. The standard errors of these fits are, respectively, 0.0038 kg m−3 (N=713) and 0.0063 kg m−3 (N=962). These new measurements expand the equation of state of seawater to a wider range of temperature (0 to 90°C) and absolute salinity (0 to 70).

The density of seawater as a function of salinity (5 to 70 g kg) and temperature (0 to 90°C)

Millero,~F J., Chetirkin,~P V., and Culkin,~F.: The relative conductivity and density of standard seawaters, Deep-Sea Res. 24, 315–321, 1976a.; Millero,~F J. and Kremling,~K.: The densities of Baltic Sea waters. Deep-Sea Res., 23, 1129–1138, 1976.; Bigg,~P H.: Density of water in SI units over the range 0–40\unit\degree C, Brit. J. Appl. Phys., 18, 521–524, 1967.; Brewer,~P G. and Bradshaw,~A.: The effect of non-ideal composition of seawater on salinity and density, J. Mar. Res. 33, 157–175, 1975.; Feistel,~R.: A Gibbs function for seawater thermodynamics from $-6\unit\degree C$ to 80\unit\degreeC and salinity up to 120 \unitg kg^-1, Deep-Sea Res. Part I, 55(12), 1639–1671, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2008.07.004, 2008.; Kell,~G S.: The density, thermal expansivity and compressibility of liquid water from 0 to 150\unit\degree C: correlations and tables for atmospheric pressure and saturation reviewed and expressed on the 1968 temperature scale, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 20, 97–105, 1975.; Millero,~F J., Gonzalez,~A., and Ward,~G K.: The density of seawater solutions at on atmosphere as a~function of temperature and salinity, J. Mar. Res., 34, 61–93, 1976b.; Millero,~F J., Forsht,~D., Means,~D., Giekes,~J., and Kenyon,~K.: The density of North Pacific Ocean waters, J. Geophys. Res., 83, 2359–2364, 1978.; Millero,~F J. and Poisson,~A.: International one-atmosphere equation of state of seawater, Deep-Sea Res., 28, 625–629, 1981.; Millero,~F J.: Effect of changes in the composition of seawater on the density-salinity relationship, Deep-Sea Res. Part I, 47, 1583–1590, 2000.; Millero,~F J. and Pierrot,~D.: The thermochemical properties of seawater fit to the Pitzer equations, Mar. Chem., 94, 81–99, 2005.; Millero,~F J., Waters,~J., Woosley,~R., Huang,~F., and Chanson,~M.: The effect of composition of the density of Indian Ocean waters, Deep-Sea Res. Part I, 55, 960–470, 2008a.; Millero,~F J., Feistel,~R., Wright,~D G., and McDougall,~T J.: The composition of Standard Seawater and the definition of a~Reference-Composition Salinity Scale, Deep-Sea Res. Part I, 55, 50–72, 2008b.; Millero,~F J., Huang,~F., Williams,~N. Waters,~J., and Woosley,~R.: The effect of composition on the density of South Pacific Ocean waters, Mar. Chem., submitted, 2008c.; Pierrot,~D. and Millero,~F J.: The apparent molal volume and compressibility of seawater fit to the Pitzer equations, J. Solution Chem., 29, 719–742, 2000.; Poisson,~A. and Badhouni,~M H.: An extension of the Practical Salinity Scale 1987 and the Equation of State 1980 to high salinities, Deep-Sea Res., 40, 1689–1698, 1993.; Poisson,~A., Brunet,~C., and Brun-Cottan,~J C.: Density of standard seawater solutions at atmospheric pressure, Deep-Sea Res., 27, No. 12A, 1013–1028, 1980.; Preston-Thomas,~H.: The international Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90), Metrologia, 27, 107, 1990.; Spieweck,~F. and Bettin,~H.: Review: Solid and liquid density determination, Techn. Mess., 59, 285–292, 1992.


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