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Three-dimensional Modelling of Wave-induced Current from the Surf ...

By: Y. Leredde; C. Estournel; P. Marsaleix; H. Michaud; F. Bourrin; C. Mayet; F. Lyard; F. Ardhuin

Description: Géosciences Montpellier, UMR5243, CNRS – Université Montpellier 2 Sciences et Techniques, place E Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier cedex 5, France. We develop and implement a new method to take into account the impact of waves into the 3-D circulation model SYMPHONIE (Marsaleix et al., 2008, 2009a), following the simplified equations of Bennis et al. (2011) which use glm2z-RANS theory (Ardhuin et al., 2008b). These adiabatic equations are completed by addit...

Agrawal, Y. C., Terray, E. A., Donelan, M. A., Hwang, M. A., Williams III, A. J., Drennan, W. M., Kahma, K. K., and Kitaigorodskii, K. K.: Enhanced dissipation of kinetic energy beneath surface waves, Nature, 359, 219–233, 1992.; Aleman, N., Robin, N., Certain, R., Vanroye, C., Barusseau, J., and Bouchette, F.: Typology of nearshore bars in the Gulf of Lions (FRANCE) using LIDAR technology, J. Coastal Res., 64, 721–725, 2011.; Andrews, D. and McIntyre, M.: An exact theor...

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Sensors for Observing Ecosystem Status : Volume 6, Issue 1 (23/04/...

By: N. Greenwood; D. B. Sivyer; J. D. Metcalfe; R. M. Forster; D. J. Pearce; S. Kröger; E. R. Parker

Description: Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk, NR33 0HT, UK. This paper aims to review the availability and application of sensors for observing marine ecosystem status. It gives a broad overview of important ecosystem variables to be investigated, such as biogeochemical cycles, primary and secondary production, species distribution, animal movements, habitats and pollutants. Some relevant legislati...

Gregg, W. W. and Casey, N. W.: Global and regional evaluation of the SeaWiFS chlorophyll data set, Remote Sens. Environ., 93, 463–479, 2004.; Arnold, G. P. and Dewar, H.: Electronic tags in marine fisheries research: a 30 year perspective., in: Electronic Tagging and Tracking In Marine Fisheries, edited by: Nielsen, J. R. S. J. L., Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 7–64, 2001.; Aylott, J. W., Richardson, D. J., and Russell, D. A.: Optical biosensing of n...

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Constraining Energetic Slope Currents Through Assimilation of High...

By: J. Röhrs; K. H. Christensen; A. K. Sperrevik

Description: Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo, Norway. Assimilation of high-frequency (HF) radar current observations and CTD hydrography is performed with the 4D-Var analysis scheme implemented in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). We consider both an idealized case, with a baroclinic slope current in a periodic channel, and a realistic case for the coast of Vesterålen in northern Norway. In the realistic case, the results of the data assimilation a...

Albretsen, J., Sperrevik, A. K., Staalstrøm, A., Sandvik, A. D., Vikebø, F., and Asplin, L.: NorKyst-800 report no. 1: User manual and technical descriptions, Tech. Rep. 2, Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway, available at: http://www.imr.no/filarkiv/2011/07/fh_2-2011_til_web.pdf/nb-no (last access: 5 March 2015), 2011.; Barrick, D. E., Evans, M. W., and Weber, B. L.: Ocean surface curren...

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Weighing the Ocean with Bottom-pressure Sensors: Robustness of the...

By: C. W. Hughes; M. E. Tamisiea; Joanne Williams; S. D. P. Williams

Description: National Oceanography Centre, Joseph Proudman Building, 6 Brownlow St, Liverpool L3 5DA, UK. We use ocean bottom-pressure measurements from 17 tropical sites to determine the annual cycle of ocean mass. We show that such a calculation is robust, and use three methods to estimate errors in the mass determination. Our final best estimate, using data from the best sites and two ocean models, is that the annual cycle has an amplitude of 0.85 mbar (equivalent...

Scargle, J. D.: Studies in astronomical time series analysis. II – Statistical aspects of spectral analysis of unevenly spaced data, Astrophys. J., 263, 835–853, doi:10.1086/160554, 1982.; Siegismund, F., Romanova, V., Köhl, A., and Stammer, D.: Ocean bottom pressure variations estimated from gravity, nonsteric sea surface height and hydrodynamic model simulations, J. Geophys. Res., 116, C07021,

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Ocean State Indicators from Myocean Altimeter Products : Volume 9,...

