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Technical Note: a Fully Automated Purge and Trap Gc-ms System for ...

By: S. C. Hackenberg; L. J. Carpenter; S. J. Andrews
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Global Representation of Tropical Cyclone-induced Ocean Thermal Ch...

By: R. L. Sriver; J. Zhu; L. Cheng

Description: International Center for Climate and Environment Sciences, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. Argo floats are used to examine tropical cyclone (TC)-induced ocean thermal changes on the global scale by comparing temperature profiles before and after TC passage. We present a footprint method that analyzes cross-track thermal responses along all storm tracks during the period 2004–2012. We combine the results ...

Ascani, F., Firing, E., Dutrieux, P., McCreary, J. P., and Ishida, A.: Deep equatorial ocean circulation induced by a forced-dissipated Yanai beam, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 40, 1118–1142, 2010.; Bell, M. M., Montgomery, M. T., and Emanuel, K. A.: Air–sea enthalpy and momentum exchange at major hurricane wind speeds observed during CBLAST, J. Atmos. Sci., 69, 3197–3222, doi:10.1175/jas-d-11-0276.1, 2012.; Black, W. J. and D...

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Development of an Automatic Multiple Launcher for Expendable Probe...

By: G. M. R. Manzella; F. Reseghetti; G. Zappalà

Description: CNR-IAMC, Section of Messina, Messina, Italy. A main goal of a Ship Of Opportunity Programme (SOOP) is the provision of temperature profiles in near real time. The use of commercial ships and expandable probes allows the reduction of costs, in comparison with research ship cruises. A major cost effectiveness is achieved using an automated multiple launcher, requiring minimum personnel effort. A multiple launcher, developed in the framework of the Medite...

Manzella, G. M. R., Reseghetti, F., Coppini, G., et al.: The improvements of the Ships Of Opportunity Program in MFSTEP, Ocean Sci. Discuss., 3, 1717–1746, 2006.; AODC: Guide to MK12 – XBT System (Including Launching, returns and faults), Australian Oceanographic Data Centre (AODC), METOC Services, 1–63, 1999.; AODC: Expendable Bathythermographs (XBT) delayed mode, Quality control manual, Australian Oceanographic Data Centre (AODC), Data Management Group, Technical Manua...

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Remote Detection of Water Property Changes from a Time Series of O...

By: M. Tomczak; A. Henry-edwards

Description: School of Chemistry Physics and Earth Sciences, Flinders University of South Australia, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide SA 5001, Australia. A water mass analysis method based on a constrained minimization technique is developed to derive water property changes in water mass formation regions from oceanographic station data taken at significant distance from the formation regions. The method is tested with two synthetic data sets, designed to mirror conditions in ...

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Argo Data Assimilation Into Hycom with an Enoi Method in the Atlan...

By: C. A. S. Tanajura; A. N. Santana; J. Xie; D. Mignac; L. N. Lima

Description: Graduate Program in Geophysics, Physics Institute and Geosciences Institute, Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, Brazil. An ocean data assimilation system to assimilate Argo temperature (T) and salinity (S) profiles into HYCOM was constructed, implemented and evaluated for the first time in the Atlantic Ocean (78° S to 50° N and 98° W to 20° E). The system is based on the Ensemble Optimal Interpolation (EnOI) algorithm proposed ...

Bell, M. J., Martin, M. J., and Nichols, N. K.: Assimilation of data into an ocean model with systematic errors near the equator, Q. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 130, 873–893, 2004.; Belyaev, K. P., Tanajura, C. A. S., and Tuchkova, N. P.: Comparison of methods for Argo drifters data assimilation into a hydrodynamical model of the ocean, Oceanology, 52, 593–603, 2012.; Bleck, R.: An oceanic general circulation model framed in hybrid isopycnic–Cartesian coordinates, Ocean Mode...

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An Oceanographer’s Guide to Goce and the Geoid : Volume 3, Issue 5...

By: C. W. Hughes; R. J. Bingham

Description: Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory, 6 Brownlow St., Liverpool L3 5DA, UK. A review is given of the geodetic concepts necessary for oceanographers to make use of satellite gravity data to define the geoid, and to interpret the resulting product. The geoid is defined, with particular attention to subtleties related to the representation of the permanent tide, and the way in which the geoid is represented in ocean models. The usual spherical harmonic descrip...

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Internal Tides and Energy Fluxes Over Great Meteor Seamount : Volu...

By: T. Gerkema; H. Van Haren

Description: Royal NIOZ, P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands. Internal-tide energy fluxes are determined halfway over the southern slope of Great Meteor Seamount (Canary Basin), using data from combined CTD/LADCP yoyoing, covering the whole water column. The strongest signal is semi-diurnal and is concentrated in the upper few hundred meters of the water column. An indeterminacy in energy flux profiles is discussed; it is argued that a commonly app...

