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Argo Data Assimilation Into Hycom with an Enoi Method in the Atlan...

By: L. N. Lima; C. A. S. Tanajura; A. N. Santana; D. Mignac; J. Xie

Description: Graduate Program in Geophysics, Physics Institute and Geosciences Institute, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Brazil. An ocean data assimilation system to assimilate Argo temperature (T) and salinity (S) profiles into the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) was constructed, implemented and evaluated for the first time in the Atlantic Ocean (78° S to 50° N and 98° W to 20° E). The system is based on the ensemble optimal interpolation...

Bell, M. J., Martin, M. J., and Nichols, N. K.: Assimilation of data into an ocean model with systematic errors near the equator, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 130, 873–893, 2004.; Belyaev, K. P., Tanajura, C. A. S., and Tuchkova, N. P.: Comparison of Methods for Argo Drifters Data Assimilation into a Hydrodynamical Model of the Ocean, Oceanology, 52, 593–603, 2012.; Bleck, R.: An oceanic general circulation model framed in hybrid isopycnic-Cartesian coordinates, Ocean Modell...

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Sensors for Observing Ecosystem Status : Volume 5, Issue 4 (04/11/...

By: E. R. Parker; D. B. Sivyer; J. D. Metcalfe; R. M. Forster; S. Kröger; D. J. Pearce; N. Greenwood

Description: Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Pakefield Rd, Lowestoft, Suffolk NR33 0HT, UK. This paper aims to review the availability and application of sensors for observing marine ecosystem status. It gives a broad overview of important ecosystem variables to be investigated, such as biogeochemical cycles, primary and secondary production, species distribution, animal movements, habitats and pollutants. Some relevant legislative ...

Arnold, G. P. and Dewar, H.: Electronic tags in marine fisheries research: A 30 year perspective., in: Electronic tagging and tracking in marine fisheries, edited by: Nielsen, J. R. S. J. L., Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht, The Netherland, 7–64, 2001.; Aylott, J. W., Richardson, D. J., and Russell, D. A.: Optical biosensing of nitrate ions uisng a sol-gel immobilized nitrate reductase, Analyst, 122, 77–80, 1997.; Campas, M. and Katakis, I.: DNA biochip arraying, detect...

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Qualified Temperature, Salinity and Dissolved Oxygen Climatologies...

By: A. Rabitti; E. Partescano; M. Lipizer; A. Crise; A. Giorgetti

Description: OGS – Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale, Trieste, Italy. An updated climatology, based on a comprehensive data set (1911–2009) of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen, has been produced for the whole Adriatic Sea with the variational inverse method using the DIVA (Data-Interpolating Variational Analysis) software. Climatological maps were produced at 26 levels and validated with ordinary cross-validation and with a rea...

Artegiani, A., Bregant, D., Paschini, E., Pinardi, N., Raicich, F., and Russo, A.: The Adriatic Sea general circulation. Part I: air-sea interactions and water mass structure, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 1492–1514, 1997a.; Artegiani, A., Bregant, D., Paschini, E., Pinardi, N., Raicich, F., and Russo, A.: The Adriatic Sea general circulation, Part II: Baroclinic circulation structure, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 1515–1532, 1997b.; Barth, A., Alvera-Azcárate, A., Troupin, C., Oube...

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Operational Analysis of the Circulation and Shelf-slope Exchanges ...

By: A. Orfila; J. Tintoré; A. Jordi; G. Basterretxea

Description: IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Institut Mediterrani d’Estudis Avançats, Esporles, Illes Balears, Spain. In this paper, we present the results from a high horizontal resolution numerical simulation of the northwestern Mediterranean using a z-level, non-hydrostatic, primitive equation ocean model (DieCAST). The high resolution allows an accurate representation of the submarine canyons that presides in the region. The model is one-way coupled to a large scale model of...

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Scale Oriented Embedded Modeling of the North-western Mediterranea...