By: L. Bessières; M. I. Pujol; C. Boone; C. Dufau; M. H. Rio

Description: AS$+$ EOLEN, 5 avenue Didier Daurat, 31400 Toulouse, France. The European MyOcean project (http://www.myocean.eu.org) provides observations of the ocean dynamic topography from altimeter measurements. Three specific indicators have been developed, based on altimeter data only, in order to monitor the ocean state. The first ocean indicator observes the positive and negative phases of the...

Barber, R. T and Chavez, F. P.: Biological Consequences of El Niño, Science, 222, 1203–1210, 1983; Brachet, S.: Variabilité mésoéchelle océanique, comparaison altimétrie/modèle, PhD Thesis, UPS-Toulouse III, 2005.; Borzelli, G. L. E., Gačić, M., Cardin, V., and Civitarese, G.: Eastern Mediterranean transient and reversal of the Ionian Sea circulation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L15108, doi:10.1029/2009GL039261, 2009.; Curr...

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The Surface Thermal Signature and Air–sea Coupling Over the Agulha...

By: E. Autret; B. Chapron; J. M. A. C. Souza

Description: Laboratoire d'Oceanographie Spatiale (LOS), IFREMER, Centre Brest, 29280, Plouzane, France. The surface signature of the Agulhas rings propagating across the South Atlantic Ocean is observed based on 3 independent datasets: TMI/AMSR-E satellite sea surface temperature, Argo profiling floats and a merged winds product derived from scatterometer observations and reanalysis results. A persistent pattern of cold (negative) SST anomalies in the eddy cor...

Chaigneau, A., Eldin, G., and Dewitte, B.: Eddy activity in the four major upwelling systems from satellite altimetry (1992–2007), Prog. Oceanogr., 83, 117–123, 2009.; Arhan, M., Speich, S., Messager, C., Dencausse, G., Fine, R., and Boye, M.: Anticyclonic and cyclonic eddies of subtropical origin in the subantarctic zone of south of Africa, J. Geophys. Res., 116, C11004, doi:10.1029/2011JC007140, 2011.; Bentamy, A., Ayi...

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The Mediterranean Sea System: a Review and an Introduction to the ...

By: D. Hainbucher; K. Schroeder; M. Álvarez; G. Civitarese; V. Cardin; T. Tanhua

Description: GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Department of Chemical Oceanography, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany. The Mediterranean Sea is a semi-enclosed sea characterized by high salinities, temperatures and densities. The net evaporation exceeds the precipitation, driving an anti-estuarine circulation through the Strait of Gibraltar, contributing to very low nutrient concentrations. The Mediterranean Sea has an active overturning circu...

Álvarez, M., Sanleón-Bartolomé, H., Tanhua, T., Mintrop, L., Luchetta, A., Cantoni, C., Schroeder, K., and Civitarese, G.: The CO2 system in the Mediterranean Sea: a basin wide perspective, Ocean Sci. Discuss., 10, 1447–1504, doi:10.5194/osd-10-1447-2013, 2013.; Astraldi, M., Balopoulos, S., Candela, J., Font, J., Gacic, M., Gasparini, G. P., Manca, B., Theocharis, A., and Tintore, J.: The role of st...

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Atmospheric Forcing of Salinity in the Overflow of Denmark Strait ...

By: T. Albrecht; J. Holfort

Description: Institut für Meereskunde der Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany. The temporal evolution of the characteristics of Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW) is reconstructed using hydrographic data and compared with possible atmospheric forcing mechanisms. It is concluded that the main factor influencing the DSOW characteristics at a time scale of one to several years is the difference in mean sea level pressure across Denmark Strait or, in other words, th...

Conkright, M E., Levitus, S., Boyer, T P., O'Brien, T., Stephens, C., Johnson, D., Stathoplos, L., Baranova, O., Antonov, J., Gelfeld, R., Burney, J., Rochester, J., and Forgy, C.: WORLD OCEAN DATABASE 1998, 1998.; Dickson, R R., Lazier, J., Meincke, J., Rhines, P., and Swift, J.: Long-term coordinated changes in the convective activity of the North Atlantic, Prog. Oceanogr., 38, 241–295, 1996.; Dickson, R R., Medler, K., and Read, J.: Current meter data report for Workp...