Gerkema, T., Staquet, C., and Bouruet-Aubertot, P.: Decay of semi-diurnal internal-tude beams due to subharmonic resonance, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L08604, doi:10.1029/2005GL025105, 2006.; Hibiya, T., Nagasawa, M., and Niwa, Y.: Nonlinear energy transfer within the oceanic internal wave spectrum at mid and high latitudes, J. Geophys. Res., 107(C11), 3207, doi:10.1029/2001JC001210, 2002.; Klymak, J. M., Moum, J N., Nash, J D., Kunze, E., Girton, J B., Carter, G S., Lee, ...

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Modeling the Effects of Size on Patch Dynamics of an Inert Tracer ...

By: F. Chai; P. Xiu

Description: School of Marine Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, Maine, USA. Mesoscale iron enrichment experiments have revealed that additional iron affects the phytoplankton productivity and carbon cycle. However, the role of initial size of fertilized patch in determining the patch evolution is poorly quantified due to the limited time of research vessels at sea. Using a three-dimensional ocean circulation model, we simulated different sizes of inert tracer pa...

Abraham, E. R., Law, C. S., Boyd, P. W., Lavender, S. J., Maldonado, M. T., and Bowie, A. R.: Importance of stirring in the development of an iron-fertilized phytoplankton bloom, Nature, 407, 727–730, 2000.; Bowie, A. R., Maldonado, M. T., Frew, R. D., Croot, P. L., Achterberg, E. P., Mantoura, R. F. C., Worsfold, P. J., Law, C. S., and Boyd, P. W.: The fate of added iron during a mesoscale fertilisation experiment in the Southern Ocean, Deep-Sea Res. II, 48, 2703–2743, ...

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The 2011 Marine Heat Wave in Cockburn Sound, Southwest Australia :...

By: D. A. Smale; G. Botting; T. H. Rose

Description: Cockburn Sound Management Council, Department of Environment and Conservation, P.O. Box 5161, Rockingham Beach, WA 6969, Australia. Over 2000 km of Western Australian coastline experienced a significant marine heat wave in February and March 2011. Seawater temperature anomalies of +2–4 °C were recorded at a number of locations, and satellite-derived SSTs (sea surface temperatures) were the highest on record. Here, we present seawater temperatures from so...

Botting, G. C., Green, B., and Rose, T. H.: Sounding Out published by Cockburn Sound Management Council, Department of Environment and Conservation, 228 pp., 2009.; Cambridge, M. L., Chiffings, A. W., Brittain, C., Moore, L., and McComb, A. J.: The loss of seagrass in Cockburn Sound, Western Australia, II, Possible causes of seagrass decline, Aquat. Bot., 24, 269–285, 1986.; CSMC: State of Cockburn Sound: 2009 report of the Cockburn Sound Management Council, CSMC, Perth,...

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Influence of Ross Sea Bottom Water Changes on the Warming and Fres...

By: K. I. Ohshima; K. Shimada; S. Aoki; S. R. Rintoul

Description: Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan. Changes to the properties of Antarctic Bottom Water in the Australian-Antarctic Basin (AA-AABW) between the 1990s and 2000s are documented using data from the WOCE Hydrographic Program (WHP) and repeated hydrographic surveys. Strong cooling and freshening are observed on isopycnal layers denser than Γn = 28.30 kg m−3. Changes in the average salinity a...

Aoki, S., Rintoul, S. R., Ushio, S., Watanabe, S., and Bindoff, N. L.: Freshening of the Adélie Land Bottom Water near 140° E, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L23601, doi:10.1029/2005GL024246, 2005.; Bindoff, N. L. and McDougall, T. J.: Diagnosing Climate Change and Ocean Ventilation Using Hydrographic Data, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24, 1037–1152, 1994.; Broecker, W. S.: Thermohaline circulation, the Achilles heel of our climate sys...

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Ice-shelf – Ocean Interactions at Fimbul Ice Shelf, Antarctica fro...

By: K. J. Heywood; K. W. Nicholls; M. R. Price

Description: School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, UK. Melt water from the floating ice shelves at the margins of the southeastern Weddell Sea makes a significant contribution to the fresh water budget of the region. In February 2005 a multi-institution team conducted an oceanographic campaign at Fimbul Ice Shelf on the Greenwich Meridian as part of the Autosub Under Ice programme. This included a mission of the autonomous su...

