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Etnik ve Toplumsal Kimlikler Nasil Olusur? : translated from IDENT...

By: Ph.D. HB Paksoy; Osman Karatay, Translator

olaylarin ardindaki gerceklere dayali hicx bir ozel kural tanimadan

HER INSAN KENDI HAYATINI YASAR

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Gelecek ile Yuzlesmek

By: Ph.D. HB Paksoy; Yusuf Oktay Solak, Compiler

Dünya üzerindeki düşünce türleri genellikle üç'tür: 1) çevredeki insanları tartışmak; 2) uzak-yakındaki olayları incelemek; 3) düşünceleri eleştirmek. Dedi-kodu yapmak, duyduğuna bin katarak düşünmeden konuşmak, insanları tartışmak, eleştirmektir. Olaylar üzerine ileri sürülenler ise, insan topluluklarına, bir tek insan tarafından yapılan yorumlardır. Ancak, düşünceleri eleştirmek, o düşüncelerin ardındakini görmeyi gerektirir. Yalnız dedi-kodu ile yapılabile...

Üniversite’nin görevi nedir? Şu tanımı yapabiliriz: düşünceleri birleştirip, ilerletmek. Düşünceleri birleştirmek ve ilerletmek neden gereklidir? Bir atılıma geçmek için, yer alacak olayların önceden ve kapsamlı olarak düşünülmesi gerekir. Düşünceler, bir atılımın başlangıcıdır ve yalnız üniversite içinde gelişmez. Düşünceler bir yönetime katılım birimi içinde gelişebileceği gibi, arkadaş toplulukları içinde de yer alabilir. Ayrıca, bir tek kişice de oluşturulup bir kita...

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Uzun Gorus

By: Ph.D. HB Paksoy

Batılı soylular bu olasiliklarla güreşirken, bu süreçte, Tuğrul Bey (1016-1063) Selçuk imparatorluğunu kurdu. Kudüs de, süreç içinde Selçuk etkisi altında kaldı. Kaldı ki, M.S. Yedinci Yüzyılda İslamiyetin oluşması da, Yedi ile Onbirinci yüzyıllar arasında Doğu Akdenizdeki Hristiyan ve Musevi toplumların Arap yönetimine geçmesine neden olmuş idi. Bu koşullar altında, 1096-1099 yılları arasında papa'nı verdiği vaazların yardımı ile Birinci Haçlı Seferi Avrupa'dan Doğu A...

"Bir süngü ile dünya üzerinde canınızın istediği herşey yapılabilir; bir tek olay bu kural'in dışında kalır: süngü üzerine oturulamaz." Bu düşünceyi, Fransız Başbakan'i Talleyrand'in (1754-1838) ileri sürdüğü varsayılır. Olaylar, bu deyiş'in ne kadar gerçek olduğunu sayısız denebilecek kadar deneme'de göstermiştir. Ancak, bu süngü'nun saldırganlık mi yoksa savunma amaçlı olarak mi kullanıldığı üzerinde durmak gerekebilir. Saldırganlık, Türk atasözünde olduğu gibi "dedi...

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Turk Tarihi, Toplumlarin Mayasi, Uygarlik

By: Ph.D. HB Paksoy

Teslim olmakla, omuzlarimiza daha da agir yukleri gonullu olarak almaktan baska hic bir kazancimiz olmuyor. Eskiden, her bir boy'umuzun birer bas'i var idi. Simdi ise iki kral birden [biri Romali vali, digeri, Romalilarin tahta cikardigi yerli kral] uzerimize oturtuldu --biri canimizi cikariyor, digeri de malimiza el koyuyor. Bu iki agamiz'in birbirleri ile catismasi halinde, kullari olan bizler ise cok kotu duruma dusuyoruz. Onlarin ceteleri veya duzenli askerleri, bize...

Romali tarihci Tacitus, M. S. Birinci yuzyilda yasamisti. Tacitus, gorgu sahidi bulundugu donemde Roma imparatorlugu egemenligi altinda olan Britanya'lilarla[30] karsi kullanilan Roma imparatorlugu politikasini aciklayici sunlari yazmisti: [Britanyalilar] Bir zamanlar tek bir kral altinda [topluca] yasamakta idiler; simdi ise, kendi aralarinda ve rakip reisler altinda kendi aralarinda vurusmaktan bolunmus bulunuyorlar. Hakikaten, bizim [Romalilarin] isimize en cok yara...

