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Cobalt, Chromium and Nickel Contents in Soils and Plants from a Se...

By: M. L. Andrade Couce; A. Rodríguez-seijo; D. Arenas-lago; M. Lago-vila; F. A. Vega

Description: Department of Plant Biology and Soil Science, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain. The former serpentinite quarry of Penas Albas (Moeche, Galicia, NW Spain) left behind a large amount of waste material scattered over the surrounding area, as well as tailing areas. In this area several soils were studied together with the vegetation growing spontaneously over them with the aim of identifying the bioavailability of heavy metals. The potential of spontane...

Adamo, P., Dudka, S., Wilson, M. J., and McHardy, W. J.: Distribution of trace elements in soils from the Sudbury smelting area (Ontario, Canada), Water Air Soil Pollut., 137, 95–116, 2002.; Adki, V. S., Jadhav, J. P., and Bapat, V. A.: Nopalea cochenillifera, a potential chromium (VI) hyperaccumulator plant, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 20, 1173-1180, 2013.; AFNOR: Qualité des sols, Méthodes d'analyses-Recueil de normes françaises, Association française de normali...

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The Link Between Great Earthquakes and the Subduction of Oceanic F...

By: T. C. W. Landgrebe; R. D. Müller

Description: EarthByte Group, School of Geosciences, The University of Sydney, Australia. Giant subduction earthquakes are known to occur in areas not previously identified as prone to high seismic risk. This highlights the need to better identify subduction zone segments potentially dominated by relatively long (up to 1000 yr and more) recurrence times of giant earthquakes. We construct a model for the geometry of subduction coupling zones and combine it with globa...

Amante, C., Eakins, B. W., and Center, N. G. D.: ETOPO1 1 arc-minute global relief model: procedures, data sources and analysis, US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service, National Geophysical Data Center, Marine Geology and Geophysics Division, 19 pp., 2009.; Ammon, C. J., Ji, C., Thio, H. K., Robinson, D., Ni, S., Hjorleifsdottir, V., Kanamori, H., Lay, T., Das, S., and He...

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Strain Localization in Brittle–ductile Shear Zones: Fluid-abundant...

By: S. Piazolo; L. Spruzeniece

Description: Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Core to Crust Fluid Systems/GEMOC, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Macquarie University, NSW, Sydney, Australia. This study focuses on physiochemical processes occurring in a brittle–ductile shear zone at both fluid-present and fluid-limited conditions. In the studied shear zone (Wyangala, SE Australia), a coarse-grained two-feldspar–quartz–biotite granite is transformed into a medium-grain...

Paterson, S. R. and Tobisch, O. T.: Rates of processes in magmatic arcs: implications for the timing and nature of pluton emplacement and wall rock deformation, J. Struct. Geol., 14, 291–300, doi:10.1016/0191-8141(92)90087-D, 1992.; Paterson, S. R., Tobisch, O. T., and Morand, V. J.: The influence of large ductile shear zones on the emplacement and deformation of the Wyangala Batholith, SE Australia, J. Struct. G...

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3-d Reflection Seismic Imaging of the Hontomín Structure in the Ba...

By: A. Malehmir; A. Pérez-estaún; I. Marzán; E. Saura; P. Ayarza; R. Carbonell; A. Calahorrano; D. Sopher; J. Alcalde; C. Juhlin; D. Martí

Description: Institute of Earth Sciences Jaume Almera CSIC, Barcelona, Spain. The Basque–Cantabrian Basin of the northern Iberia Peninsula constitutes a unique example of a major deformation system, featuring a dome structure developed by extensional tectonics followed by compressional reactivation. The occurrence of natural resources in the area and the possibility of establishing a geological storage site for carbon dioxide motivated the acquisition of a 3-D seism...

Alcalde, J., Martí, D., Calahorrano, A., Marzán, I., Ayarza, P., Carbonell, R., Juhlin, C., and Pérez-Estaún, A.: Active seismic characterization experiments of the Hontomín research facility for geological storage of CO2, Spain, Int. J. Greenh. Gas Con., in press, doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2013.01.039, 2013.; Alvarez, C.: Hydrocarbons in Spain – exploration and production, First Break, 12, 1994.; Arts, R., E...

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Optical Method for Measuring Bed Topography and Flow Depth in an E...