Beckmann A., Hellmer, H. H., and Timmermann, R.: A numerical model of the Weddell Sea: Large-scale circulation and water mass distribution, J. Geophys. Res., 104(C10), 23 375–23 391, 1999.; Beckmann, A., and Goose, H.: A parameterization of ice shelf-ocean interaction for climate models, Ocean Mod., 5, 157–170, 2004.; Eicken, H.: Salinity Profiles of Antarctic Sea Ice: Field Data and Model Results, J. Geophys. Res., 97(C10), 15 545–15 557, 1992.; EPICA Community Members:...

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Analysis of the Circulation and Shelf-slope Exchanges in the Conti...

By: A. Orfila; G. Basterretxea; J. Tintoré; A. Jordi

Description: IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Institut Mediterrani d'Estudis Avançats, Esporles, Illes Balears, Spain. In this paper, we present the results from a high horizontal resolution numerical simulation of the northwestern Mediterranean using a z-level, non-hydrostatic, primitive equation ocean model (DieCAST). The high resolution allows an accurate representation of the submarine canyons that presides in the region. The model is one-way coupled to a large scale model of...

Álvarez, A., Tintoré, J., and Sabatés, A.: Flow modification of shelf-slope exchange induced by a submarine canyon off the northeast Spanish coast, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 12 043–12 055, 1996.; Ardhuin, F., Pinot, J. M., and Tintoré, J.: Numerical study of the circulation in a steep canyon off the Catalan coast, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 11 115–11 135, 1999.; Demirov, E. and Pinardi, N.: Simulation of the Mediterranean Sea circulation from 1979 to 1993: Part I. The interannu...

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Chemical and Physical Transformations of Mercury in the Ocean: a R...

By: O. Travnikov; O. Rozovskaya; N. Batrakova

Description: Meteorological Synthesizing Centre – East of EMEP, 2nd Roshchinsky proezd, 8/5, 115419 Moscow, Russia. Mercury is well known as a dangerous neurotoxin enriched in the environment by human activities. It disperses over the globe, cycling between different environmental media. The ocean plays an important role in the global mercury cycle, acting both as a dispersion medium and as an exposure pathway. In this paper, we review the current knowledge on the ...

Lin, C.-J. and Pehkonen, S. O.: Aqueous phase reaction of mercury with free radicals and chlorine: implications for atmospheric mercury chemistry, Chemosphere, 38, 1253–1263, 1999.; Liu, G., Li, Y., and Cai, Y.: Adsorption of mercury on solids in the aquatic environment, in: Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology of Mercury, 1st edn., edited by: Liu, G., Cai, Y., and O'Driscoll, N., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 367–387, 2012.; Luther, G. W. and Tsamakis, E.: Concentration an...

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Numerical Modeling of Dynamics of Russian South Waters Within the ...

By: A. G. Zatsepin; I. V. Charikov; V. A. Kubryakov; A. V. Grigoriev; L. D. Fedotova

Description: N. N. Zubov's State Oceanographic Institute, Moscow, Russian Federation. Modeling of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea waters dynamics was conducted within the framework of the European ECOOP project and Russian project JISWO on the basis of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM). Nowcasting and tree days forecasting of the Black Sea dynamics was carried out in a daily mode with horizontal resolution of ∼1 km along the Russian coast of the basin. The nowcasting of...

Blumberg, A. F. and Mellor, G. L.: A description of a three-dimensional coastal ocean model. in Three Dimensional Shelf Models, Coast. Estuar. Sci., Vol. 5, edited by: Heaps, N., 1–16, AGU, Washington, D.C., 1987.; Dorofeev, V. L. and Korotaev, G. K.: Assimilation of satellite altimetry data in eddy-resolving circulation model of the Black Sea, Marine Hydrophysical J., 1, 52–68, 2004. (in Russian); Kosarev, A. N. and Tuzhilkin, V. S.: Climatic thermohaline fields of the ...

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A Review of the Role of Submarine Canyons in Deep-ocean Exchange w...

By: X. Durrieu De Madron; S. E. Allen

Description: Department of Earth and Ocean Science, University of British Columbia, 6339 Stores Rd, Vancouver V6T 1Z4, Canada. Cross shelf-break exchange is limited by the tendency of geostrophic flow to follow bathymetric contours, not cross them. However, small scale topography, such as canyons, can reduce the local lengthscale of the flow and increase the local Rossby number. These higher Rossby numbers mean the flow is no longer purely geostrophic and significant...

Aagaard, K. and Roach, A. T.: Arctic ocean-shelf exchange: Measurements in Barrow Canyon, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 18163–18175, 1990.; Allen, S. E.: Topographically generated, subinertial flows within a finite length canyon, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 26, 1608–1632, 1996.; Allen, S. E.: On subinertial flow in submarine canyons: Effect of Geometry, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 1285–1297, 2000.; Allen, S. E.: Restrictions on deep flow across the shelf-break, Surv. Geophys., 25, 221–247, 2...

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Multi-objective Entropy Evolutionary Algorithm for Marine Oil Spil...

