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Tidal Variability of the Motion in the Strait of Otranto : Volume ...

By: V. Kovačević; M. Gačić; L. Ursella

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS), B.go Grotta Gigante 42/c, 34010 Sgonico (TS), Italy. Various current data, collected in the Strait of Otranto during the period 1994–2007, have been analysed with the aim of describing the characteristics of the tidal motions and their contribution to the total flow variance. The principal tidal constituents in the area were the semi-diurnal (M2) and the diurnal (K1), with the latter o...

Torrence, C. and Webster, P. J.: Interdecadal changes in the ENSO-monsoon System, J. Climate, 12, 2679–2690, 1999.; Baines, P. G.: Internal tides, internal waves and near-inertial motions, in: Baroclinic Processes on Continental Shelves, edited by: Mooers, C. N. K., AGU, Washington, D.C., 19–31, 1986.; Beckenbach, E. and Terrill, E.: Internal tides over abrupt topography in the Southern California Bight: observations of diurnal waves poleward of the critical latitude, J....

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Assessment of the 3-d Temperature and Salinity Observational Netwo...

By: W. Fu; J. She; J. L. Høyer

Description: Center for Ocean and Ice (COI), Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI), Copenhagen, Denmark. The spatial averaged correlations are presented in 1.5° × 1.5° bins for the North and Baltic Sea region. The averaged correlations are computed based on the proxy ocean data generated by the operational forecat model of Danish Meteorology Institute (DMI). It is shown that the spatial distribution of the averaged correlations could reflect the overall influence of...

Barth, N. and Wunsch, C.: Oceanographic experiment design by simulated annealing, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 20, 1249–1263, 1990.; Barth, A., Alvera-Azcarate, A., Rixen, M., and Beckers, J.-M.: Two-way nested model of mesoscale circulation features in the Ligurian Sea, Prog. Oceanogr., 66(2–4), 171–189, 2005.; Bartello, P. and Mitchell, H. L.: A continuous three-dimensional model of short-range forecast error covariances, Tellus A, 44, 217–235, 1992.; Berg, P.: MIKE 3, Estuarin...

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Geostrophic Currents and Kinetic Energies in the Black Sea Estimat...

By: P.-m. Poulain; M. Menna

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e Geofisica Sperimentale – OGS, Trieste, Italy. Drifter measurements and satellite altimetry data are merged to reconstruct the surface geostrophic circulation of the Black Sea in the period 1999–2009. This combined data set is used to estimate pseudo-Eulerian velocity statistics for different time periods. Seasonal and interannual variability of currents and kinetic energy fields are described with particular attentio...

Atlas, R., Ardizzone, J. V., Hoffman, R., Jusem, J. C., and Leidner, S. M.: Cross-calibrated, multi-platform ocean surface wind velocity product (MEaSUREs Project), Guide Document, Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC), JPL, Pasadena, California, Version 1.0., 26 pp., 2009.; Centurioni, L. R., Ohlmann, J. C., and Niiler, P. P.: Permanent meanders in the California Current System, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38, 1690–1710,

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Operational Coastal Ocean Forecasting in the Eastern Mediterranean...

By: D. R. Hayes; R. Lardner; N. Skliris; G. Zodiatis; S. Sofianos; A. Lascaratos; G. Georgiou

Description: Oceanography Centre, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus. The Cyprus Coastal Ocean Forecasting and Observing System (CYCOFOS) has been producing operational flow forecasts of the northeastern Levantine Basin since 2002 and has been substantially improved in 2005. It is the first system in the Mediterranean to produce a forecast every day at the coastal scale. CYCOFOS uses a the POM (Princeton Ocean Model) flow model, and recently,...

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Seawater Capacitance – a Promising Proxy for Mapping and Character...

By: J. A. Fleming; J. C. Wynn

Description: Cascades Volcano Observatory, US Geological Survey, 1300 SE Cardinal Ct, Vancouver, WA 98683, USA. Hydrocarbons released into the deep ocean are an inevitable consequence of natural seep, seafloor drilling, and leaking wellhead-to-collection-point pipelines. The Macondo 252 (Deepwater Horizon) well blowout of 2010 was even larger than the Ixtoc event in the Gulf of Campeche in 1979. History suggests it will not be the last accidental release, as deep...