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On the Tides and Resonances of Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait : Volu...

By: D. J. Webb

Description: National Oceanography Centre, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK. The resonances of Hudson Bay, Foxe Basin and Hudson Strait are investigated using a~linear shallow water numerical model. The region is of particular interest because it is the most important region of the world ocean for dissipating tidal energy.

The model shows that the semi-diurnal tides of the region are dominated by four nearby overlapping resonances. It shows that these not o...

Arbic, B. K., St-Laurent, P., Sutherland, G., and Garrett, C.: On the resonance and influence of the tides in Ungava Bay and Hudson Strait, Geophys. Res. Lett, 34, L17606, doi:10.1029/2007/GL030845, 2007.; Egbert, G. D. and Erofeeva, S. Y.: Efficient inverse modeling of barotropic ocean tides, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 183–204, 2002.; Egbert, G. and Ray, R.: Estimates of $M_2$ tidal energy dissipation from TOPEX/Poseidon ...

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Scaling Aspects of the Sea-ice-drift Dynamics and Pack Fracture : ...

By: V. N. Smirnov; L. V. Panov; A. Chmel

Description: Fracture Physics Department, Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021 St. Petersburg, Russia. A study of the sea-ice dynamics in the periods of time prior to and during the cycles of basin-wide fragmentation of the ice cover in the Arctic Ocean is presented. The fractal geometry of the ice-sheets limited by leads and ridges was assessed using the satellite images, while the data on the correlated sea-ice motion were obtained...

Arneodo, A., Bacry, E., and Muzy, J. F.: The thermodynamics of fractals revisited with wavelets, Physica A, 213, 232–275, 1995.; Bouchaud, E.: Scaling properties of cracks, J. Phys.: Cond. Matter, 9, 4319–4344, 1997.; Caldarelli, G., Di Tolla, F. D., and Petri, A.: Self-organization and annealed disorder in a fracturing process, Phys. Rev. Lett., 77, 2503–2506, 1996.; Carpinteri, A., Lacidogna., G., and Pugno, N.: Scaling of energy dissipation in crushing and fragmentati...

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Deep Ocean Exchange with West-european Shelf Seas : Volume 6, Issu...

By: S. L. Wakelin; J. M. Huthnance; J. T. Holt

Description: Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory, 6 Brownlow Street, Liverpool L3 5DA, UK. We review mechanisms and studies of exchange between the north-east Atlantic and the adjacent shelf sea. Mechanisms include: well-developed summer upwelling and associated filaments off Portugal and north-west Spain giving exchange O(3 m2/s per unit length of shelf); prevailing westerly winds further north driving exchange O(1 m2/s); poleward flow along most...

Allen, J. I., Blackford, J., Holt, J. T., Proctor, R., Ashworth M., and Siddorn, J.: A highly spatially resolved ecosystem model for the North West European continental shelf, Sarsia, 86, 423–440, 2001.; Barton, E. D., Inall, M. E., Sherwin, T. J., and Torres, R.: Vertical structure, turbulent mixing and fluxes during Lagrangian observations of an upwelling filament system off Northwest Iberia, Prog. Oceanogr., 51, 249–267, 2001.; Biscaye, P. E., Flagg, C. N., and Falkow...

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Variability of Synoptic-scale Quasi-stationary Thermohaline Strati...

By: U. Lips; T. Liblik

Description: Marine Systems Institute, Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia Road 15a, 12618 Tallinn, Estonia. We present and analyze high-resolution observational data of thermohaline structure and currents acquired in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea), using an autonomous buoy profiler and bottom-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler during July–August 2009. Vertical profiles of temperature and salinity were measured in the upper 50-m layer with a 3 h time...

Alenius, P., Myrberg, K., and Nekrasov, A.: The physical oceanography of the Gulf of Finland: a review, Boreal. Env. Res., 3, 97–125, 1998.; Alenius, P., Nekrasov, A., and Myrberg, K.: Variability of the baroclinic Rossby radius in the Gulf of Finland, Cont. Shelf Res., 23, 563–573, 2003.; Chubarenko, I. and Demchenko, N.: On contribution of horizontal and intra-layer convection to the formation of the Baltic Sea cold intermediate layer, Ocean Sci., 6, 285–299,

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Using Empirical Orthogonal Functions Derived from Remote-sensing R...