By: M. Marghany

Description: Geoscience {&} Digital Earth Center, Research Institute for Sustainability & Environment, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, UTM, Johor, Malaysia. Oil spill pollution has a substantial role in damaging the marine ecosystem. Oil spill that floats on top of water, as well as decreasing the fauna populations, affects the food chain in the ecosystem. In fact, oil spill is reducing the sunlight penetrates the water, limiting the photosynthesis...

Amorocho, J. and Espildora, B.: Entropy in the assessment of uncertainty in hydrologic systems and models, Water Resour. Res., 9, 1511–1522, 1973.; Barni, M., Betti, M., and Mecocci, A.: A fuzzy approach to oil spill detection an SAR images, International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 1995, IGARSS'95, Quantitative Remote Sensing for Science and Applications, 157–159, 1995.; Calabresi, G., Del Frate, F., Lichtenegger, J., Petrocchi, A., and Trivero, P.: Neural ...

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The Low-resolution Ccsm2 Revisited: New Adjustments and a Present-...

By: M. Prange

Description: DFG Research Center Ocean Margins and Department of Geosciences, University of Bremen, Klagenfurter Str., 28334 Bremen, Germany. The low-resolution (T31) version of the Community Climate System Model CCSM2.0.1 is revisited and adjusted by deepening the Greenland-Scotland ridge, changing oceanic mixing parameters, and applying a regional freshwater flux adjustment at high northern latitudes. The main purpose of these adjustments is to maintain a robust At...

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Sea Surface Freshening Inferred from Smos and Argo Salinity: Impac...

By: X. Yin; G. Reverdin; N. Martin; F. Gaillard; J. Boutin

Description: CNRS-INSU, UMR7159, LOCEAN/IPSL (CNRS-UPMC-IRD-MNHN), Paris, France. The sea surface salinity (SSS) measured from space by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission has recently been revisited by the European Space Agency first campaign reprocessing. We show that, with respect to the previous version, biases close to land and ice greatly decrease. The accuracy of SMOS SSS averaged over 10 days, 100 × 100 km2 in the open ocean and es...

Anderson, J. and Riser, S.: Near Surface variability of Temperature and Salinity: Observations from Profiling Floats, Aquarius/SAC-D Science Team Meeting, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 11–13 April 2012, 2012.; Banks, C. J., Gommenginger, C. P., Srokosz, M. A., and Snaith, H. M.: Validating SMOS Ocean Surface Salinity in the Atlantic With Argo and Operational Ocean Model Data, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 50, 1688–1702, ...

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Fate of River Tiber Discharge Investigated Through Numerical Simul...

By: R. Santoleri; A. Orasi; C. Pizzi; F. Bignami; R. Inghilesi; L. Ottolenghi

Description: Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA), Italy. The aim of this study was to determine the dispersion of passive pollutants associated with the Tiber discharge into the Tyrrhenian Sea using numerical marine dispersion models and satellite data. Numerical results obtained in the simulation of realistic discharge episodes were compared with the corresponding evolution of the spatial distributions of MODIS diffuse light attenuation coef...

Artale, V., Astraldi, M., Buffoni, G., and Gasparini, P.: Seasonal variabilit of gyre-scale circulation in the northern Tyrrhenian Sea, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 127–137, 1994.; Bignami, F., Sciarra, R., Carniel, S., and Santoleri, R.: Variability of Adriatic Sea coastal turbid waters from SeaWiFS imagery, J. Geophys. Res., 112, C03S10, 2007.; Astraldi, M. and Gasparini, G. P.: The seasonal Characteristics of the Circulation in the North Mediterranean Basin and Their Relatio...

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Estimating Suspended Sediment Concentrations Using a Broadband Adc...

By: V. Chegini; M. Shah-hosseini; J. Azizpour; M. Noranian; V. Tavakoli; P. Ghaffari

Description: Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, Blindern, 0315, Oslo, Norway. Data sets of Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) backscatter intensities (ABS) were used to evaluate suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) in the Mahshahr Channel (MC) of the Persian Gulf. Since the echo intensity is closely related to turbidity in water, the ADCP may be a promising tool to monitor the sediment transport. The low susceptibility of the acou...

Ainslie, M. A. and McColm, J. G.: A simplified formula for viscous and chemical absorption in sea water, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 103, 1671–1672, 1998.; Allen, G. P., Salamon, J. C., Bassouliet, P., Du Penhoat, Y., and De Grandpre, C.: Effects of tides mixing and suspended sediment transport in macrotidal estuaries, Sediment. Geol., 26, 69–90, 1980.; Alvarez, L. G. and Jones, S. E.: Factors influencing suspended sediment flux in the upper gulf of California, Estuar. Coast. S...

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