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Energetics of the Layer-thickness Form Drag Based on an Integral I...

By: T. Yamagata; H. Aiki

Description: Frontier Research Center for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokohama-city 236-0001, Japan. The vertical redistribution of the geostrophic momentum by the residual effects of pressure perturbations (called the layer-thickness form drag) is investigated using thickness-weighted temporal-averaged mean primitive equations for a continuously stratified fluid in an adiabatic formulation. A four-box energy diagram, in whic...

Aiki, H., Jacobson, T., and Yamagata, T.: Parameterizing ocean eddy transports from surface to bottom, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L19 302, doi:10.1029/2004GL020703, 2004.; Andrews, R. G.: A finite-amplitude Eliassen-Palm theorem in isentropic coordinates, J. Atmos. Sci., 40, 1877–1883, 1983.; Andrews, R. G. and McIntyre, M. E.: An exact theory of nonlinear waves on a Lagrangian-mean flow, J. Fluid Mech., 89, 609–646, 1978.; Andrews, R. G. and McIntyre, M. E.: Planetary wav...

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Modelling Survival and Connectivity of Mnemiopsis Leidyi in the So...

By: J. Van Der Molen; S. Pitois; V. Langenberg; L. Vansteenbrugge; L. Van Walraven; H. W. Van Der Veer; J. Van Beek; S. Augustine; J. Robbens; K. Hostens

Description: The Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS), Lowestoft, UK. Three different models were applied to study the reproduction, survival and dispersal of Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Scheldt estuaries and the southern North Sea: a high-resolution particle tracking model with passive particles, a low-resolution particle tracking model with a reproduction model coupled to a biogeochemical model, and a dynamic energy budget (DEB) mode...

Baker, L. D. and Reeve, M. R.: Laboratory Culture of the Lobate Ctenophore Mnemiopsis mccradyi with Notes on Feeding and Fecundity, Mar. Biol., 26, 57–62, 1974.; Antajan, E., Bastian, T., Raud, T., Brylinski, J.-M., Hoffman, S., Breton, G., Cornille, V., Delegrange, A., and Vincent, D.: The invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi A. Agassiz, 1865 along the English Channel and the North Sea French coasts: another introduction pathway in northern European water...

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Technical Note: a Low Cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Ship Based ...

By: M. Mowlem; E. Waugh

Description: National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, SO14 3ZH, UK. A low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicle is compared with those already available and the motivation for its development is established. It is targeted at ship-based science missions and potential applications are described including a specific science case to measure white capping in the deep ocean. The current vehicle includes a range of more than 1000 Km, carrying a payload of 2 Kg and it can be laun...

Anguelova, M. D. and Webster, F.: Whitecap coverage from satellite measurements: A first step toward modeling the variability of oceanic whitecaps, J. Geophys. Res., 111, doi:10.1029/2005JC003158, 2006.; Bennett, M.: Development of technologies for low-cost oceanographic uavs, Doctorate of Engineering, Electronics Computer Science, University of Southampton, 2007.; Callaghan, A. H. and White, M.: Automated processing of sea surface images for the determination of whiteca...

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Comparative Analysis of the Multi-sensor Global Ocean Colour Data ...

By: F. Mélin; N. Hoepffner; S. Djavidnia

Description: European Commission – Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, TP272, via Fermi, 2749, 21027, ISPRA, Italy. The extending record of ocean colour derived information, an important asset for the study of marine ecosystems and biogeochemistry, presently relies on individual satellite missions launched by several space agencies with differences in sensor design, calibration strategies and algorithms. In this study we present an ex...

Antoine, D. and Morel, A.: A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (MERIS instrument): Principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones, Int. J. Remote Sens., 20, 1875–1916, 1999.; Behrenfeld, M. J., Randerson, J. T., McClain, C. R., Feldman, G. C., Los, S. O., Tucker, C. J., Falkowski, P. G., Field, C. B., Frouin, R., Esaias, W. E., Kolber, D. D., and Pollack, N. H.: Biosph...

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Impact of Model Resolution on Sea-level Variability Characteristic...