By: F. Auclair; M. Lux; P. Marsaleix; C. Estournel; C. Nguyen

Description: Pôle d'Océanographie Côtière de Toulouse – Laboratoire d'Aérologie, CNRS, Université de Toulouse, Toulouse, France. An embedded forecasting system was developed for the North-Western Mediterranean at 3-km resolution. The system is based on the Symphonie hydrodynamic free surface model and on the variational initialization and forcing platform VIFOP. The regional model is initialized and forced at its open lateral boundaries by the MFS GCM and forced at t...

Auclair, F., Marsaleix, P., and Estournel, C.: Sigma coordinate pressure gradient errors : evaluation and reduction by an inverse method, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 17, 1348–1367, 2000a.; Auclair, F., Casitas, S., and Marsaleix, P.: Application of an inverse method to coastal modelling, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 17, 1368–1391, 2000b.; Auclair, F., Marsaleix, P., and Estournel, C.: The penetration of the Northern Current over the Gulf of Lion (western Mediterranean Sea) as a d...

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Retrieving the Availability of Light in the Ocean Utilising Spect...

By: A. Bracher; V. V. Rozanov; J. P. Burrows; T. Dinter

Description: Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany. The availability of light in the ocean is an important parameter for the determination of phytoplankton photosynthesis processes and primary production from satellite data. It is also a useful parameter for other applications, e.g. the determination of heat fluxes. In this study, a method was developed utilising the vibrational Raman scattering (VRS) effect of water molecules to ...

Babin, M., Therriault, J.-C., Legendre, L., and Condal, A.: Variations in the specific absorption coefficient for natural phytoplankton assemblages: Impact on estimates of primary production, Limnol. Oceanogr., 38, 154–177, 1993.; Barrot, G.: GlobColour: An EO Based Service Supporting Global Ocean Carbon Cycle Research: Product User Guide, ESA, Ref: GC-UM-ACR-PUG-01, v1.4, 2010.; Blum, M., Rozanov, V., Burrows, J., and Bracher, A.: Coupled ocean–atmosphere radiative tran...

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Variability of Water Mass Properties in the Strait of Sicily in Su...

By: G. Basilone; F. Placenti; B. Patti; G. Tranchida; I. Fontana; S. Mazzola; R. Mifsud; E. Quinci; R. Ferreri; M. Barra; G. Giacalone; M. Di Bitetto; S. Genovese; G. Buscaino; A. Bonanno; S. Aronica

Description: Istituto per l'Ambiente Marino Costiero (IAMC) of the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Detached Units of Capo Granitola (TP), Naples and Mazara del Vallo (TP), Italy. The Strait of Sicily plays a crucial role in determining the water-mass exchanges and related properties between the western and eastern Mediterranean. Hydrographic measurements carried out from 1998 to 2013 allowed the identification of the main water masses present in the Strait o...

Astraldi, M., Gasparini, G. P., Vetrano, A., and Vigudelli, S.: Hydrographic characteristics and interannual variability of water masses in the central Mediterranean: a sensitivity test for long-term changes in the Mediterranean Sea, Deep Sea Res. I, 49, 661–680, 2002a.; Astraldi, M., Conversano, F., Civitarese, G., Gasparini, G. P., Ribera d'Alcalà, M., and Vetrano, A.,: Water mass properties and chemical signatures in the central Mediterranean region, J. Mar. Syst., 33...

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Empirical Reconstruction of Salinity from Temperature Profiles wit...

By: F. Reseghetti

Description: ENEA-ACS CLIM-MED, Forte S. Teresa – Pozzuolo di Lerici, 19032 Lerici (Sp), Italia. The problem of estimating the salinity when only temperature profiles are available is having an increasing interest mainly because of multi-parametric data assimilation in ocean forecasting models. In this paper, a new method based on the introduction of a correction factor for salinity deduced from recent measurements is proposed to calculate salinity from temperature ...

