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Towards a Regional Ocean Forecasting System for the Ibi (Iberia-bi...

By: J.-m. Lellouche; B. Levier; J. Chanut; C. Maraldi; S. Cailleau; M. G. Sotillo; G. Reffray

Description: Mercator Océan, Toulouse, France. The regional ocean operational system remains a key element in downscaling from large scale (global or basin scale) systems to coastal ones. It enables the transition between systems in which the resolution and the resolved physics are quite different. Indeed, coastal applications need a system to predict local high frequency events (inferior to the day) such as storm surges, while deep sea applications need a system to...

Alvarez Fanjul, E., Alfonso, M., Ruiz, M. I., López, J. D., and Rodríguez, I.: Real Time monitoring of Spanish Coastal Waters. Proceedings of the Third international conference on Eurogoos: Building the European capability in Operational Oceanography, Elsevier, 2002.; Barnier, B., Siefriedt, L., and Marchesiello, P.: Thermal forcing for a global ocean circulation model using a three-year climatology of ECMWF analysis, J. Marine Syst., 6, 363–380, 1995.; Barnier, B., Made...

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Sediment 231Pa/230Th as a Recorder of the Rate of the Atlantic Mer...

By: R. Francois; S. E. Allen; Y. Luo

Description: Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, 6339 Stores Road, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada. A two dimensional scavenging model is used to investigate the patterns of sediment 231Pa/230Th generated by the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and further advance the application of this proxy for ocean paleocirculation studies. The scavenging parameters and the geometry of the overturning cir...

Anderson, R. F., Bacon, M. P., and Brewer, P. G.: Removal of Th-230 and Pa-231 from the Open Ocean, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 62, 7–23, 1983.; Bacon M. P.: Tracers of chemical scavenging in the ocean – boundary effects and large-scale chemical fractionation, Philos. T. Roy. Soc. London Ser. A, 325, 147–160, 1988.; Bacon M. P. and Anderson R. F.: Distribution of thorium isotopes between dissolved and particulate forms in the deep sea, J. Geophys. Res., 87, 2045–2056, 1982...

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Optimal Adjustment of the Atmospheric Forcing Parameters of Ocean ...

By: R. Dussin; M. Meinvielle; P. Brasseur; J.-m. Brankart; B. Barnier; J. Verron

Description: Laboratoire des Ecoulements Géophysiques et Industriels, CNRS/Université de Grenoble, France. In ocean general circulation models, near-surface atmospheric variables used to specify the atmospheric boundary condition remain one of the main sources of error. The objective of this research is to constrain the surface forcing function of an ocean model by sea surface temperature (SST) data assimilation. For that purpose, a set of corrections for ERAinterim ...

Berry, D. I. and Kent, E. C.: A New Air-Sea Interaction Gridded Dataset from ICOADS With Uncertainty Estimates, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 90, 645–656, doi:10.1175/2008BAMS2639.1, 2009.; Bindoff, N. L., Willebrand, J., Artale, V., Cazenave, A., Gregory, J. M., Gulev, S., Hanawa, K., Le Quere, C., Levitus, S., Nojiri, Y., Shum, C. K., Talley, L. D., Unnikrishnan, A. S., Josey, S. A., Tamisiea, M., Tsimplis, M., and Woodwort...

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A New Tide Model for the Mediterranean Sea Based on Altimetry and ...

By: S. D. Spatalas; M. E. Contadakis; D. Z. Papazachariou; D. N. Arabelos

Description: Department of Geodesy and Surveying, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece. The tides for the Mediterranean Sea are described through a high resolution model (MEDI10) developed by assimilation of tide-gauge data and T/P data into a barotropic ocean tide model. Tidal parameters from 56 coastal tide-gauge stations around the Mediterranean for eight principal constituents: M2, S2, N2, K2, K1, O1, P1 and Q1 and from 20 stations for...

