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Phytoplankton Blooms on the Western Shelf of Tasmania: Evidence of...

By: J. Kämpf

Description: School of the Environment, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia. Analyses of >10 years of satellite-derived ocean-color data reveal the existence of a highly productive ecosystem on the west Tasmanian shelf. A closer event-based analysis indicates that the nutrient supply for this system has two different dynamical origins: (a) wind-driven coastal upwelling and (b) river plumes. During austral summer months, the west Tasmanian shelf forms a p...

Conolly, J. R. and Von der Borch, C. C.: Sedimentation and physiography of the sea floor south of Australia, Sediment. Geol., 1, 181–220, doi:10.1016/0037-0738(67)90059-0, 1967.; Cresswell, G.: Currents of the continental shelf and upper slope of Tasmania, Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania, 133, 21–30, 2000.; Gibbs, C. F., Tomczak, M., and Longmore, A. R.: The nutrient regime of Bass Strait,...

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Measurements of Bubble Size Spectra Within Leads in the Arctic Sum...

By: I. M. Brooks; B. J. Brooks; G. De Leeuw; A. Sirevaag; C. E. Birch; S. J. Norris; C. Leck; M. Tjernstrom

Description: School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK. The first measurements of bubble size spectra within the near-surface waters of open leads in the central Arctic pack ice were obtained during the Artic Summer Cloud-Ocean Study (ASCOS) in August 2008 at 87–87.6° N, 1–11° W. A significant number of small bubbles (30–100 μm diameter) were present, with concentration decreasing rapidly with size from 100–560 μm; no bubbles larger ...

Andreas, E. L., Horst, T. W., Grachev, A. A., Persson, P. O. G., Fairall, C. W., Guest, P. S., and Jordan, R. E.: Parametrizing turbulent exchange over summer sea ice and the marginal ice zone, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 136(B), 927–943, doi:10.1002/qj.618, 2010a.; Bigg, E. K. and Leck, C.: Cloud-active particles over the central Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 106(D23), 32155–32166, 2001.; Andreas, E. L., Persson, P. O. G., Jor...

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Dynamics of Turbulent Western Boundary Currents at Low Latitude in...

By: A. Wirth; C. Q. C. Akuetevi

Description: Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, LEGI UMR5519, Grenoble, France. The dynamics of low latitude turbulent western boundary currents, subject to two different types of idealized wind forcing, Monsoon Wind and Trade Wind, is considered using numerical results from integrations of a reduced gravity shallow-water model. For viscosity values of 1000 m2 s−1 and above, the boundary layer dynamics compares well to the analytical solutions of t...

Fox-Kemper, B. and Pedlosky, J.: Wind-driven barotropic gyre I: circulation control by eddy vorticity fluxes to an enhanced removal region, J. Mar. Res., 62, 169–193, 2004.; Frisch, U.: Turbulence: the Legacy of A. N. Kolmogorov, Cambridge University Press, 1995.; Bofetta, G. and Ecke, R.: Two-dimensional turbulence, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 44, 427–451, 2012.; Charney, J.: The Gulf stream as an inertial boundary layer, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 41, 731–740, 1955.; Edwards...

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An Automated Gas Exchange Tank for Determining Gas Transfer Veloci...

By: M. E. Salter; R. C. Upstill-goddard; K. Schneider-zapp

Description: Ocean Research Group, School of Marine Science and Technology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. In order to advance understanding of the role of seawater surfactants in the air–sea exchange of climatically active trace gases via suppression of the gas transfer velocity (kw), we constructed a fully automated, closed air-water gas exchange tank and coupled analytical system. The system allows water-side turbulence in t...

Asher, W. E.: The effects of experimental uncertainty in parameterizing air-sea gas exchange using tracer experiment data, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 131–139, doi:10.5194/acp-9-131-2009, 2009.; Bock, E. J., Hara, T., Frew, N. M., and McGillis, W. R.: Relationship between air–sea gas transfer and short wind waves, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 25821–25831, doi:10.1029/1999JC900200...

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Assessment of the Three Dimensional Temperature and Salinity Obser...

By: J. L. Høyer; J. She; W. Fu

Description: Center for Ocean and Ice (COI), Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI), Denmark. The spatial averaged correlations are presented in 1.5° × 1.5° bins for the North and Baltic Sea region. The averaged correlations are computed based on the proxy ocean data generated by the operational forecast model of Danish Meteorology Institute (DMI). It is shown that the spatial distribution of the averaged correlations could reflect the overall influence of the local ...