By: M. Tal; E. Lajeunesse; M. D. Reitz; F. Métivier; A. Limare

Description: Equipe de Dynamique des Fluides Géologiques, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP, UMR 7154, CNRS, Univ. Paris Diderot), 1 rue Jussieu, 75238 Paris Cedex 05, France. We describe an optical method known as moiré for acquiring quasi-simultaneous measurements of bed topography and flow depth in laboratory experiments. The moiré method is based on projecting a fringe pattern (grating) on the bed and analyzing the deformation of the pattern caused by t...

Armstrong, L.: Bank erosion and sediment transport in a microscale straight river, Ph.D. thesis, Universit{é} Paris7-Denis Diderot, France, 2003.; Ashmore, P.: Laboratory modelling of gravel bed braided stream morphology, Earth. Surf. Process. Landforms, 7, 201–225, 1982.; Aureli, F., Maranzoni, A., Mignosa, P., and C., Z.: Dam-break flows: acquisition of experimental data through an imaging technique and 2-D numerical modeling, J. Hydraul. Eng., 134, 1089�1101,

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Positive Geothermal Anomalies in Oceanic Crust of Cretaceous Age O...

By: G. Delisle

Description: Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Stilleweg 2, 30655 Hannover, Germany. Heat flow measurements were carried out in 2009 offshore Kamchatka during the German-Russian joint-expedition KALMAR. An area with elevated heat flow in oceanic crust of Cretaceous age – detected ~30 years ago in the course of several Russian heat flow surveys – was revisited. One previous interpretation postulated anomalous lithospheric conditions or a connect...

Creager, J. S., Scholl, D. W. et al.: Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, 19, 913 pp., U.S. Gov. Print. Off., Washington, D.C., 1973.; Davaille, A. and Lees, J. M.: Thermal modelling of subducted plates: tear and hotspot at the Kamchatka corner, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 226, 293–304, 2004.; Benfield, A. E.: The effect of uplift and denudation on underground temperatures, J. Appl. Phys., 20, 66–70, 1949.; Bredehoeft, J. D. and Papadopoulos, I. S.: Rates of ...

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Syn-eruptive, Soft-sediment Deformation of Deposits from Dilute Py...

By: B. Taisne; S. K. Müller; D. B. Dingwell; È Tsang-hin-sun; U. Kueppers; G. A. Douillet

Description: Earth and Environmental Sciences, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany. Soft-sediment deformation structures can provide valuable information about the conditions of parent flows, the sediment state and the surrounding environment. Here, examples of soft-sediment deformation in deposits of dilute pyroclastic density currents are documented and possible syn-eruptive triggers suggested. Outcrops from six different volcanoes have been compiled in...

Alsop, G. I. and Marco, S.: Tsunami and seiche-triggered deformation within offshore sediments, Sediment. Geol., 261, 90–107, 2012.; Allen, J. and Banks, N.: An interpretation and analysis of recumbent-folded deformed cross-bedding, Sedimentology, 19, 257–283, 1972.; Alsop, G. and Marco, S.: Soft-sediment deformation within seismogenic slumps of the Dead Sea Basin, J. Struct. Geol., 33, 433–457, 2011.; Andrews, G. D. and Branney, M. J.: Emplacement and rheomorphic deform...

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Up the Down Escalator: the Exhumation of (Ultra)-high Pressure Ter...

By: C. J. Warren

Description: Department of Environment, Earth and Ecosystems, CEPSAR, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, UK. The exhumation of high and ultra-high pressure rocks is ubiquitous in Phanerozoic orogens created during continental collisions, and is common in many ocean-ocean and ocean-continent subduction zone environments. Three different tectonic environments have previously been reported, which exhume deeply buried material by different mechanis...

Agard, P., Yamato, P., Jolivet, L., and Burov, E.: Exhumation of oceanic blueschists and eclogites in subduction zones: Timing and mechanisms, Earth-Sci. Rev., 92, 53–79, doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2008.11.002, 2009.; Austrheim, H.: Eclogitization of lower crustal granulites by fluid migration through shear zones, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 81, 221–232, doi:10....

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The Mechanics of Gravity-driven Faulting : Volume 2, Issue 1 (12/0...