Cartwright, D. E. and Ray, R. D.: Oceanic Tides from Geosat Altimetry, J. Geophys. Res., 95(C3), 3069–3090, 1990.; Cherniawsky, J. Y., Foreman, M. G. G., Crawford, W. R., and Henry, F. R.: Ocean tides from TOPEX/Poseidon Sea Level Data, J. Atmos. Ocean. Techn., 18, 649–664, 2001.; Desai, S. D. and Wahr, J. M.: Empirical ocean tide models estimated from TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetry, J. Geophys. Res., 100(C12), 25205–25228, 1995.; Andersen, O. B., Woodworth, P. L., and Flather...

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Obstacles and Benefits of the Implementation of a Reduced Rank Smo...

By: J.-m. Brankart; E. Cosme; P. Brasseur; N. Freychet; E. Kpemlie

Description: Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1, LEGI, Grenoble, France. Most of oceanographic operational centers use three-dimensional data assimilation schemes to produce reanalyses. We investigate here the benefits of a smoother, i.e. a four-dimensional formulation of statistical assimilation. A square-root sequential smoother is implemented with a tropical Atlantic ocean circulation model. A simple twin experiment is performed to investigate its benefits,...

Houtekamer, P. L., Mitchell, H. L., and Deng, X.: Model error representation in an operational Ensemble Kalman Filter, Mon. Weather Rev., 137, 2126–2143, 2009.; Allen, M. R., Lawrence, S. P., Murray, M. J., Mutlow, C. T., Stockdale, T. N., Llewellynjones, D. T., and Anderson, D. L. T.: Control of tropical instability waves in the pacific, Geophys. Res. Lett, 22 , 2581–2584, 1995.; Anderson, B. D. O. and Moore, J. B.: Optimal Filtering, Prentice-Hall, 357pp., 1979.; Brank...

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Assessment of the Structure and Variability of Weddell Sea Water M...

By: M. Azaneu; M. M. Mata; I. Wainer; T. S. Dotto; R. Kerr

Description: Laboratório de Estudos dos Oceanos e Clima, Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande – FURG, Rio Grande, RS, 96203-900, Brazil. We assessed and evaluated the performance of five ocean reanalysis in reproducing essential hydrographic properties and their associated temporal variability for the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. The products used in this assessment were ECMWF ORAS4, CFSR, MyOcean UR025.4, ECCO2 and SODA. The present study f...

Azaneu, M.: Assessment of the ECCO2 reanalysis product on the representation of Antarctic Bottom Water properties, M.S. Thesis, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, 103 pp., 2013.; Azaneu, M., Kerr, R., Mata, M. M., and Garcia, C. A. E.: Trends in the deep Southern Ocean (1958–2010): implications for Antarctic bottom water properties and volume export, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 4213–4227, doi:10.1002/jgrc.20303, 2013.; Balmase...

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Frontal Structures in the West Spitsbergen Current Margins : Volum...

By: W. Walczowski

Description: Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences, Powstancow Warszawy 55 81-712 Sopot, Poland. The structures of the hydrographic fronts separating the Atlantic origin waters from ambient waters in the northern Nordic Seas are discussed. Flows of the western and eastern branches of the West Spitsbergen Current create the Atlantic domain borders and maintain these fronts. The work is based on previous research and on investigations in the project ...

Druet, C.: Dynamika Stratyfikowanego Oceanu, PWN Warszawa, 146 pp., 1994.; Druet, C.: Elementy Hydrodynamiki Geofizycznej, PWN Warszawa, 111 pp., 1995.; Dietrich, G., Kalle, K., Krauss, W., and Siedler, G.: General Oceanography, 2nd Edn., Wiley-Intersci., New York, 626, 1980.; Aagaard, K. and Carmack, E.: The role of sea ice and other fresh water in the arctic circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 14485–14498, 1989.; Allen, J. T., Smeed, D. A., and Chadwick, A. L.: Eddies a...

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Flow and Mixing Around a Glacier Tongue : Volume 7, Issue 4 (11/08...

By: M. J. M. Williams; C. L. Stewart; N. J. Robinson; C. L. Stevens; T. G. Haskell

Description: National Institute for Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), Greta Point Wellington, New Zealand. A glacier tongue floating in the coastal ocean presents a significant obstacle to the local flow and influences oceanic mixing and transport processes. Here ocean shear microstructure observations at a glacier tongue side-wall show tidally-induced flow pulses and vortices as well as concomitant mixing. Flow speeds within the pulses reached ...