Bishop, C. H., Etherton, B. J., and Majumdar, S. J.: Adaptive sampling with the ensemble transform Kalman filter. Part I: Theoretical aspects. Mon. Weather Rev., 129, 420–436, 2001.; Buch, E., Elken, J., Gajewsk, J., Håkansson, B., Kahma, K., and Soetje, K.: Present Status of the Baltic Operational Oceanographic System. European Operational Oceanography: Present and Future, EuroGOOS Office, Sweden, and European Commission, Belgium, 276–280, 2006.; ICES: Patchiness in the...

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Liquid Export of Arctic Freshwater Components Through the Fram Str...

By: P. A. Dodd; E. Falck; E. Hansen; A. MacKensen; E. J. Rohling; B. Rabe; A. Beszczynska-möller; U. Schauer; K. Cox; G. Kattner

Description: Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany. We estimated the magnitude and composition of southward liquid freshwater transports in the East Greenland Current near 79° N in the Western Fram Strait between 1998 and 2011. Previous studies have found this region to be an important pathway for liquid freshwater export from the Arctic Ocean to the Nordic Seas and the North Atlantic subpolar gyre.

Our transport est...

Aaboe, S. and Nost, O. A.: A Diagnostic Model of the Nordic Seas and Arctic Ocean Circulation: Quantifying the Effects of a Variable Bottom Density along a Sloping Topography, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38, 2685–2703, doi:10.1175/2008JPO3862.1, 2008.; Aaboe, S., Nost, O. A., and Hansen, E.: Along-slope variability of barotropic transport in the Nordic Seas: Simplified dynamics tested against observations, J. Geophys. Res., 114...

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Thermodynamic Properties of Standard Seawater: Extensions to High ...

By: R. Feistel; A. Heintz; J. Safarov; E. Hassel; F. Millero

Description: Lehrstuhl für Technische Thermodynamik, Universität Rostock, Albert-Einstein-Str. 2, 18059, Rostock, Germany. Measurements of (p, Ρ, T) properties of standard seawater with practical salinity S≈35, temperature T=(273.14 to 468.06) K and pressures, p, up to 140 MPa are reported with the reproducibility of the density measurements observed to be in the average percent deviation range ΔΡ/Ρ=±(0.01 to 0.03)%. The measurements are m...

Archer, D. G.: Thermodynamic Properties of the NaCl+H2O System. II. Thermodynamic Properites of NaCl (aq), NaCl·2H2O(cr) and Phase Equilibria, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 21, 793–829, 1992.; Bradshaw, A. and Schleicher, K. E.: Direct measurements of thermal expansion of seawater under pressure, Deep Sea Res., 17, 691–706, 1970.; Bradshaw, A. and Schleicher, K. E.: Compressibility of distilled water and seawater, Deep Sea Res., 23, 583–593, 1976.; Cald...

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Validation of Foam Near-surface Ocean Current Forecasts Using Lagr...

By: M. J. Martin; E. W. Blockley; P. Hyder

Description: Met Office, FitzRoy Road, Exeter, EX13PB, UK. In this study, the quality of near-surface current forecasts from the FOAM ocean forecasting system is assessed using the trajectories of Lagrangian drifting buoys. A method is presented for deriving pseudo-Eulerian estimates of ocean currents from the positions of Surface Velocity Program drifters and the resulting data are compared to velocities observed by the global tropical moored buoy array. A quantita...

Bonjean, F. and Lagerloef, G. S. E.: Diagnostic model and analysis of the surface currents in the tropical Pacific Ocean, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 2938–2954, 2002.; Brushett, B. A., King, B. A., and Lemckert, C. J.: Evaluation of met-ocean forecast data effectiveness for tracking drifters deployed during operational oil spill response in Australian waters, J. Coastal Res., SI64, 991–994, 2011.; Burchard, H.: Energy-conserving discretisation of turbulent shear and buoyancy...

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Evaluation of Global Monitoring and Forecasting Systems at Mercato...

