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Intercomparison of the Charnock and Core Bulk Wind Stress Formulat...

By: F. M. Mercier; A. J. Souza; J. M. Brown; L. O. Amoudry

Description: National Oceanography Centre, Joseph Proudman Building, 6 Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L3 5DA, UK. The accurate parameterisation of momentum and heat transfer across the air-sea interface is vital for realistic simulation of the atmosphere-ocean system. In many modelling applications accurate representation of the wind stress is required to numerically reproduce surge, coastal ocean circulation, surface waves, turbulence and mixing. Different formulat...

Howarth, M. J. and Palmer, M. R.: The Liverpool Bay Coastal Observatory, Ocean Dynam., 61, 1917–1926, 2011.; Charnock, H.: Wind-stress on a water surface, Q. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 81, 639–640, 1955.; Bell, M. J., Forbes, R. M., and Hines, A.: Assessment of the FOAM global data assimilation system for real-time operational ocean forecasting, J. Mar. Sys., 25, 1–25, 2000.; Bin, L., Liu, H., Xie, L., Guan, C., Zhao, D.: A coupled atmosphere–wave–ocean modeling system: sim...

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Metrics of Hurricane-ocean Interaction: Vertically-integrated or V...

By: J. F. Price

Description: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543, USA. The ocean thermal field is often represented in hurricane-ocean interaction by a metric termed the upper Ocean Heat Content (OHC), the vertical integral of ocean temperature in excess of 26°C. High values of OHC have proven useful for identifying ocean regions that are especially favorable for hurricane intensification. Nevertheless, it is argued here that a more direct and robu...

Allen, J. S., Beardsley, R. C., Blanton, J. O. , et al.: Physical oceanography of continental shelves, Rev. Geophys., 21(5), 1149–1181, 1983.; Bender, M. A., Ginis, I., and Kurihara, Y.: Numerical simulations of tropical cyclone-ocean interaction with a high resolution coupled model, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 98, 23,245–23,263, 1993.; Bingham, F. M.: Physical response of the coastal ocean to Hurricane Isabel near landfall, Ocean Sci., 3, 159–171, 2007.; Bender, M., Ginis,...

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Topaz4: an Ocean-sea Ice Data Assimilation System for the North At...

By: K. A. Lisæter; F. Counillon; A. Korablev; L. Bertino; P. R. Oke; P. Sakov

Description: Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen, Norway. We present a detailed description of TOPAZ4, the latest version of TOPAZ – a coupled ocean-sea ice data assimilation system for the North Atlantic Ocean and Arctic. It is the only operational, large-scale ocean data assimilation system that uses the ensemble Kalman filter. This means that TOPAZ features a time-evolving, state-dependent estimate of the state error covariance. Based on result...

Antonov, J., Locarnini, R., Boyer, T., Mishonov, A., and Garcia, H.: World Ocean Atlas 2005 Volume 2: Salinity, NOAA Atlas NESDIS, 62, 2006.; Bentsen, M., Evensen, G., Drange, H., and Jenkins, A. D.: Coordinate transformation on a sphere using conformal mapping, Mon. Weather Rev., 127, 2733–2740, 1999.; Bertino, L. and Lisæter, K.: The TOPAZ monitoring and prediction system for the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans, Journal of Operational Oceanography, 2008, 15–18, 2008.; Beszc...

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The Improvements of the Ships of Opportunity Program in Mfstep : V...

By: G. Coppini; C. Galli; G. Zodiatis; M. Borghini; F. Reseghetti; C. Tziavos; E. Özsoy; D. Hayes; Z. Velasquez; I. Gertman; A. Crusado; C. Millot; G. M. R. Manzella; T. Gervais

Description: ENEA CLIM, Forte S.Teresa. Pozzuolo, 19 036 Lerici, Italy. The Ships Of Opportunity Program in the Mediterranean Sea was established at the end of 1999, in the framework of the Mediterranean Forecasting System – Pilot Project (MFS-PP). Many improvements have been made in data collection, transmission and management. Calibration of selected XBTs and a comparison of XBTs vs. CTDs during some research cruises have assured the quality of the data. Transmissi...