Breier, J. S., Rauch, C. G., McKartney, K., Toner, B. M., Fakra, S. C., White, S. N., and German, C. R.: A suspended-particle rosette multi-sampler for discrete biogeochemical sampling in low-particle-density waters, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Paper LBNL-3586E, 11 pp., 2010.; Camilli, R., Reddy, C. M., Yoerger, D. R., Van Mooy, B. A. S., Jakuba, M. V., Kinsey, J. C., McIntyre, C. P., Sylva, S. P., and Maloney, J. V.: Tracking hydrocarbon plume transport and bi...

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Temporal Variations of Zooplankton Biomass in the Ligurian Sea Inf...

By: S. Pensieri; P. Picco; E. Fanelli; R. Bozzano; M. E. Schiano

Description: National Research Council of Italy (CNR-ISSIA) – Via de Marini 6, 16149, Genova, Italy. Three years of 300 kHz ADCP data collected in the central Ligurian Sea are analyzed to investigate the variability of the zooplankton biomass and the Diel Vertical Migrations (DVM) in the upper thermocline. After a pre-processing aimed at avoiding the slant range attenuation, hourly volume backscattering strength time series are obtained. Despite the l...

Ainslie, M. A.: A simplified formula for viscous and chemical absorption in sea water, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 103, 1671–1672, 1998.; Andersen, V.: Zooplankton community during the transition from spring bloom to oligotrophy in the open NW Mediterranean and effects of wind events. 1. Abundance and specific composition, J. Plankton Res., 23, 227–242, 2001a.; Andersen, V.: Zooplankton community during the transition from spring bloom to oligotrophy in the open NW Mediterranea...

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Atmospheric Forcing by Aladin/Mfstep and Mfstep Oriented Tunings :...

By: M. Belluš; M. Derková; A. Farda; R. Brožková

Description: Czech Hydrometeorological Institute, Prague, Czech Republic. ALADIN/MFSTEP is a configuration of the numerical weather prediction (NWP) model ALADIN run in a dedicated real-time mode for the purposes of the MFSTEP Project. A special attention was paid to the quality of atmospheric fluxes used for the forcing of fine-scale oceanographic models. This paper describes the novelties applied in ALADIN/MFSTEP initiated by the MFSTEP demands, leading also to im...

Green, J. S. A.: Division of radiative streams into internal transfer and cooling to space, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 93, 371–372, 1967.; Berre, L.: Estimation of synoptic and mesoscale forecast error covariances in a limited area model, Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 644–667, 2000.; Boer, G. J., Mc Farlane, N. A., Laprise, R., Henderson, J. D., and Blanchet, J.-P.: The Canadian Climate Centre spectral atmospheric general circulation model, Atmos.-Ocean, 22, 397–429, 1984.; Bougeau...

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The Radmed Monitoring Program: Towards an Ecosystem Approach : Vol...

By: B. Amengual; A. Aparicio-gonzález; R. Santiago; M. Serra; L. Vicente; M. C. García-martínez; J. L. López-jurado; A. Morillas-kieffer; F. Moyá; M. L. Fernández De Puelles; M. Gazá; M. Vargas-yáñez; J. Jansá; R. Balbín

Description: Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Centro Oceanográfico de Baleares, IEO, Palma de Mallorca, Baleares, Spain. In the Western Mediterranean, the IEO-RADMED monitoring program is already conducting many of the evaluations required under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MFSD) along the Spanish Mediterranean coast. The different aspects of the ecosystem that are regularly sampled under this monitoring program are the physical environment and the chemical...

Alemany, F., Quintanilla, L., Velez-Belchí, P., García, A., Cortés, D., Rodríguez, J. M., Fernández de Puelles, M. L., González-Pola, C., and López-Jurado, J. L.: Characterization of the spawning habitat of Atlantic bluefin tuna and related species in the Balearic Sea (western Mediterranean), Prog. Oceanogr., 86, 21–38, 2010.; Aparicio-González, A., López-Jurado, J. L., Balbín, R., Alonso, J. C., Amengual, B., Jansá, J., García, M. C., Moyá, F., Santiago, R., Serra, M., ...

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The Mediterranean is Becoming Saltier : Volume 10, Issue 4 (07/08/...