By: M. Drévillon; O. Le Galloudec; C. Régnier; G. Garric; Y. Drillet; N. Ferry; A. Daudin; R. Bourdallé-badie; C. De Nicola; B. Tranchant; C. Desportes; J.-m. Lellouche; C.-e. Testut; C. Bricaud; E. Greiner; M. Benkiran

Description: Mercator Océan, Ramonville Saint Agne, France. Since December 2010, the MyOcean global analysis and forecasting system has consisted of the Mercator Océan NEMO global 1/4° configuration with a 1/12° nested model over the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. The open boundary data for the nested configuration come from the global 1/4° configuration at 20° S and 80° N.

The data are assimilated by means of a reduced-order Kalman filter with a 3-D mul...

Penduff, T., Juza, M., Brodeau, L., Smith, G. C., Barnier, B., Molines, J. M., Treguier, A. M., and Madec, G.: Impact of global ocean model resolution on sea-level variability with emphasis on interannual time scales, Ocean Sci., 6, 269–284, doi:10.5194/os-6-269-2010, 2010.; Pham, D. T., Verron, J., and Roubaud, M. C.: A singular evolutive extended Kalman filter for data assimilation in oceanography, J. Mar. Syst., 16, ...

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On the Influence of Wind and Waves on Underwater Irradiance Fluctu...

By: M. Hieronymi; A. MacKe

Description: Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (IFT), Leipzig, Germany. The influence of various wind and wave conditions on the variability of downwelling irradiance Ed (490 nm) in water is subject of this study. The work is based on a two-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer model with high spatial resolution. The model assumes conditions that are ideal for wave focusing, thus simulation results reveal the upper limit for light fl...

Anderson, G. C.: Subsurface chlorophyll maximum in the Northeast Pacific Ocean, Limnol. Oceanogr., 14, 386–391, 1969.; Cox, C. and Munk, W.: Measurements of the roughness of the sea surface from photographs of the sun's glitter, J. Opt. Society Am., 44, 838–850, 1954.; Babanin, A. V.: On a wave-induced turbulence and a wave-mixed upper ocean layer, Geophys. Res. Let., 33, L20605, doi:10.1029/2006GL027308, 2006.; Cullen, ...

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Phytoplankton Distribution and Nitrogen Dynamics in the Southwest ...

By: J. F. Read; E. Pakhomov; M. I. Lucas; H. N. Waldron; S. J. Thomalla; I. J. Ansorge

Description: Department of Oceanography, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch, Cape Town 7701, South Africa. During the 1999 Marion Island Oceanographic Survey (MIOS 4) in late austral summer, a northbound and reciprocal southbound transect were taken along the Southwest Indian and Madagascar Ridge, between the Prince Edward Islands and 31° S. The sections crossed a number of major fronts and smaller mesoscale features and covered a wide productivity spec...

Allanson, B. R., Hart, R. C., and Lutjerharms, J. R. E.: Observations on the nutrients, chlorophyll and primary production of the Southern Ocean south of Africa, South African Journal of Antarctic Research, 10(11), 3–14, 1981.; Ansorge, I. J., Froneman, P. W., Pakhamov, E. A., Lutjerharms, J. R. E., Perissinotto, R., and van Ballegooyen, R. C.: Physical-biological coupling in the waters surrounding the Prince Edward Islands (Southern Ocean), Polar Biol., 21, 135–145, 199...

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Detecting Marine Hazardous Substances and Organisms: Sensors for P...

By: O. Zielinski; J. Engelbrektsson; K. L. Daly; J. A. Busch; A. D. Cembella; H. Schmidt; A. K. Hannides

Description: Institute for Marine Resources, Bremerhaven, Germany. Marine environments are influenced by a wide diversity of anthropogenic and natural substances and organisms that may have adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. Real-time measurements of pollutants, toxins, and pathogens across a range of spatial scales are required to adequately monitor these hazards, manage the consequences, and to understand the processes governing their magnitude and di...

Adornato, L. R., Kaltenbacher, E. A., Greenhow, D. R., and Byrne, R. H.: High-resolution in situ analysis of nitrate and phosphate in the oligotrophic ocean, Environ. Sci. Technol., 41, 4045–4052, 2007.; Alexander, J., Au{ð}unsson, G. A., Benford, D., Cockburn, A., Cravedi, J.-P., Dogliotti, E., Di Domenico, A., Fernández-Cruz, M. L., Fink-Gremmels, J., Fürst, P., Galli, C., Grandjean, P., Gzyl, J., Heinemeyer, G., Johansson, N., Mutti, A., Schlatter, J., van Leeuwen, R....