By: L. Brodeau; G. C. Smith; T. Penduff; B. Barnier; M. Juza; J.-m. Molines; A.-m. Treguier

Description: Laboratoire des Ecoulements Géophysiques et Industriels, Grenoble, France. Four global ocean/sea-ice simulations driven by the same realistic 46-year daily atmospheric forcing were performed within the DRAKKAR project at 2°, 1°, ½° and ¼° resolutions. Model sea-level anomalies are collocated over the period 1993–2004 onto the AVISO SLA dataset. These five collocated SLA datasets are then filtered and quantitatively compared over various time and space sca...

Arakawa, A. and Lamb, V.: A potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for the shallow water equations, Mon. Weather Rev., 109, 18–36, 1981.; Barnier, B., Madec, G., Penduff, T., Molines, J.-M., Treguier, A.-M., le Sommer, J., Beckmann, A., Biastoch, A., B{ö}ning, C., Dengg, J., Derval, C., Durand, E., Gulev, S., Remy, E., Talandier, C., Theetten, S., Maltrud, M., McClean, J., and de Cuevas, B.: Impact of partial steps and momentum advection schemes in a global cir...

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Estuarine Circulation Reversals and Related Rapid Changes in Winte...

By: J. Elken; J. Laanemets; U. Raudsepp; T. Liblik; I. Suhhova

Description: Marine Systems Institute, Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia Road 15a, 12618 Tallinn, Estonia. The reversal of estuarine circulation caused by southwesterly wind forcing may lead to vanishing of stratification and subsequently to oxygenation of deep layers during the winter in the Gulf of Finland. Six conductivity, temperature, depth (CTD)+oxygen transects (130 km long, 10 stations) were conducted along the thalweg from the western boundary to ...

Almroth, E., Tengberg, A., Andersson, J. H., Pakhomova, S., and Hall P. O. J.: Effects of resuspension on benthic fluxes of oxygen, nutrients, dissolved inorganic carbon, iron and manganese in the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea, Cont. Shelf Res., 29, 807–818, 2009.; Bergström, S. and Carlsson, B.: River runoff to the Baltic Sea: 1950–1990, Ambio, 23, 280–287, 1994.; Butterworth, S.: On the theory of filter amplifiers, Experimental Wireless and the Wireless Engineer, 7, 536–...

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Distributions of Mixed Layer Properties in North Pacific Water Mas...

By: T. Suga; F. M. Bingham

Description: Univ. of North Carolina Wilmington, Center for Marine Science, 5600 Marvin K. Moss Lane, Wilmington, NC 28409, USA. Winter mixed layer characteristics in the North Pacific Ocean are examined and compared between Argo floats in 2006 and the World Ocean Atlas 2001 (WOA01) climatology for a series of named water masses, North Pacific Tropical Water (NPTW), Eastern Subtropical Mode Water (ESTMW), North Pacific Subtropical Mode Water (NPSTMW), Light Central M...

Argo Science Team: Argo: The global array of profiling floats, in: Observing the oceans in the 21st Century, edited by: Koblinsky, C. J. and Smith, N. R., GODAE Proj. Off., Melbourne, Australia, 248–258, 2001.; Bingham, F.: The Formation and Spreading of Subtropical Mode Water in the North Pacific, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 11 177–11 189, 1992.; Bingham, F. M., Suga, T., and Hanawa, K.: The Origin of Waters Observed along 137$^\circ$ E, J. Geophys. Res., 107, C7, doi:10.1029...

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Seismic Imaging of a Thermohaline Staircase in the Western Tropica...

By: R. W. Schmitt; W. S. Holbrook; I. Fer; P. Páramo; P. Nandi

Description: Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Allégaten 70, 5007, Bergen, Norway. Multichannel seismic data acquired in the Lesser Antilles in the western tropical North Atlantic indicate that the seismic reflection method has imaged an oceanic thermohaline staircase. Synthetic acoustic modeling using measured density and sound speed profiles corroborates inferences from the seismic data. In a small portion of the seismic image, laterally coherent, uniform...