By: H. Bryden; A. Vetrano; M. Borghini; S. Sparnocchia; K. Schroeder

Description: Istituto di Scienze Marine – ISMAR, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Forte Santa Teresa, 19032 Lerici (SP), Italy. The deep waters of the western Mediterranean Sea have become saltier and warmer for at least the past 40 years at rates of about 0.015 and 0.04 °C per decade. Here we show that two processes contribute to these increases in temperature and salinity. On interannual timescales, deep water formation events in severe winters transmit in...

Béthoux, J. P.: Budgets of the Mediterranean Sea, their dependence on the local climate and on characteristics of the Atlantic waters, Oceanologica Acta, 2, 157–163, 1979.; Béthoux, J. P. and Gentili, B.: Functioning of the Mediterranean Sea: Past and present changes related to freshwater input and climate changes, J. Mar. Syst., 20, 33–47, 1999.; Bryden, H. L. and Kinder, T. H.: Steady two-layer exchange through the Strait of Gibraltar, Deep-Sea Res., 38 (Supplement 1),...

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Application of a Hybrid Enkf-oi to Ocean Forecasting : Volume 6, I...

By: L. Bertino; P. Sakov; F. Counillon

Description: Mohn Sverdrup Center/Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center Thormøhlensgate 47, Bergen, Norway. Data assimilation methods often use an ensemble to represent the background error covariance. Two approaches are commonly used; a simple one with a static ensemble, or a more advanced one with a dynamic ensemble. The latter is often non-practical due to its high computational requirements. Some recent studies suggested using a hybrid co...

Bentsen, M., Evensen, G., Drange, H., and Jenkins, A. D.: Coordinate transformation on a sphere using conformal mapping, Mon. Weather Rev., 127, 2733–2740, 1999.; Bishop, C. H., Etherton, B. J., and Majumdar, S. J.: Adaptive sampling with the ensemble transform Kalman filter. Part I: Theoretical aspects, Mon. Weather Rev., 129, 420–436, 2001.; Browning, G. L. and Kreiss, H. O.: Initialization of the shallow water equations with open boundaries by the bounded derivative m...

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Bio-optical Characterization and Light Availability Parametrizatio...

By: O. Zielinski; L. Holinde

Description: Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment, University of Oldenburg, Carl-von-Ossietzky-Str. 9–11, 26129 Oldenburg, Germany. Estuary systems are well-defined semi-enclosed systems which are strongly influenced by their terrestrial and marine boundaries. In this paper we investigate the bio-optical conditions in the water column of two neighboring estuary systems, Uummannaq Fjord and Vaigat–Disko Bay, in West Greenland. Though close to ...

Amante, C. and Eakins, B. W.: ETOPO1 1 Arc-Minute Global Relief Model: Procedures, Data Sources and Analysis, doi:10.7289/V5C8276M, available at: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/global/global.html, (last access: 25 March 2015), 2009.; Arar, E. J.: Method 446.0: In Vitro Determination of Chlorophylls a, b, c + c and Pheopigments in Marine And Freshwater Algae by Visible...

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Hydrodynamic Variability Based on the Multi-parametric Poseidon Py...

By: L. Perivoliotis; K. Nittis; D. Kassis

Description: Institute of Oceanography, Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, P.O. Box 712, 19013 Anavissos, Greece. The multi-platform POSEIDON-Pylos observatory of the south-east Ionian Sea operates since 2007 delivering near real time data for a variety of meteorological, water column and near seabed oceanographic parameters. It has been designed to contribute to long term monitoring of air–sea interaction and thermohaline processes of this key area of the E...

Ovchinnikov, I. M.: Formation of Intermediate Waters in the Mediterranean Sea, Oceanology, 24, 217–255, 1984.; Amitai, E. and Nystuen, J.: Underwater acoustic measurements of rainfall, in: Precipitation: Advances in Measurement, Estimation and Prediction, edited by: Michaelides, S., Springer, 343–363, 2008.; Astraldi, M., Balopoulos, S., Candela, J., Font, J., Gacic, M., Gasparini, G. P., Manca, B., Theocharis, A., and Tintoré, J.: The role of straits and channels in und...

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The Circulation of the Persian Gulf: a Numerical Study : Volume 2,...