By: V. Barrows; L. Barrows

Description: private address: 103 Gilmore Circle, Covington, LA 70433, USA. Faulting can result from either of two different mechanisms. These involve fundamentally different energetics. In elastic rebound, locked-in elastic strain energy is transformed into the earthquake (seismic waves plus work done in the fault zone). In force-driven faulting, the forces that create the stress on the fault supply work or energy to the faulting process. Half of this energy is tra...

Aki, K. and Richards, P. G.: Quantitative Seismology, W. H. Freeman, New York, 1980.; Artyushkov, E. V.: Stresses in the lithosphere caused by crustal thickness inhomogenities, J. Geophys. Res., 78, 7675–7708, 1973.; Barrows, L.: The Effects of Locked-in Pressure on the Mechanics of Faulting, Seismol. Res. Lett., 79, 4, 544–545, 2008.; Barrows, L. and Langer, C. J.: Gravitational potential as a source of earthquake energy, Tectonophysics, 76, 237–255, 1981.; Barrows, L. ...

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Does Jatropha Curcas L. Show Resistance to Drought in the Sahelian...

By: T. K. Sop; A. Thiombiano; A. M. Lykke; P. Bayen

Description: Laboratory of Plant Biology and Ecology, University of Ouagadougou, 09 BP 848, Ouagadougou 09, Burkina Faso. Land degradation is an environmental problem which weakens agro-silvo-pastoral productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa. The most common manifestation of land degradation is the appearance of denuded land. We carried out an experiment to test the effect of three soil and water conservation techniques on survival and growth of Jatropha curcas

Achten, W. M. J., Verchot, L., Franken, Y. J., Mathijs, E., Singh, V. P., Aerts, R., and Muys, B.: Jatropha bio-diesel production and use, Biomass Bioenerg., 32, 1063–1084, 2008.; Achten, W. M. J., Maes, W. H., Reubens, B., Mathijs, E., Singh, V. P., Verchot, L., and Muys, B.: Biomass production and allocation in Jatropha curcas L. seedlings under different levels of drought stress, Biomass Bioenerg., 34, 667–676, 2010a.; Achten, W. M. J., Maes, W. H., Aerts, R., ...

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Elefant: a User-friendly Multipurpose Geodynamics Code : Volume 6,...

By: C. Thieulot

Description: Department of Earth Sciences, University of Utrecht, Budapestlaan 4, 3584 CD, Utrecht, the Netherlands. A new finite element code for the solution of the Stokes and heat transport equations is presented. It has purposely been designed to address geological flow problems in two and three dimensions at crustal and lithospheric scales. The code relies on the Marker-in-Cell technique and Lagrangian markers are used to track materials in the simulation domain...

Allken, V., Huismans, R., and Thieulot, C.: Three dimensional numerical modelling of upper crustal extensional systems, J. Geophys. Res., 116, B10409, doi:10.1029/2011JB008319, 2011.; Allken, V., Huismans, R., and Thieulot, C.: Factors controlling the mode of rift interaction in brittle-ductile coupled systems: a 3D numerical study, Geochem. Geophy. Geosy., 13, Q05010, doi:1...

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Segmentation of the Izu-bonin and Mariana Plates Based on the Anal...

By: I. Koulakov; N. L. Dobretsov; K. Jaxybulatov

Description: Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics SB RAS, Prospekt Koptyuga, 3, 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia. We present a new model of P- and S-velocity anomalies in the mantle down to 1300 km depth beneath the Izu-Bonin and Mariana (IBM) arcs. This model is derived based on tomographic inversion of global travel time data from the revised ISC catalogue. The results of inversion are thoroughly verified using a series of different tests. The obtained model is...

Baker, E. T., Embley, R. W., Walker, S. L., Resing, J. A., Lupton, J. E., Nakamura, K.-I., de Rode, C. E. J., and Massoth, G. J. : Hydrothermal activity and volcano distribution along the Mariana arc, J. Geophys. Res., 113, B08S09, doi:10.1029/2007JB005423, 2008.; Bassin, C., Laske, G., and Masters, G.: The current limits of resolution for surface wave tomography in North America, EOS, Trans. Am. Geophys. Un., 81, F897, ...

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Tomography of the 2011 Iwaki Earthquake (M 7.0) and Fukushima Nucl...