By: T. Dinter; M. H. Taylor; F. Steinmetz; B. Taylor; A. Bracher; R. Röttgers

Description: Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Bussestraße 24, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany. The composition and abundance of algal pigments provide information on phytoplankton community characteristics such as photoacclimation, overall biomass and taxonomic composition. In particular, pigments play a major role in photoprotection and in the light-driven part of photosynthesis. Most phytoplankton pigments can be measured by high-...

Bracher, A., Taylor, M. H., Taylor, B., Dinter, T., Röttgers, R., and Steinmetz, F.: Using empirical orthogonal functions derived from remote sensing reflectance for the prediction of concentrations of phytoplankton pigments, Ocean Sci. Discuss., 11, 2073–2117, doi:10.5194/osd-11-2073-2014, 2014.; Brewin, R. J. W., Sathyendranath, S., Müeller, D., Brockmann, C., Deschamps, P.-Y., Devred, E., Doerffer, R., Fomferra, N...

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Water Masses and Zonal Current in the Western Tropical Atlantic in...

By: J. Grelet; B. Hamelin; M. Grenier; A. C. Silva; F. Roubaud; F. Lyard; R. Chuchla; C. Jeandel

Description: Laboratório de Oceanografia Física, Departamento de Oceanografia da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Arquitetura s/n, 50740-550, Campus Universitário, Recife, PE, Brazil. The properties and circulation of water masses are examined using data collected from a hydrographic and Acoustic Doppler Current profiler in the Western Tropical Atlantic during two cruises of the GEOTRACES process study AMANDES (AMazon-ANDEans): AMANDES I (October–November 2007)...

Arhan, M., Mercier, H., Bourlès, B., and Gouriou, Y.: Hydrographic sections across the Atlantic at 7°30 N and 4°30 S, Deep-Sea Res., 45, 829–872, 1998.; Bourlès, B., Molinari, R. L., Johns, E., Wilson, W. D., and Leaman, K. D.: Upper layer currents in the western tropical North Atlantic (1989–1991), J. Geophys. Res., 104, 1361–1375, 1999a.; Bourlès, B., Gouriou, Y., and Chuchla, R.: On the circulation in the upper layer of the western equatorial Atlantic, J. Geophys. Res...

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Arctic Ocean Circulation and Variability – Advection and External ...

By: B. Rudels

Description: Department of Physics, University of Helsinki and Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finnland. The first hydrographic data from the Arctic Ocean, the section from the Laptev Sea to the passage between Greenland and Svalbard obtained by Nansen on the drift by Fram 1893–1896, aptly illustrate the main features of Arctic Ocean oceanography and indicate possible processes active in transforming the water masses in the Arctic Ocean. M...

Aagaard, K., Swift, J. H., and Carmack, E. C.: Thermohaline circulation in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, J. Geophys. Res., 90, 4833–4846, 1985.; Aagaard, K.: On the deep circulation in the Arctic Ocean, Deep-Sea Res., 27, 251–268, 1980.; Aagaard, K. and Coachman, L. K.: Toward an ice-free Arctic Ocean, EOS T. Am. Geophys. Un., 56, 484–486, 1975.; Aagaard, K. and Greisman, P.: Towards a new mass and heat budget for the Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 80, 3821–3827, 1975....

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Coastal Observing and Forecasting System for the German Bight – Es...

By: J. Staneva; S. Grayek; J. Schulz-stellenfleth; W. Petersen; E. V. Stanev; J. Seemann

Description: Institute of Coastal Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG), Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht, Germany. A coastal observing system for Northern and Arctic Seas (COSYNA) aims at construction of a long-term observatory for the German part of the North Sea, elements of which will be deployed as prototype modules in Arctic coastal waters. At present a coastal prediction system deployed in the area of the German Bight integrates near r...

Backhaus, J. O. and Maier-Reimer, E.: On seasonal circulation in the North Sea, in: North Sea Dynamics, edited by: Sündermann, J. and Lenz, W., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 693 pp., 1983.; Barrick, D. E., Evans, M. W., and Weber, B. L.: Ocean surface currents mapped by radar, Science, 198(4313), 138–144, 1977.; Barth, A., Alvera-Azcárate, A., and Weisberg, R.: Assimilation of high-frequency radar currents in a nested model of the West Florida Shelf, J. ...

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Improved Sea Level Record Over the Satellite Altimetry Era (1993–2...