Demirov, E., Pinardi, N., De Mey, P., Tonani, M., and Fratianni, C.: Assimilation scheme of the Mediterranean Forecasting System: Operational implementation, Ann. Geophys., 21, 189–203, 2003.; Thacker, W. C.: Estimating salinity to complement observed temperature: 1 – Gulf of Mexico, J. Mar. Syst., in press, 2006.; Bleck, R.: An oceanic general circulation model framed in hybrid isopycnic-Cartesian coordinates, Ocean Modelling, 37, 55–88, 2002.; Brankart, J. M. and Pinar...

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Arctic Ocean Circulation and Variability – Advection and External ...

By: B. Rudels

Description: Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. The first hydrographic data from the Arctic Ocean, the section from the Laptev Sea to the passage between Greenland and Svalbard obtained by Nansen on his drift with Fram 1893–1896, aptly illustrate the main features of Arctic Ocean oceanography and indicate possible processes active in transforming the water masses in the Arctic Ocean. Many, perhaps most, processes were identified already...

Shimada, K., McLaughlin, F. A., Carmack, E. C., Proshutinsky, A., Nishino, S., and Itoh, M.: Penetration of the 1990s warm temperature anomaly of the Atlantic Water in the Canada basin, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L20301, doi:10.1029/2004GL020860, 2004.; Shimada, K., Itoh, M., Nishino, S., McLaughlin, F. A., Carmack, E., and Proshutinsky, A.: Halocline structure in the Canada Basin of theARctic Ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 3...

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Evaluation of Meris Products from Baltic Sea Coastal Waters Rich i...

By: S. Kratzer; C. Brockmann; J. M. Beltrán-abaunza

Description: Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden. In this study, retrievals of the medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS) reflectances and water quality products using 4 different coastal processing algorithms freely available are assessed by comparison against sea-truthing data. The study is based on a pair-wise comparison using processor-dependent quality flags for the retrieval of vali...

ACRI-ST: The AMORGOS MERIS CFI (Accurate MERIS Ortho-Rectified Geo-location Operational Software) Software User Manual & Interface Control Document, pO-ID-ACR-GS-0003, 2011.; ACRI-ST: ODESA software distribution, Quick start guide, ODESA-ACR-QSG, 2012.; Babin, M.: COAstal Surveillance Through Observation of Ocean Colour (COAST-LOOC), Final Report, Project ENV4-CT96-0310, 2000.; Attila, J., Koponen, S., Kallio, K., Lindfors, A., Kaitala, S., and Ylöstalo, P.: MERIS Case I...

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Deep Ocean Exchange with West-european Shelf Seas : Volume 5, Issu...

By: J. T. Holt; S. L. Wakelin; J. M. Huthnance

Description: Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory, 6 Brownlow Street, Liverpool L3 5DA, UK. We review mechanisms and studies of exchange between the north-east Atlantic and the adjacent shelf seas. Well-developed summer upwelling and associated filaments off Portugal and north-west Spain give exchange O(3 m2/s per unit length of shelf). Prevailing westerly winds further north drive exchange O(1 m2/s). Poleward flow along most of the upper slope has...

Allen, J. I., Blackford, J., Holt, J. T., Proctor, R., Ashworth M., and Siddorn, J.: A highly spatially resolved ecosystem model for the North West European continental shelf, Sarsia, 86, 423–440, 2001.; Booth, D. A.: Horizontal dispersion in the north east Atlantic, Deep-Sea Res., 35, 1937–1951, 1988.; Barton, E. D., Inall, M. E., Sherwin, T. J., and Torres, R.: Vertical structure, turbulent mixing and fluxes during Lagrangian observations of an upwelling filament syste...

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Statistical Trend Analysis and Extreme Distribution of Significant...

By: J. Chiggiato; S. Carniel; M. B. Galati; M. Sclavo; P. Lionello; G. Martucci

Description: Consorzio Venezia Ricerche, Marghera, Venice, Italy. The study is a statistical analysis of sea states timeseries derived using the wave model WAM forced by the ERA-40 dataset in selected areas near the Italian coasts. For the period 1 January 1958 to 31 December 1999 the analysis yields: (i) the existence of a negative trend in the annual- and winter-averaged sea state heights; (ii) the existence of a turning-point in late 80's in the annual-averaged t...