By: P. Tong; D. Zhao; D. Yang

Description: Department of Geophysics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578, Japan. High-resolution tomographic images of the crust and upper mantle in and around the area of the 2011 Iwaki earthquake (M 7.0) and the Fukushima nuclear power plant are determined by inverting a large number of high-quality arrival times with both the finite-frequency and ray tomography methods. The Iwaki earthquake and its aftershocks mainly occurred in a boundary zone with strong varia...

Asano, Y., Saito, T., Ito, Y., Shiomi, K., Hirose, H., Matsumoto, T., Aoi, S., Hori, S., and Sekiguchi, S.: Spatial distribution and focal mechanisms of aftershocks of the 2011 off the Pacific coast Tohoku Earthquake, Earth Planet. Space, 63, 669–673, 2011.; Cheng, B., Zhao, D., and Zhang, G.: Seismic tomography and anisotropy in the source area of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi earthquake (M 7.2), Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 184, 172–185, 2011.; Gupta, S., Zhao, D., Ikeda, M., U...

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Soil Aggregation, Erodibility and Erosion Rates in Mountain Soils ...

By: E. Bonifacio; G. Falsone; S. Stanchi

Description: DISAFA, University of Torino, Largo Braccini 2, 10095 Grugliasco, TO, Italy. Erosion is a relevant soil degradation factor in mountain agrosilvopastoral ecosystems, and can be enhanced by the abandonment of agricultural land and pastures, then left to natural evolution. The on-site and off-site consequences of soil erosion at the catchment and landscape scale are particularly relevant and may affect settlements at the interface with mount...

Angassa, A.: Effects of grazing intensity and bush encroachment on herbaceous species and rangeland condition in Southern Ethiopia, Land Degrad. Dev., 25, 438–451, doi:10.1002/ldr.2160, 2014.; Barthès, B., Albrecht, A., Asseline, L., De Noni, G., and Roose, E.: Relationships between soil erodibility and topsoil aggregate stability or carbon content in a cultivated Mediterranean highland (Aveyron, France), Commun. Soil Sci. P...

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Responses of Vertical Soil Moisture to Rainfall Pulses and Land Us...

By: F. Y. Jia; Y. Yu; H. D. Zhang; W. Wei; L. D. Chen; L. Yang; T. J. Feng

Description: State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China. Soil moisture plays a key role in vegetation restoration and ecosystem stability in arid and semiarid regions. The response of soil moisture to rainfall pulses is an important hydrological process, which is strongly influenced by land use during the implementation of vegetation restoration. In this study,...

Austin, A. T., Yahdjian, L., Stark, J. M., Belnap, J., Porporato, A., Norton, U., Ravetta, D. A., and Schaeffer, S. M.: Water pulses and biogeochemical cycles in arid and semiarid ecosystems, Oecologia, 141, 221–235, 2004.; Batjes, N. H.: Projected changes in soil organic carbon stocks upon adoption of recommended soil and water conservation practices in the Upper Tana River catchment, Kenya, Land Degrad. Dev., 25, 278–287, 2014.; Bizoza, A. R.: Three-stage analysis of t...

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Dynamic Evaluation of Ecosystem Service Value of the Riparian Zone...

By: Y. Li; B. Zhang; B. S. Yin; Z. F. Xing; H. L. Zhu; B. L. Fu

Description: Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 4888 Shengbei Street, Changchun, Jilin 130102, China. In this paper, we calculated comparable and dynamic ecosystem service value per unit area in the riparian zone of Second Songhua River; then we also estimated changes in the value of ecosystem services resulting from land use changes; finally, we continuously evaluated the riparian ecosystem service value based on 520 basic...

Barquın, J., Fernández, D., Alvarez-Cabria, M., and Penas, F.: Riparian quality and habitat heterogeneity assessment in Cantabrian rivers, Limnetica, 30, 329–346, 2011.; Costanza, R., Cumberland, J., Daly, H., Goodland, R., and Norgaard, R.: An Introduction to ecological economic, St. Lucie Press, FL, USA, 12–37, 1997b.; Costanza, R., d'Arge, R., de Groot, R., Farber, S., Grasso, M., Hannon, B., Limburg, K., Naeem, S., O'Neill, R.V., Paruelo, J., Raskin, R.G.,Sutton, P.,...

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Seismic Imaging of Sandbox Experiments – Laboratory Hardware Setup...