By: M. Picot; B. Meyssignac; M. Balmaseda; A. Cazenave; S. Rudenko; O. Andersen; P. Knudsen; P. Cipollini; J. A. Johannessen; G. Timms; G. Larnicol; M. J. Fernandes; J. Legeais; Y. Faugère; M. Ablain; M. Roca; O. Henry; J. Benveniste; D. Stammer; M. G. Scharffenberg

Description: Collecte Localisation Satellite(CLS), Ramoville Saint-Agne, France. Sea level is one of the 50 Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) listed by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) in climate change monitoring. In the last two decades, sea level has been routinely measured from space using satellite altimetry techniques. In order to address a number of important scientific questions such as: Is sea level rise accelerating?, Can we close the sea l...

Ablain, M., Cazenave, A., Valladeau, G., and Guinehut, S.: A new assessment of the error budget of global mean sea level rate estimated by satellite altimetry over 1993–2008, Ocean Sci., 5, 193–201, doi:10.5194/os-5-193-2009, 2009.; Ablain, M., Philipps, S., Urvoy, M., Tran, N., and Picot, N.: Detection of long-term instabilities on altimeter backscattering coefficient thanks to wind speed data comparisons from altimete...

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High Frequency Fluctuations in the Heat Content of an Ocean Genera...

By: D. J. Webb; A. M. Huerta-casas

Description: National Oceanography Centre, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK. The transport and storage of heat by the ocean is of crucial importance because of its effect on ocean dynamics and its impact on the atmosphere, climate and climate change. Unfortunately, limits to the amount of data that can be collected and stored mean that many experimental and modelling studies of the heat budget have to make use of mean datasets where the effects of short term fluctuations ar...

Arakawa, A.: Computational design for long-term numerical integration of the equations of fluid motion: Two dimensional incompressible flow, Part I, J. Comput. Phys., 1, 119–143, 1966.; Bonjean, F. and Lagerloef, G.: Diagnostic Model and Analysis of the Surface Currents in the Tropical Pacific Ocean, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 2938–2954, 2002.; Bryan, K.: A numerical method for the study of the circulation of the world ocean, J. Comput. Phys., 4, 347–376, 1969.; Bryden, H. ...

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The Land-ice Contribution to 21St-century Dynamic Sea Level Rise :...

By: J. A. Lowe; A. J. Payne; T. Howard; J. L. Bamber; J. Oerlemans; T. L. Edwards; J. Ridley; R. H. Giesen; R. T. W. L. Hurkmans; A. K. Pardaens

Description: Met Office Hadley Centre, FitzRoy Road, Exeter, EX1 3PB, UK. Climate change has the potential to influence global mean sea level through a number of processes including (but not limited to) thermal expansion of the oceans and enhanced land ice melt. In addition to their contribution to global mean sea level change, these two processes (among others) lead to local departures from the global mean sea level change, through a number of mechanisms including ...

Aiken, C. M. and England, M. H.: Sensitivity of the present-day climate to freshwater forcing associated with Antarctic sea ice loss, J. Climate, 21, 3936–3946, doi:10.1175/2007jcli1901.1, 2008.; Baldwin, M. P., Stephenson, D. B., and Jolliffe, I. T.: Spatial Weighting and Iterative Projection Methods for EOFs, J. Climate, 22, 2340–243, doi:10.1175/2008jcli2147.1, 20...

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Atlantic Transport Variability at 25° N in Six Hydrographic Sectio...

By: H. L. Bryden; S. A. Cunningham; B. A. King; C. P. Atkinson

Description: National Oceanography Centre, European Way, Southampton, SO14 3ZH, UK. In January and February 2010, a sixth transatlantic hydrographic section was completed across 25° N, extending the hydrographic record at this latitude to over half a century. In combination with continuous transport measurements made since 2004 at 26.5° N by the Rapid-WATCH project, we reassess transport variability in the 25° N hydrographic record. Past studies of transport variabi...

Atkinson, C. P.: Variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26° N, Ph.D. thesis, School of Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK, 293 pp., 2011.; Bacon, S.: Decadal variability in the outflow from the Nordic seas to the deep Atlantic Ocean, Nature, 394, 871–874, 1998.; Atkinson, C. P., Bryden, H. L., Hirschi, J. J-M., and Kanzow, T.: On the seasonal cycles and variability of Florida Straits, Ekman and Sverdrup transpor...

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