Abild, J., Andersen, E. Y., and Rosbjerg, D.: The climate of extreme winds at the Great Belt of Denmark, J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerod., 41–44, 521–532, 1992.; Boldrin, A., Carniel, S., Giani, M., Marini, M., Bernardi Aubry, F., Campanelli, A., Grilli, F., and Russo, A.: The effect of Bora wind on physical and bio-chemical properties of stratified waters in the Northern Adriatic, J. Geophysical Res.-Oceans, 114, C08S92, doi:10.1029/2008JC004837, 2009.; Brabson, B. B. and Palut...

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Corrigendum to Observed and Simulated Estimates of the Meridional ...

By: P. Heimbach; H. Haak; S. Cunningham; J. Marotzke; T. Kanzow; J. Baehr

Description: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA. No abstract available.

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Topaz4: an Ocean-sea Ice Data Assimilation System for the North At...

By: K. A. Lisæter; F. Counillon; A. Korablev; L. Bertino; P. R. Oke; P. Sakov

Description: Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen, Norway. We present a detailed description of TOPAZ4, the latest version of TOPAZ – a coupled ocean-sea ice data assimilation system for the North Atlantic Ocean and Arctic. It is the only operational, large-scale ocean data assimilation system that uses the ensemble Kalman filter. This means that TOPAZ features a time-evolving, state-dependent estimate of the state error covariance. Based on result...

Antonov, J., Locarnini, R., Boyer, T., Mishonov, A., and Garcia, H.: World Ocean Atlas 2005 Volume 2: Salinity, NOAA Atlas NESDIS, 62, 2006.; Bentsen, M., Evensen, G., Drange, H., and Jenkins, A. D.: Coordinate transformation on a sphere using conformal mapping, Mon. Weather Rev., 127, 2733–2740, 1999.; Bertino, L. and Lisæter, K.: The TOPAZ monitoring and prediction system for the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans, Journal of Operational Oceanography, 2008, 15–18, 2008.; Beszc...

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Editorial Note : Volume 6, Issue 3 (10/12/2009)

By: E. Delhez; J. Johnson; W. J. Jenkins

Description: Executive Editors of Ocean Science. No abstract available.

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A Comparison Between Vertical Motions Measured by Adcp and Inferre...

By: H. Van Haren

Description: Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, The Netherlands. Combined vertical current (w) and thermistor string data demonstrate that high-frequency internal wave trains along a pycnocline in a flat-bottom shelf sea consist for 2 periods of a dominant mode-1 non-linear part, while thereafter mainly of linear [mode-2, quadrupled frequency] waves, to first order. In a simple [linear] heat budget, the use of u...

Amen, R. and Maxworthy, T.: The gravitational collapse of a mixed region into a linearly stratified fluid, J. Fluid Mech., 96, 65–80, 1980.; Davis, R. E. and Acrivos, A.: Solitary internal waves in deep water, J. Fluid Mech., 29, 593–607, 1967.; Hallock, Z. R. and Field, R. L.: Internal-wave energy fluxes on the New Jersey Shelf, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35, 3–12, 2005.; Helfrich, K. R.: Internal solitary wave breaking and run-up on a uniform slope, J. Fluid Mech., 243, 133–1...

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First Evaluation of Myocean Altimetric Data in the Arctic Ocean : ...

By: O. B. Andersen; P. Knudsen; Y. Cheng

Description: DTU Space, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark. The MyOcean V2 preliminary (V2p) data set of weekly gridded sea level anomaly (SLA) maps from 1993 to 2009 over the Arctic region is evaluated against existing altimetric data sets and tide gauge data. Compared with DUACS V3.0.0 (Data Unification and Altimeter Combination System) data set, MyOcean V2p data set improves spatial coverage and quality as well as maximum temporal correlation co...