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Using Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations to Determine Mixed Layer Dep...

By: K. Castro-morales; J. Kaiser

Description: University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK. Concentrations of oxygen (O2) and other dissolved gases in the oceanic mixed layer are often used to calculate air-sea gas exchange fluxes; for example, in the context of net and gross biological production estimates. The mixed layer depth (zmix) may be defined using criteria based on temperature or density differences to a reference depth near the ocean surface. However, temperature c...

Antonov, J. I., Locarnini, R. A., Boyer, T. P., Mishonov, A. V., and García, H. E.: Salinity, in: World Ocean Atlas, 2005, edited by: Levitus, S., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 62, U.S Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 182, 2006.; Arrigo, K. R., van Dijken, G. L., and Bushinsky, S.: Primary production in the Southern Ocean, 1997–2006, J. Geophys. Res., 113, 1–27, doi:10.1029/2007JC004551, 2008.; Brainerd, K. E. and Greg...

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Observed and Simulated Estimates of the Meridional Overturning Cir...

By: H. Haak; S. Cunnningham; J. Marotzke; P. Heimbach; T. Kanzow; J. Baehr

Description: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA. Daily timeseries of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) estimated from the UK/US RAPID/MOCHA array at 26.5° N in the Atlantic are used to evaluate the MOC as simulated in two global circulation models: (I) an 8-member ensemble of the coupled climate model ECHAM5/MPI-OM, and (II) the ECCO-GODAE state estimate. In ECHAM5/MPI-OM, we find that the observed and simulated MOC have a similar v...

Baehr, J., Haak, H., Alderson, S., Cunningham, S. A., Jungclaus, J., and Marotzke, J.: Timely detection of changes in the meridional overturning circulation at 26 N in the Atlantic, J. Climate, 20, 5827–5841, 2007a.; Baehr, J., Hirschi, J., Beismann, J., and Marotzke, J.: Monitoring the meridional overturning circulation in the North Atlantic}: {A model-based array design study, J. Mar. Res., 62(3), 283–312, 2004.; Baehr, J., Keller, K., and Marotzke, J.: Detecting poten...

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Tidal Generation of Large Sub-mesoscale Eddy Dipoles : Volume 7, I...

By: M. G. G. Foreman; J. M. Klymak; W. Callendar

Description: Institute of Ocean Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Sidney B.C., Canada. Numerical simulations of tidal flow past Cape St. James on the south tip of Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands) are presented that indicate mesoscale dipoles are formed from coalescing tidal eddies. Observations in this region demonstrate robust eddy generation at the Cape, with the primary process being flow separation of buoyant or wind driven outflows forming large ...

Afanasyev, Y.: Spontaneous emission of gravity waves by interacting vortex dipoles in a stratified fluid: laboratory experiments, Geophysical & Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics, 97, 79–95, 2003.; Bruce, J.: Eddies southwest of the Denmark Strait, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 42, 13–17, 1995.; Cenedese, C. and Whitehead, J.: Eddy shedding from a boundary current around a cape over a sloping bottom, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 1514–1531, 2000.; Cenedese, C., Whitehead, J., Ascarelli, T., ...

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Temporal and Spatial Distribution of the Meiobenthic Community in ...

By: Y. Yan; H. X. Li; L. Tang

Description: CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Bio-resources Sustainable Utilization, Guangzhou 510301, China. Spatial and temporal biodiversity patterns of the meiobenthos were studied for the first time in Daya Bay, which is a tropical semi-enclosed basin located in the South China Sea. The abundance, biomass, and composition of the meiobenthos and the basic environmental factors in the bay were investigated. The following 19 taxonomic groups were represented in the...

Armenteros, M., Ruiz-Abierno, A., Fernández-Garcés, R., Pérez-Garc\'{i}a, J. A., D\'{i}az-Asencio, L., Vincx, M., and Decraemer, W.: Biodiversity patterns of free-living marine nematodes in a tropical bay: Cienfuegos, Caribbean Sea, Estuar. Coast. Shelf. S., 85, 179–189, 2009.; Blanchard, G. F.: Measurement of meiofauna grazing rates on microphytobenthos: is primary production a limiting factor?, J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 147, 37–46, 1991.; Boucher, G.: Structure and bio...

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Transformation of an Agulhas Eddy Near the Continental Slope : Vol...