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Memoirs of Prof Zeki Velidi Togan : National Existence and Cultura...

By: Ph.D. HB Paksoy, Translator

2. Language: Togan was fluent in a number of diverse languages (German, Arabic, Russian, Persian, French, and English etc.) and a myriad of Central Asian Turk dialects as there are no such distinctions as “Turkic” and “Turkish,” which were artificially introduced into English and Russian. He not only used these languages and dialects for scholarly purposes, but also for discourse un- der a wide variety of conditions. Consequently, one can easily discern from his expressi...

Then, some business appeared that would provide me the opportunity to seriously involve myself in politics. The election laws modified by the Tsar allowed five Deputies for the Kazan residents and one for the Azerbaijanis. Other Turks in Turkistan were deprived of the rights to have a representative in the Duma. Among the extant representatives, the Ufa Deputy Kutlukay Mirza Tevkilev was very honorable, honest and knowledgeable, but he was also very old. At the same time...

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The Bald Boy Keloglan and the Most Beautiful Girld in the World

By: Ph.D. HB Paksoy

Before we ascend to the thoughts and deeds of Keloğlan, it may be desirable to explore the foundations of Turkish oral literature, which enjoys its share of archetypes. One such internationally known character is Nasreddin Hoja (or, Hoca), representing the voice of reason in a witty manner. On one occasion, Nasreddin borrows a kazan (large cauldron) from his neighbor. When Nasreddin returns the kazan, the neighbor sees that there is a small cooking pot in the bottom. He...

On another celebrated occasion, which took place over some eight centuries ago, Nasreddin again demonstrates the necessity of experimental science and reasoning: One day Nasreddin brings home three pounds of meat, expecting his wife to cook it for dinner. At dinner-time, Nasreddin finds no meat on the table. He asks his wife, "What happened to the meat?" His wife replies, "The cat ate it." Nasreddin breezes into the kitchen, puts the cat on the scales, and d...

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ALPAMIS : Rus Yonetimi altinda Orta Asya Kimligi

By: Ph.D. HB Paksoy

Alpamış bir Türk destanıdır - edebi-sözlü tarihtir - ve Orta Asya Türk söz- lü edebiyatının başlıca öneklerindendir. Sahiplerinin ve yaratıcılarının etnik kimlik, tarih, gelenekler ve değer düzenlerinin en önemli kaynağıdır. Çoğun- lukla şiir şeklinde olan Alpamış destanı Doğu Altaylar’dan Batı Urallar’a ve güneyde Türkistan’a kadarki alanda bilinir ve anlatılır. Türk toplumlarinin öz- gürlük uğraşlarının anısını kutlar. Destanın derlenmesine neden olan olaylarin çok esk...

Orta Asya’da “ataların serüven ve kimliklerini kutlama” geleneği Türk lehçe- lerine daha sonra ödünç alınarak girmiş olan destan kelimesinin kullanımın- dan daha eskidir. Örneğin Kül Tegin yazıtlarında (M.S. 732) Bilge Kağan “Bu sabımın adgutı asıd, qatıgdı tınla!” (“Sözlerimi iyi ve katı işit!”) der.1 Bir üç yüz sene kadar sonra (1070’te) Kaşgarlı Mahmut, Divan-ı Lûgat-it Türk’te âkil adamlarca korunup o güne taşınmış atasözleri, tembih ve iletiler için saw (sab, sa...

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Lectures on Central Asia

By: Ph.D. HB Paksoy

The Magna Carta of 1215, signed between the Barons of the English polity and the King was also an attempt to restore harmony at a higher level, among and within the governing strata rather than directed strictly at the public good. Napoleonic codes, to a certain extent---whether influenced by the American declarations or not--(not forgetting the Swedish example), followed the thought that it was necessary for the government to spend part of the tax income toward construc...