By: M. Sadrinasab; J. Kämpf

Description: School of Chemistry, Physics and Earth Sciences, Flinders Research Centre for Coast and Catchment Environments, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia. We employ a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model (COHERENS) in a fully prognostic mode to study the circulation and water mass properties of the Persian Gulf – a large inverse estuary. Our findings, which are in good agreement with observational evidence, suggest that the Persian Gulf experiences a dist...

Arakawa, A. and Suarez, M. J.: Vertical differencing of the primitive equations in sigma coordinates, Mon. Wea. Rev., 111, 34–45, 1983.; Ahmad, F. and Sultan, S. A. R.: Annual mean surface heat fluxes in the Arabian Gulf and the net heat transport through the Strait of Hormuz, Atmos. Ocean., 29, 54–61, 1991.; Alessi, C. A., Hunt, H. D., and Bower, A. S.: Hydrographic data from the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office: Persian Gulf, Southern Red Sea, and Arabian Sea 1923–1996,...

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Factors Favouring Large Organic Production in the Northern Adriati...

By: R. Precali; N. Supić; R. Kraus

Description: Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Rovinj, Croatia. Influenced by one of the largest Mediterranean rivers, Po, the northern Adriatic production is highly variable seasonally and interannually. The changes are especially pronounced between winters and seemingly reflect on total Adriatic bioproduction of certain species (anchovy). We analysed the long-term changes in the phytoplankton production at the transect in the region, as derived from mo...

Civitarese, G., Gačić, M., Lipizer, M., and Borzelli, G. L. E.: On the impact of the Bimodal Oscillating System (BiOS) on the biogeochemistry and biology of the Adriatic and Ionian Seas (Eastern Mediterranean), Biogeosciences, 7, 3987–3997, doi:10.5194/bg-7-3987-2010, 2010.; Cosoli, S., Gačić, M., and Mazzoldi, A.: Surface current variability and wind influence in the northeastern Adriatic Sea as observed from high-fre...

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Application of a Hybrid Enkf-oi to Ocean Forecasting : Volume 5, I...

By: P. Sakov; L. Bertino; F. Counillon

Description: Mohn Sverdrup Center/Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center Thormøhlensgate 47 , Bergen, Norway. Data assimilation methods often use an ensemble to represent the background error covariance. Two approaches are commonly used; a simple one with a static ensemble, or a more advanced one with a dynamic ensemble. The latter is often non-practical due to its high computational requirements. Some recent studies suggested using a hybrid covariance, which...

Bentsen, M., Evensen, G. Drange, H. and Jenkins, A. D.: Coordinate transformation on a sphere using conformal mapping, Mon.\ Weather Rev.\/, 127\/, 2733–2740, 1999.; Bishop, C. H., Etherton, B. J., and Majumdar, S. J.: Adaptive sampling with the ensemble transform Kalman filter. Part I: Theoretical aspects, Mon.\ Weather Rev.\/, 129\/, 420–436, 2001.; Browning, G. L. and Kreiss, H. O.: Initialization of the shallow water equations with open boundaries by the bounded deri...

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Absolute Salinity, ''Density Salinity'' and the Reference-composit...

By: G. M. Marion; R. Pawlowicz; T. J. McDougall; D. G. Wright; R. Feistel

Description: Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS, B2Y 4A2, Canada. Salinity plays a key role in the determination of the thermodynamic properties of seawater and the new TEOS-101 standard provides a consistent and effective approach to dealing with relationships between salinity and these thermodynamic properties. However, there are a number of practical issues that arise in the application of TEOS-10, both in terms of accuracy...

Bacon, S., Culkin, F., Higgs, N., and Ridout, P.: IAPSO Standard Seawater: definition of the uncertainty in the calibration procedure, and stability of recent batches, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 24, 1785–1799, 2007.; Brewer, P. G. and Bradshaw, A.: The effect of non-ideal composition of seawater on salinity and density, J. Mar. Res., 33, 157–175, 1975.; Chen, C.-T. A.: Shelf-vs. dissolution-generated alkalinity above the chemical lysocline, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 49, 5365–53...

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Coastal Sea Level Response to the Tropical Cyclonic Forcing in the...