Albrecht, N., Vennell, R., Williams, M., Stevens, C., Langhorne, P., Leonard, G., and Haskell, T.: Observation of sub-inertial internal tides in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L24606 doi:10.1029/2006GL027377, 2006.; Deacon, G. E. R.: The oceanographic observations of Scott's last expedition, Polar Rec., 17, 391–419, 1975.; Debenham, F.: The glacier tongues of McMurdo Sound, Geogr. J., 131, 369–71, 19...

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The Assessment of Temperature and Salinity Sampling Strategies in ...

By: F. Raicich

Description: CNR, Istituto di Scienze Marine, viale Romolo Gessi 2, 34123 Trieste, Italy. Temperature and salinity sampling strategies are studied and compared by means of the Observing System Simulation Experiment technique in order to assess their usefulness for data assimilation in the framework of the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS). Their impact in a Mediterranean General Circulation Model is quantified in numerical twin experiments via bivariate data as...

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Enhancing the Accuracy of Automatic Eddy Detection and the Capabil...

By: C. Zhou; Z. He; Y. Du; J. Yi

Description: State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Science and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. Automated methods are important for automatically detecting mesoscale eddies in large volumes of altimeter data. While many algorithms have been proposed in the past, this paper presents a new method, called Hybrid Detection (HD), to enhance the eddy detection accur...

Ari Sadarjoen, I. and Post, F. H.: Detection, quantification, and tracking of vortices using streamline geometry, Comput. Graph., 24, 333–341, doi:10.1016/s0097-8493(00)00029-7, 2000.; Basdevant, C. and Philipovitch, T.: On the validity of the Weiss criterion in two-dimensional turbulence, Physica D, 73, 17–30, doi:10.1016/0167-2789(94)90222-4, 1994.; Ch...

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Reconciling the North–south Density Difference Scaling for the Mer...

By: S. Drijfhout; H. A. Dijkstra; A. A. Cimatoribus

Description: Global Climate Division, Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, De Bilt, the Netherlands. Since the formulation of the Stommel two-box model for the meridional overturning circulation (MOC), various theoretical and conceptual models for the MOC emerged based on scaling the MOC strength with the north south density difference. At the same time the MOC should obey geostrophic balance with an east-west density difference. Scaling with the north ...

Cessi, P. and Wolfe, C. L.: Eddy–driven buoyancy gradients on eastern boundaries and their role in the thermocline, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39, 1595–1614, 2009.; Allison, L. C., Johnson, H. L., Marshall, D. P., and Munday, D. R.: Where do winds drive the Antarctic Circumpolar Current?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L12605, doi:10.1029/2010GL043355, 2010.; Cimatoribus, A., Drijfhout, S., den Toom, M., and Dijkstra, H.: Sensitivity...

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Controllability of Mixing Errors in a Coupled Physical Biogeochemi...

By: J.-m. Brankart; Y. Ourmières; J. Verron; D. Béal; P. Brasseur

Description: LEGI/CNRS, Université de Grenoble, CNRS, BP 53X, 38041 Grenoble, France. In biogeochemical models coupled to ocean circulation models, vertical mixing is an important physical process which governs the nutrient supply and the plankton residence in the euphotic layer. However, mixing is often poorly represented in numerical simulations because of approximate parameterizations of sub-grid scale turbulence, wind forcing errors and other mis-represented pro...

Barnier, B., Madec, G., Penduff, T., Molines, J. M., Tréguier, A. M., Beckmann, A., Biastoch, A., Boning, C., Dengg, J., Gulev, S., Le Sommer, J., Rémy, E., Talandier, C., Theetten, S., Maltrud, M., and Mc Lean, J.: Impact of partial steps and momentum advection schemes in a global ocean circulation model at eddy permitting resolution, Ocean Dynam., 56(5–6), 543–567, 2006.; Berline, L., Brankart, J.-M., Brasseur, P., Ourmières, Y., and Verron, J.: Improving the physics o...

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On the Export of Dense Water from the Weddell and Ross Seas : Volu...