By: G. G. Sutyrin; Y. Zhang; G. R. Flierl; S. Baker-yeboah

Description: Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. The transformation of Agulhas eddies near the continental slope of southern Africa and their subsequent self-propagation are analyzed in both observational data and numerical simulations. Self-propagation results from a net dipole moment of a generalized heton structure consisting of a surface-intensified anticyclonic eddy and deep cy...

Duncombe Rae, C. M.: Agulhas Retroflection Rings In the South Atlantic Ocean: An Overview, S. Afr. J. Mar. Sci., 11, 327–344, 1991.; An, B. W. and McDonald, N. R.: Coastal currents and eddies and their interaction with topography, Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 40, 237–253, 2005.; Arhan, M., Mercier, H., and Lutjeharms, J. R. E.: The disparate evolution of three Agulhas rings in the South Atlantic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 20987–21005, 1999.; Baker-Yeboah, S.: Sea Surface Heigh...

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Quantification of Octacalcium Phosphate, Authigenic Apatite and De...

By: L. Schwendenmann; J. F. Oxmann

Description: School of Environment, The University of Auckland, Auckland 1010, New Zealand. Knowledge of calcium phosphate (Ca-P) solubility is crucial for understanding temporal and spatial variations of phosphorus (P) concentrations in water bodies and sedimentary reservoirs. In situ relationships between liquid- and solid-phase levels cannot be fully explained by dissolved analytes alone and need to be verified by determining particular sediment P species. Lack o...

Avnimelech, Y.: Phosphorus and calcium carbonate solubilities in Lake Kinneret, Limnol. Oceanogr., 28, 640–645, 1983.; Atlas, E. L.: Phosphate equilibria in seawater and interstitial waters, Ph.D. thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis, 1975.; Atlas, E. L. and Pytkowicz, R. M.: Solubility behavior of apatites in seawater, Limnol. Oceanogr., 22, 290–300, 1977.; Baker, M. J., Blowes, D. W., and Ptacek, C. J.: Laboratory development of permeable reactive mixtures for th...

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Mean Dynamic Topography of the Black Sea, Computed from Altimetry,...

By: A. A. Kubryakov; S. V. Stanichny

Description: Marine Hydrophysical Institute of NAS of Ukraine, Sevastopol, Ukraine. Mean Dynamic Topography (MDT) is a crucial parameter for estimating dynamic topography, and, therefore, geostrophic circulation from satellite altimetry Sea Level Anomalies (SLA). In this work we use drifting buoy measurements, hydrographic profiles and SLA to reconstruct MDT of the Black Sea by synthetic method. Obtained mean dynamic topography shows higher gradients of sea level an...

Le Traon, P.-Y. and Ogor, F.: ERS-1/2 orbit improvement using TOPEX/Poseidon: The 2-cm challenge, J. Geophys. Res., 103(C4), 8045–8057, 1998.; Belokopytov, V. N: Ocean Station Tool: Software package for processing and analysis of oceanographic data, Proc. Intern. Marine Data and Information Conference – IMDIS, 31 May–3 June, 67 pp., 2005.; Belokopytov, V. N: Seasonal variability of thermohaline and hydrological and acoustic structure of the Black Sea water, Marine Hydrop...

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Interannual-to-decadal Variability of North Atlantic Air-sea Co2 F...

By: J. C. Orr; O. Aumont; K. B. Rodgers; P. Yiou; S. Raynaud

Description: LSCE/IPSL, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Gif-sur-Yvette, France. The magnitude of the interannual variability of North Atlantic air-sea CO2 fluxes remains uncertain. Interannual extremes simulated by atmospheric inverse approaches are typically about ±0.3 Pg C yr−1, whereas those from ocean models are less than ±0.1 Pg C yr−1. Thus variability in the North Atlantic is either abou...

Aumont, O. and Bopp, L.: Globalizing results from ocean in situ iron fertilization studies, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 20, GB2017, doi:10.1029/2005GB002591, 2006.; Baker, D F., Law, R M., Gurney, K R., Rayner, P., Peylin, P., Denning, A S., Bousquet, P., Bruhwiler, L., Chen, Y.-H., Ciais, P., Fung, I Y., Heimann, M., John, J., Maki, T., Maksyutov, S., Masarie, K., Prather, M., Pak, B., Taguchi, S., and Zhu, Z.: TransCom 3 inversion intercomparison: Impact of transport mo...

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