Garrett, C. J. and Munk, W. H.: Space-time scales of internal waves, Geophys. Fluid Dyn., 3, 225–264, 1972.; Bangs, N.: Ewing Cruise EW9803, 15 March–6 April 1998, Structure tectonics and sediment flow through the Lesser Antilles Subduction Zone, Tech. Rep., Institute og Geophysics, University of Texas, 1998.; Biescas, B., Sallar{è}s, V., Pelegri, J. L., Machin, F., Carbonell, R., Buffett, G., Da{ñ}obeitia, J. J., and Calahorrano, A.: Imaging Meddy finestructure using mu...

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Co-existence of Wind Seas and Swells Along the West Coast of India...

By: M. P. John; V. M. Aboobacker; P. Vethamony; R. Rashmi

Description: National Institute of Oceanography (CSIR), Dona Paula, Goa, India. An attempt has been made to understand the co-existence of wind seas and swells along the west coast of India during non-monsoon season. Wave data were collected in different years during non-monsoon season (off Goa during May 2005, off Ratnagiri during January–February 2008 and off Dwarka during December 2007–January 2008), which is fairly a calm weather season along these regions. Diur...

Aboobacker, V. M., Vethamony, P., and Rashmi, R.: Shamal swells in the Arabian Sea and their influence along the west coast of India, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L03608, doi:10.1029/2010GL045736, 2011a.; Aboobacker, V. M., Rashmi, R., Vethamony, P., and Menon, H. B.: On the dominance of pre-existing swells over wind seas along the west coast of India, Cont. Shelf Res., 31, 1701–1712, 2011b.; Alves, J. H. G. M: Numerical mod...

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Usefulness of High Resolution Coastal Models for Operational Oil S...

By: J. Mattsson; S. Dick; L. R. Hole; A. Carrasco; F. Janssen; G. Broström; S. Berger

Description: Norwegian Meteorological Institute (met.no), Norway. Oil spill modeling is considered to be an important part of a decision support system (DeSS) for oil spill combatment and is useful for remedial action in case of accidents, as well as for designing the environmental monitoring system that is frequently set up after major accidents. Many accidents take place in coastal areas, implying that low resolution basin scale ocean models are of limited use for...

Ardhuin, F., Marié, L., Rascale, N., and Forget, P.: Observation and estimation of Lagrangian, Stokes and Eulerian currents induced by wind and waves at the sea surface, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39, 2820–2838, 2009.; Blumberg, A. F. and Mellor, G. L.: A description of a three-dimensional coastal ocean circulation model, in: Three-Dimensional Coastal Ocean Models, edited by: Heaps, N. S., AGU Coastal and Estuarine Series, American Geophysical Union, Washington D.C., 1987.; Bro...

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Ocean State Indicators from Myocean Altimeter Products : Volume 9,...

By: M. H. Rio; C. Dufau; C. Boone; M. I. Pujol; L. Bessières

Description: AS+ – EOLEN, 5 avenue Didier Daurat, 31400 Toulouse, France. The Sea Level Thematic Assembly Center from the MyOcean project provides observations of the ocean dynamic topography from altimeter measurements. Three specific indicators have been developed, based on altimeter data only, in order to monitor the ocean state. The first ocean indicator observes the positive and negative phases of the ENSO events in the Tropical Pacific, the El Niño/La Niña eve...

Brachet, S.: Variabilité mésoéchelle océanique, comparaison altimétrie/modèle, PhD. Thesis, UPS-Toulouse III, 2005.; Borzelli, G. L. E., Gačić, M., Cardin, V., and Civitarese, G.: Eastern Mediterranean transient and reversal of the Ionian Sea circulation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L15108, doi:10.1029/2009GL039261, 2009.; Criado-Aldeanueva, F., Del Río Vera, J., and García-Lafuente, J.: Steric and mass-induced Mediterranea...

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Transport of Aabw Through the Kane Gap, Tropical NE Atlantic : Vol...