By: Y. Agarvadekar; M. Soumya; P. Vethamony; S. Lobo; K. Vijaykumar; P. Mehra; R. Luis; K. Jyoti; T. M. Balakrishnan Nair; B. Harmalkar; K. Sudheesh

Description: CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Goa, India. The study examines the observed storm-generated sea level variation due to deep depression (event 1: E1) in the Arabian Sea from 26 November to 1 December 2011 and a cyclonic storm THANE (event 2: E2) over the Bay of Bengal during 25–31 December 2011. The sea level and surface meteorological measurements collected during these extreme events exhibit strong synoptic disturbances leading to storm ...

Antony, C. and Unnikrishnan, A. S.: Observed characteristics of tide-surge interaction along the east coast of India and the head of Bay of Bengal, Estuar. Coast. Shelf S., 131, 6–11, doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2013.08.004, 2013.; Bell, C., Vassie, J. M., and Woodworth, P. L.: Tidal Analysis Software Kit 2000 (Task 2000), POL/PSMSL Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level, Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory, UK, 2000.; Das, P. ...

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Automated Gas Bubble Imaging at Sea Floor – a New Method of in Sit...

By: O. Zielinski; H. Sahling; K. Thomanek; G. Bohrmann

Description: University of Applied Sciences Bremerhaven, An der Karlstadt 8, 27568 Germany. Photo-optical systems are common in marine sciences and have been extensively used in coastal and deep-sea research. However, due to technical limitations in the past photo images had to be processed manually or semi-automatically. Recent advances in technology have rapidly improved image recording, storage and processing capabilities which are used in a new concept of automa...

Agrawal, Y. C. and Pottsmith, H. C.: Autonomous Long-Term in situ Particle Sizing Using A New Laser Diffraction Instrument, OCEANS, 5, 1575–1580, 1989.; Belcher, E. O.: Quantification of Bubbles Formed in Animals and Man During Decompression, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 27, 330–338, 1980.; Brauer, H.: Grundlagen der Einphasen- und Mehrphasenströmungen, Verlag Sauerländer, Aarau und Frankfurt am Main, 1971.; Brauer, H.: Turbulenzen in mehrphasigen Strömungen, Chem.-Ing.-Tech...

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Assymmetric Eddy Populations in Adjacent Basins – a High Resolutio...

By: A. Vetrano; E. Casella; X. Couvelard; R. M. A. Caldeira

Description: CIIMAR-Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto, Portugal. A high-resolution ocean circulation modelling system forced with a high-resolution numerical wind product was used to study the mesoscale and sub-mesoscale eddy population of the North-Western Mediterranean Sea, contrasting eddy-activity between the Tyrrhenian and Ligurian sub-basins. Numerical solutions reproduced some of the ...

Alb{é}rola, C., Millot, C., and Font, J.: On the seasonal and mesoscale variabilities on the northern current during the PRIMO-0 experiment in the Western Mediterranean Sea, Oceanol. Acta, 18, 163–192, 1995.; Andr{é}, G., Garreau, P., Garnier, V., and Frauni{é}, P.: Modelled variability of the sea surface circulation in the North-western Mediterranean Sea and in the Gulf of Lions, Ocean Dynam., 55, 294–308, 2005.; Arnone, R.: The temporal and spatial variability of chlor...

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Impact of Variable Sea-water Conductivity on Motional Induction Si...

By: M. Thomas; C. Irrgang; J. Saynisch

Description: Helmholtz Centre Potsdam, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Section 1.3, Earth System Modelling, Potsdam, Germany. Carrying high concentrations of dissolved salt, ocean water is a good electrical conductor. As sea-water flows through the Earth's ambient geomagnetic field, electric fields are generated, which in turn induce secondary magnetic fields. In current models for oceanic induced magnetic fields, a realistic consideration of sea-wate...

Tyler, R. H., Mysak, L. A., and Oberhuber, J. M.: Electromagnetic fields generated by a three dimensional global ocean circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 5531–5551, 1997.; Tyler, R. H., Maus, S., and Lühr, H.: Satellite observations of magnetic fields due to ocean tidal flow, Science, 299, 239–241, 2003.; Apel, J. R.: Principles of Ocean Physics, vol. 38, International Geophysics Series, Academic Press, San Diego, California, 1987.; Chave, A. D.: On the theory of electr...

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