Andersen, O. B. and Knudsen, P.: DNSC08 mean sea surface and mean dynamic topography models, J. Geophys. Res., 114, C11001, doi:10.1029/2008JC005179, 2009.; Boyer, T. P., Antonov, J. I., Baranova, O. K., Garcia, H. E., Johnson, D. R., Locarnini, R. A., Mishonov, A. V., Seidov, D., Smolyar, I. V., and Zweng, M. M.: World ocean database, NOAA Atlas NESDIS, vol. 66, edited by: Levitus, S., 216 pp., DVDs, US Govt. Print. Off...

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Biofouling Protection for Marine Environmental Sensors : Volume 6,...

By: M. Lehaitre; C. Compère; L. Delauney

Description: In Situ Measurement and Electronics Group, Ifremer, B. P. 70, 29280, Plouzané, France. These days, many marine autonomous environment monitoring networks are set up in the world. These systems take advantage of existing superstructures such as offshore platforms, lightships, piers, breakwaters or are placed on specially designed buoys or underwater oceanographic structures. These systems commonly use various sensors to measure parameters such as dissolve...

Manov, D. V., Chang, G. C., and Dickey, T. D.: Methods for reducing biofouling of moored optical sensors, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 21(6), 958–968, 2004.; Morris; R. S. and Walsh, M. A.: Zinc oxide photoactive material, U.S. Pat. 6063849, 2000.; Abou-Ghazala, A. and Schoenbach, K. H.: Biofouling Prevention with Pulsed Electric Fields, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 28, 115–121, 2000.; Bearinger, J. P., Terrettaz, S., Michel, R., et al.: Sulfamer Block Copolymers Protection of Gol...

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An Ocean Modelling and Assimilation Guide to Using Goce Geoid Prod...

By: D. Lea; P. Knudsen; J. A. Johannessen; F. Davidson; L. Bertino; K. Haines; M.-h. Rio; F. Hernandez

Description: Environmental Systems Science Centre, Harry Pitt Bld, 3 Earley Gate, Reading University, Reading RG6 6AL, UK. We review the procedures and challenges that must be considered when using geoid data derived from the Gravity and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) mission in order to constrain the circulation and water mass representation in an ocean general circulation model. It covers the combination of the geoid information with time-mean sea l...

Niiler, P., Maximenko, N. A., and McWilliams, J. C.: Dynamically balanced absolute sea level of the global ocean derived from near-surface velocity observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(22), 2164–2167, 2003.; Oke, P. R., Brassington, G. B., Griffin, D. A., and Schiller, A.: The Bluelink ocean data assimilation system (BODAS), Ocean Model., 21, 46–70, 2008.; Palmer, T. N., Doblas-Reyes, F. J., Hagedorn, R., and Weisheimer, A.: Probabilistic prediction of climate using mul...

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Numerical Simulation and Decomposition of Kinetic Energies in the ...

By: A. Olita; P. Oddo; L. Fazioli; A. Ribotti; R. Sorgente

Description: IAMC, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Oristano, Italy. The spatial and temporal variability of eddy and mean kinetic energy of the Central Mediterranean Sea has been investigated, from January 2008 to December 2010, by mean of a numerical simulation mainly to quantify the mesoscale dynamics and their relationships with physical forcing. In order to understand the energy redistribution processes, the baroclinic energy conversion has been analysed, su...

Artale, V., Astraldi, M., Buffoni, G., and Gasparini, G. P.: Seasonal variability of gyre-scale circulation in the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 99 (C7), 14127–14137, 1994.; Astraldi, M., Gasparini, G. P., Sparnocchia, S., Moretti, S., and Sansone, E.: The characteristics of the Mediterranean water masses and the water transport in the Sicily Channel at longtime scale, edited by: Briand, F., Dynamics of the Straits and Channels, 2, CIESM Science Serie...

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