By: R. Yu. Tarakanov; H. Van Haren; E. G. Morozov

Description: Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nakhimovsky pr. 36, Moscow, 117997 Russia. We study low-frequency flow of Antarctic Bottom Water through the Kane Gap (9° N) in the Atlantic. The measurements in the Kane Gap include five visits with CTD sections in 2009–2012 and a year-long record of currents using three AquaDopp current-meters. We found an alternating regime of flow, which changes direction several times during a ye...

Hobart, M. A., Bunce, E. T., and Sclater, J. G.: Bottom water flow through the Kane Gap, Sierra Leone Rise, Atlantic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 80, 5083–5088, 1975.; Mantyla, A. W. and Reid, J. L.: Abyssal characteristics of the World Ocean waters, Deep-Sea Res., 30, 805–833 1983.; McCartney, M. S., Bennet, S. L., and Woodgate-Jones, M. E.: Eastward flow through the Mid-Atlantic ridge at 11{\degree} N and its influence on the abyss of the Eastern basin, J. Phys. Oceanogr.,...

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Meris-based Ocean Colour Classification with the Discrete Forel–ul...

By: H. J. Van Der Woerd; M. R. Wernand; A. Hommersom

Description: Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Physical Oceanography, Marine Optics and Remote Sensing, P.O. Box 59, 1790AB Den Burg, Texel, the Netherlands. Multispectral information from satellite borne ocean colour sensors is at present used to characterize natural waters via the retrieval of concentrations of the three dominant optical constituents; pigments of phytoplankton, non-algal particles and coloured dissolved organic matter. A limitation of t...

Antoine, D., Morel, A., Gordon, H. R., Banzon, V. F., and Evans, R. H.: Bridging ocean colour observations of the 1980s and 2000s in search of long-term trends, J. Geophys. Res. 110, C06009, doi:10.1029/2004JC002620, 2005.; Behrenfeld, M. J., O'Malley, R. T., Siegel, D. A., McClain, C. R., Sarmiento, J. L., Feldman, G. C., Milligan, A. J., Falkowski, P. G., Letelier, R. M., and Boss, E. S.: Climate-driven trends in conte...

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Altimetric Sampling and Mapping Procedures Induce Spatial and Temp...

By: G. Dibarboure; G. Larnicol; F. Briol; M.-i. Pujol

Description: INGV, Via Donato Creti 12, 40128 Bologna, Italy. This study deals with spatial and temporal aliasing of the sea surface signal and its restitution with altimetric maps of Sea Level Anomalies (SLA) in the Mediterranean Sea. Spatial and temporal altimetry sampling, combined with a mapping process, are unable to restore high-frequency (HF) surface variability. In the Mediterranean Sea, it has been shown that signals whose intervals are less than 30–40 days...

Carrère, L.: Etude et modelisation de la réponse haute fréquence de l'océan global aux forçages météorologiques, these de l'université Paul Sabatier Toulouse III, 2003.; Carrère, L. and Lyard, F.: Modeling the barotropic response of the global ocean to atmospheric wind and pressure forcing – comparison with observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(6), 1275, doi:10.1029/2002GL016473, 2003.; Ducet, N., Le Traon, P.-Y., and Reverdun, G.: Global high-resolution mapping of the o...

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Influence of the Southern Annular Mode on the Sea Ice-ocean System...

By: H. Goosse; W. Lefebvre

Description: Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut d’astronomie et de géophysique Georges Lemaître, Belgium. The global sea ice-ocean model ORCA2-LIM is used to investigate the impact of the thermal and mechanical forcing associated to the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) on the Antarctic sea ice-ocean system. To do so, the model is driven by idealized forcings based on regressions of the wind stress and the air temperature to SAM. The wind-stress component strongly ...

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Tidal Forcing, Energetics, and Mixing Near the Yermak Plateau : Vo...

By: A. K. Peterson; M. Müller; I. Fer

Description: Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. The Yermak Plateau, located northwest of Svalbard in Fram Strait, is the final passage for the inflow of warm Atlantic Water into the Arctic Ocean. The region is characterized by the largest barotropic tidal velocities in the Arctic Ocean. Internal waves generated in response to the tidal flow over this topographic feature locally contribute to mixing and remove heat from the Atlantic Wat...