By: M. M. Mata; R. Kerr; K. J. Heywood; C. A. E. Garcia

Description: Laboratório de Estudos dos Oceanos e Clima, Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Rio Grande, RS, 96201-900, Brazil. We describe the seasonal and interannual variability of volume transports in Weddell and Ross Seas using the 1/12° 20-yr simulation of the OCCAM global ocean general circulation model. The average simulated full-depth cumulative volume transports were 28.5 ± 2.9 Sv (1 Sv ≡ 106 m3

Muench, R. D. and Gordon, A. L.: Circulation and transport of water along the Western Weddell Sea margin, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 18503–18515, 1995.; Naveira Garabato, A. C., McDonagh, E. L., Stevens, D. P., Heywood, K. J., and Sanders, R. J.: On the export of Antarctic Bottom Water from the Weddell Sea, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 49, 4715–4742, 2002.; Nicholls, K. W., Østerhus, S., Makinson, K., Gammelsrød, T., and Fahrbach, E.: Ice-ocean process over the continental shelf of...

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The Vertical Structure of Oceanic Rossby Waves: a Comparison of Hi...

By: R. Tailleux; F. K. Hunt; J. J.-m. Hirschi

Description: Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre Southampton, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK. Tests of the new Rossby wave theories that have been developed over the past decade to account for discrepancies between theoretical wave speeds and those observed by satellite altimeters have focused primarily on the surface signature of such waves. It appears, however, that the surface signature of the waves acts only as a rather weak constrai...

Anderson, D. L. and Gill, A. E.: Spin-up of a stratified ocean, with application to upwelling, Deep-Sea Res. , 22, 583–596, 1975.; Anderson, D. L. and Killworth, P. D.: Spin-up of a stratified ocean, with topography, Deep-Sea Res., 24, 709–732, 1977.; Aoki, K., Kubokawa, A., Sasaki, H., and Sasai, Y.: Mid-latitude Baroclinic Rossby wave in a high-resolution OGCM Simulation, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39, 2264–2279, 2009.; Barnier, B.: Forcing the Ocean, in: Ocean Modelling and ...

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A Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer for Continuous Underway Sh...

By: M. J. Lawler; C. A. Marandino; C. A. McCormick; E. S. Saltzman; W. J. De Bruyn

Description: University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, USA. A compact, low-cost atmospheric pressure, chemical ionization mass spectrometer (mini-CIMS) has been developed for continuous underway shipboard measurements of dimethylsulfide (DMS) in seawater. The instrument was used to analyze DMS in air equilibrated with flowing seawater across a porous Teflon membrane equilibrator. The equilibrated gas stream was diluted with air containing an isotopically...

Andreae, M. O. and Barnard, W. R.: Determination of trace quantities of dimethyl sulfide in aqueous solutions, Anal. Chem., 55, 608–612, 1983.; Bandy, A. R., Thornton, D. C., Tu, F. H., Blomquist, B. W., Nadler, W., Mitchell, G. M., and Lenschow, D. H.: Determination of the vertical flux of dimethyl sulfide by eddy correlation and atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (APIMS), J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 107, 4743, doi:10.1029/2002JD002472, 2002.; Bates, T. S., ...

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Role of Cabbeling in Water Densification in the Greenland Basin : ...

By: T. Johannessen; Y. Kasajima

Description: Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen. Allégaten 70, 5007 Bergen, Norway. The contribution of cabbeling mixing to water mass modification in the Greenland Sea was explored from hydrographic observation across the Greenland Basin in summer 2006. Neutral surface was chosen as a reference frame, and the strength of cabbeling mixing was determined by the dianeutral velocity magnitude. Water types in the area were classified into North Atlantic Water (...

Akitomo, K.: Open-ocean deep convection due to thermobaricity 1. Scaling argument, J. Geophys, Res., 104(C3), 5225–5234, 1999.; Budéus, G., Schneider, W., and Krause, G.: Winter convective events and bottom water warming in the Greenland Sea, J. Geophys. Res., 103(C9), 18 513–18 527, 1998.; Bönisch, G., Blindheim, J., Bullister, J., Schlosser, P., and Wallace, D.: Long-term trends of temperature, salinity, density and transient tracers in the central Greenland Sea, J. Ge...