3. Role of technology in the human conflict between authoritarianism and pluralism A short overview of authoritarianism and pluralism may be beneficial: Authoritarian governance system comes in several flavors, and can be organized around a belief system (Judaism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, Confucianism, et al); a social order (communism, socialism, mercantilism); military leadership (juntas of various degrees and social orientations); philosophical strain (utopi...

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Central Asian Monuments

By: Ph.D. HB Paksoy

The present volume presents essays on eight Central Asian Monuments. Each essay discusses one Monument, placing it in historical perspective. Some works are very early products of Central Asian thought. A few, are quite new, that is, were produced in the 19th and the 20th centuries. They all, however, are repositories of thought and culture and all have had palpable repercussions. Their enduring quality is manifested in repeated references to them by present-day Central ...

The Central Asian authors have responded to the restrictions on history writing by reporting accurate history and relaying messages of the past in the guise of literature. The field of literature has its own strictures. Thus, Central Asians have tried to ensure that their output is both the real history and sufficiently veiled (for example, under the "yarn" genre) to pass censorship. This is an effort to maintain the historical identity which Central Asians see is under ...

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Essays on Central Asia

By: Ph.D. HB Paksoy

The designation "Altai," as Ozbek and Kazakh, are primarily geographical, tribal or confederation names, not ethnonyms. Those appellations were mistakenly or deliberately turned into "ethnic"or "political" classifications by early explorers or intelligence agents arriving in those lands ahead of the Russian armies and bureaucrats.

Islam is the latest religion to reach Central Asia. The indigenous Tengri and Shamanism,20 which appears to have co- existed with Zoroastrianism, prevailed even after the arrival of other religions such as Buddhism and Manichaeanism.21 The introduction of Islam into Central Asia went through roughly three stages: force of arms and alms; the scholasticist madrasa; Sufism. But the first group to come into contact with Islam in Central Asia were not the Shamanistic or Buddh...

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Humans on Mars, and Beyond

By: Ph.D. HB Paksoy

Mars, to our current knowledge, does not contain any native populations. However, the Earthlings arriving there, once again, will bring their own institutions with them. In this case, we may even surmise, more than one system, given the proliferation of space technology among nations of diverse backgrounds. That also means there will be more than one culture, as well as Governance method. Does that herald a clash of cultures and Governance modes? At that point,...

It can be argued that the primary use of history is to learn the lessons from the experiences of the past human polities. The familiar timeline that is usually attached to historical study is necessary in order to know the flow of events in the proper sequence. The lessons will be skewed if Reformation is considered before Christ. Then comes the most critical of the steps; how those lessons are identified and learned. Perhaps it is easier to notice a lesson than lea...

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Identities : How Governed, Who Pays

By: Ph.D. HB Paksoy

3. According to my records, this effort was begun in 1983. In the ensuing years, I filled close to a dozen notebooks on various aspects of identity. For the first sixteen years of this process, the primary idea was to better understand the nature of the subject. 4. While teaching courses on World History and Intercultural Studies in four different universities, perceptive student questions on these topics further stimulated the process. 5. What finally pers...

1. There are always Secret Identities in every polity. 2. The purpose of constituting a secret identity is to escape the prevailing rules in the environment in which the identity is established. 3. Some secret identities are regular identities, forced underground by the dominant identity. 4. Some secret identities are formed to gain advantage over other identities in the same polity. 5. Further secret identities are formed in order to secure the...

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ALPAMYSH : Central Asian Identity under Russian Rule

By: Ph.D. HB Paksoy

The struggle of the Central Asians to preserve this dastan in the face of Soviet attacks upon it is the central focus of the present work. The attacks and attempts to save the Alpamysh dastan may be divided into two "phases" -- the first is represented by the Central Asians' own efforts to record the dastan on paper and publish it widely in response to Russian occupation and ensuing Russification campaigns, Christian proselytization, "language reform," boundary revision ...

Another representative sample of this early phase of the "movement" is A Manual on the Turanians and PanTuranianism33 (published by the British Admiralty, during the First World War) a work based on Vambery's Turkenvolk34 and compiled by Sir Denison Ross.35 Even Alexander Kerensky, in Paris exile after the Bolshevik Revolution, was utilizing the same "Turanian" rhetoric, calling it "a menace threatening the world."36 Despite its European origins and its European goals, t...

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