By: O. Oncken; N. Kukowski; M.-l. Buddensiek; C. M. Krawczyk

Description: Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics (LIAG), Stilleweg 2, 30655 Hannover, Germany. With the study and technical development introduced here, we combine analogue sandbox simulation techniques with seismic physical modelling of sandbox models. For that purpose, we designed and developed a new mini-seismic facility for laboratory use, comprising a seismic tank, a PC-driven control unit, a positioning system, and piezoelectric transducers used here for ...

Adam, J., Urai, J. L., Wieneke, B., Oncken, O., Pfeiffer, K., Kukowski, N., Lohrmann, J., Hoth, S., van der Zee, W. and Schmatz, J.: Shear localisation and strain distribution during tectonic faulting – new insights from granular-flow experiments and high resolution optical image correlation techniques, J. Struct. Geol.,, 27, 283–301, 2005.; Adam, J., Schreurs, G., Klinkmüller, M., and Wieneke, S.: 2-D/3-D Strain localisation and fault simulation in analogue experiments:...

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Coffee Husk Mulch on Soil Erosion and Runoff: Experiences Under Ra...

By: S. J. Quizembe; S. Ibáñez-asensio; H. Moreno-ramón

Description: Department of Plant Production, Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain. The high erosion rates found in the agriculture land make valuable the use of mulches to control the soil and water losses. Coffee husk (Coffee canephora var. robusta) can be one of those mulches. This paper evaluates how to apply the mulch in order to obtain, with the same doses, the best effectiveness. An experimental factorial design 4 × 3 × 2 with two re...

Abdelkadir, A. and Yimer, F.: Soil water property variations in three adjacent land use types in the Rift Valley area of Ethiopia, J. Arid Environ., 75, 1067–1071, 2011.; Bekalo, S. A. and Reinhart, H- W.: Fibers of coffee husk and hulls for the production of particleboard, Mater. Struct., 43, 1049–1060, 2010.; Adekalu, K. O., Okunade, D. A., and Osunbitan, J. A.: Compaction and mulching effects on soil loss and runoff from two southwestern Nigeria agriculture soils, Geo...

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Thermal Conditions During Deformation of Partially Molten Crust fr...

By: A. Vauchez; B. Boyer; C. Merlet; M. Egydio-silva; G. C. G. Cavalcante; M. H. Bezerra De Holanda

Description: Instituto de Geociências, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Lago, 562, 05508-080, São Paulo, Brazil. During the Neoproterozoic orogeny, the middle crust of the Araçuaí belt underwent widespread partial melting. At the regional scale, this anatectic domain is characterized by a progressive rotation of the flow direction from south to north, suggesting a 3-D deformation of the anatectic middle crust. To better determine whether melt volumes present in the ...

Alsdorf, D., Makovsky, Y., Zhao, W., Brown, L. D., Nelson, K. D., Klemperer, S., Hauck, M., Ross, A., Cogan, M., Clark, M., Che, J., and Kuo, J.: INDEPTH (International Deep Profiling of Tibet and the Himalaya) multichannel seismic reflection data; description and availability, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 26993–26999, 1998.; Arzi, A.: Critical phenomena in the rheology of partially melted rocks, Tectonophysics, 44, 173–184, 1978.; Assumpção, M., Bianchi, M., Julià, J., Dias, ...

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Using the Nordic Geodetic Observing System for Land Uplift Studies...

By: M. Poutanen; J. Virtanen; A. Kairus; M. Nordman

Description: Finnish Geodetic Institute, P.O. Box 15, 02431 Masala, Finland. Geodetic observing systems have been planned and developed during the last decade. An ideal observing system consists of a network of geodetic observing stations with several techniques at the same site, publicly accessible databases, and as a product delivers data time series, combination of techniques or some other results obtained from the datasets. Globally, there is the IAG GGOS (...

Ågren, J. and Svensson, R.: Postglacial Land Uplift Model and System Definition for the New Swedish Height System RH 2000. LMV-Rapport 2007:4. Reports in Geodesy and Geographical Information Systems, Gävle, ISSN 280-5731, 2007.; Breili, K.: Investigations of surface loads of the Earth – geometrical deformations and gravity changes, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Mathematical Sciences and Technology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, vol. 2009:25, ISSN 1503-1667, ISBN 9...

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