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Design of an Automatic Multiple Launcher for Expendable Probes : V...

By: G. M. R. Manzella; G. Zappalà; F. Reseghetti

Description: CNR-IAMC Section of Messina, Messina, Italy. A main goal of a ships of opportunity program is the provision of near real time temperature profiles. The use of expandable probes allows the reduction of costs, in comparison to usual scientific cruises. A major cost effectiveness can be achieved by using an automated multiple launcher, that can be used with a minimum personnel effort. A multiple launcher, developed in the framework of the Mediterranean For...

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Stochastic Heterogeneity Mapping Around a Mediterranean Salt Lens ...

By: D. Klaeschen; V. Sallarès; B. Biescas; R. Carbonell; C. A. Hurich; E. A. Vsemirnova; R. W. Hobbs; G. G. Buffett

Description: Institut de Ciències de la Terra Jaume Almera, C. Lluís Solé i Sabarís s/n, 08028 Barcelona, Spain. We present the first application of Stochastic Heterogeneity Mapping based on the band-limited von Kármán function to a seismic reflection stack of a Mediterranean water eddy (meddy), a large salt lens of Mediterranean water. This process extracts two stochastic parameters directly from the reflectivity field of the seismic data: the Hurst number, which r...

Armi, L. D., Hebert, D., Oakey, N., Price, J. F., Richardson, P. L., Rossby, H. T., and Ruddick, B.: Two years in the life of a Mediterranean salt lens, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 19, 354–370, 1989.; Bashmachnikov, I., Machín, F., Mendonça, A., and Martins, A.: In situ and remote sensing signature of meddies east of the mid-Atlantic ridge, J. Geophys. Res., 114, C05018, doi:10.1029/2008JC005032, 2009.; Batchelor, G. K.: Small-scale variation of convected quantities like tempera...

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A Method to Generate Fully Multi-scale Optimal Interpolation by Co...

By: A. Alvera-azcárate; I. Tomazic; A. Barth; J.-m. Beckers

Description: GeoHydrodynamics and Environment Research, MARE, University of Liège, Sart-Tilman B5, 4000 Liège, Belgium. We present a method in which the optimal interpolation of multi-scale processes can be expanded into a succession of simpler interpolations. First, we prove how the optimal analysis of a superposition of two processes can be obtained by different mathematical formulations involving iterations and analysis focusing on a single process. From the...

Beckers, J.-M. and Rixen, M.: EOF calculation and data filling from incomplete oceanographic datasets, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 20, 1839–1856, 2003.; Alvera-Azcárate, A., Barth, A., Rixen, M., and Beckers, J.-M.: Reconstruction of incomplete oceanographic data sets using Empirical Orthogonal Functions. Application to the Adriatic Sea Surface Temperature, Ocean Model., 9, 325–346, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2004.08.001, ...

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Observations of a Phytoplankton Spring Bloom Onset Triggered by a ...

By: L. Fazioli; J. Tintoré; S. Cusí; R. Sorgente; A. Olita; A. Ribotti; S. Sparnocchia

Description: SOCIB, Balearic Islands Coastal Observing and Forecasting System, Palma de Mallorca, Spain. Phytoplankton blooms in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea are seasonal events that mainly occur in a specific area comprising the Gulf of Lion and the Provençal basin, where they are promoted by a general cyclonic circulation, strong wind-driven mixing and subsequent re-stratification of the water column. At the southern boundary of this area, a persistent densit...

Behrenfeld, M. J.: Abandoning Sverdrup's Critical Depth Hypothesis on phytoplankton blooms, Ecology, 91, 977–989, 2010.; Auger, P., Ulses, C., Estournel, C., Stemmann, L., Somot, S., and Diaz, F.: Interannual control of plankton communities by deep winter mixing and prey/predator interactions in the NW Mediterranean: Results from a 30-year 3D modeling study, Prog. Oceanogr., 124, 12–27, 2014.; Bernardello, R., Cardoso, J. G., Bahamon, N., Donis, D., Marinov, I., and Cruz...

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