Althaus, A. M., Kunze, E., and Sanford, T. B.: Internal tide radiation from Mendocino Escarpment, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33, 1510–1527, 2003.; Amante, C. and Eakins, B.: ETOPO1 1 Arc-Minute Global Relief Model: Procedures, Data Sources and Analysis, NOAA Technical Memorandum NESDIS NGDC-24, National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA, doi:10.7289/V5C8276M, 2009.; Arneborg, L. and Liljebladh, B.: Overturning and dissipation caused by...

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Implementation of Position Assimilation for Argo Floats in a Reali...

By: V. Taillandier; A. Griffa

Description: CNR-ISMAR, La Spezia, Italy. In this paper, a Lagrangian assimilation method is presented and implemented in a realistic OPA OGCM with the goal of providing an assessment of the assimilation of realistic Argo float position data. We focus on an application in the Mediterranean Sea, where in the framework of the MFSTEP project an array of Argo floats have been deployed with parking depth at 350 m and sampling interval of 5 days. In order to quantitativel...

Béranger, K., Mortier, L., and Crépon, M.: Seasonal variability of transports through the Gibraltar, Sicily and Corsica straits from a high resolution Mediterranean model, Prog. Oceanogr., 66, 341–364, 2005.; Gilbert, J.-C. and Lemaréchal, C.: Some numerical experiments with variable-storage quasi-Newton algorithms, Math. Program., 45, 407–435, 1989.; Ide, K., Kuznetsov, L., and Jones, C. K. R. T.: Lagrangian data assimilation for point vortex systems, J Turbul., 3, 53–5...

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Manifestation of Two Meddies in Altimetry and Sea-surface Temperat...

By: D. Boutov; J. Dias; I. Bashmachnikov

Description: Centro de Oceanografia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal. Two meddies were identified in the Iberian Basin using shipboard ADCP (Meddy 1) and ARGO float (Meddy 2) in contrasting background conditions. Meddy 1 was observed while interacting with the Azores current (AzC) while Meddy 2 was observed rather far north from the AzC jet, in much calmer dynamical background. In both cases the meddies produced ...

Arbic, B. K., Scott, R. B., Chelton, D. B., Richman, J. G., and Shriver, J. F.: Effects of stencil width on surface ocean geostrophic velocity and vorticity estimation from gridded satellite altimeter data, J. Geophys. Res., 117, C03029, doi:10.1029/2003JC001952, 2012.; AVISO altimeter products: http://www.aviso.oceanobs.com, produced by: Ssalto/Duacs and distributed by Aviso, wi...

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Three Decades of Research on the Greater Agulhas Current : Volume ...

By: J. R. E. Lutjeharms

Description: Department of Oceanography, University of Cape Town, 7700 Rondebosch, South Africa. The greater Agulhas Current has been shown to be a key link in the global thermohaline circulation and an increased understanding of this current system is therefore of more than just local interest. Knowledge on the Agulhas Current system has in fact increased enormously over the past 30 years. This review covers some aspects of what has been learnt on the northern and ...

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In Situ Determination of the Remote Sensing Reflectance: an Inter-...

By: K. Ruddick; I. Ansko; G. Moore; J. Icely; G. Zibordi; S. Kratzer; A. Reinart

Description: Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy. Inter-comparison of data products from simultaneous measurements performed with independent systems and methods is a viable approach to assess the consistency of data and additionally to investigate uncertainties. Within such a context the inter-comparison called Assessment of In Situ Radiometric Capabilities for Coastal Water Remote Sensing Applications (ARC) was c...

Achard, F., Eva, H. D., Stibig, H. J., Mayaux, P., Gallego, J., Richards, T., and Malingreau, J.P.: Determination of deforestation rates of the world's humid tropical forests, Science, 297, 999–1002, 2002.; Austin, R. W.: The remote sensing of spectral radiance from below the ocean surface, in: Optical Aspects of Oceanography, Academic Press, 1974.; Barton, I. J., Minnet, P. J., Maillet, K. A., Donlon, C. J., Hook, S. J., Jessup, A. T., and Nightingale, T. J.: The Miami2...

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