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Comparative Heat and Gas Exchange Measurements in the Heidelberg A...

By: K. E. Krall; B. Jähne; L. Nagel

Description: Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. A comparative study of simultaneous heat and gas exchange measurements was performed in the large annular Heidelberg Air–Sea Interaction Facility, the Aeolotron, under homogeneous water surface conditions. The use of two gas tracers, N2O and C2HF5, resulted not only in gas transfer velocities, but also in the...

Asher, W. E., Jessup, A. T., and Atmane, M. A.: Oceanic application of the active controlled flux technique for measuring air–sea transfer velocities of heat and gases, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C08S12, doi:10.1029/2003JC001862, 2004.; Atmane, M. A., Asher, W., and Jessup, A. T.: On the use of the active infrared technique to infer heat and gas transfer velocities at the air–water free surface, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C08S14...

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Thermohaline Properties in the Eastern Mediterranean in the Last T...

By: D. Hainbucher; G. Civitarese; M. Bensi; V. Cardin; A. Rubino

Description: OGS, Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale, Borgo Grotta Gigante 42/c, 34018 Sgonico, Trieste, Italy. Temperature, salinity and oxygen data collected during April and June 2011 (M84/3 and P414 cruises respectively) are analysed to derive the oceanographic characteristics of the Eastern Mediterranean (EM) basin. These observed characteristics are compared with those from previous cruises over the period 1987–2011. As a result, the...

Bensi, M., Rubino, A., Cardin, V., Hainbucher, D., and Mancero-Mosquera, I.: Structure and variability of the abyssal water masses in the Ionian Sea in the period 2003-2010, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 1–13, doi:10.1029/2012JC008178, 2013.; Bignami, F., Marullo, S., Santoleri, R., and Schiano M. E.: Longwave radiation budget in the Mediterranean Sea, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 2501–2514, 1995.; Cardin, V. and Gačić, M.: Long-term...

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137Cs Off Fukushima Dai-ichi, Japan – Model Based Estimates of Dil...

By: I. Kriest; H. Dietze

Description: IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany. In the aftermath of an earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011 radioactive 137Cs was discharged from a damaged nuclear power plant to the sea off Fukushima Dai-ichi, Japan. Here we explore its dilution and fate with a state-of-the-art global ocean general circulation model, which is eddy-resolving in the region of interest. We find apparent consistenc...

Antonov, J. I., Locarnini, R. A., Boyer, T. P., Mishonov, A. V., Garcia, H. E., and Levitus, S.: World Ocean Atlas 2005, Volume 2: Salinity. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 62, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 182 pp., 2006.; Bailly du Bois, P., Laguionie, P., Boust, D., Korsakissok, I., Didier, D., and Fiévet, B.: Estimation of marine source-term following Fukushima Dai-ichi accident, Journal of Environmental Radioactivity,

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Improved Near Real Time Surface Wind Resolution Over the Mediterra...

By: P. Queffeulou; D. Croize-fillon; H.-l. Ayina; A. Bentamy; V. Kerbaol

Description: Institut Français pour la Rechercher et l'exploitation de la MER (IFREMER), DOPS, BP 70, 20280 Plouzané, France. Several scientific programs, including the Mediterranean Forecasting System Toward Environmental Predictions (MFSTEP project), request high space and time resolutions of surface wind speed and direction. The purpose of this paper is to focus on surface wind improvements over the global Mediterranean Sea, based on the blending near real time re...

Atlas, R. M., Hoffman, R. N., Bloom, S. C., Jusem, J. C., and Ardizzone, J.: A multiyear global surface wind velocity dataset using SSM/I wind observations., Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 77, 869–882, 1996.; Liu, W. T., Tang, W., and Polito, P. S.: NASA Scatterometert provides global ocean-surface wind fields with more structures than numerical weather prediction, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25(6), 761–764, 1998.; Bauer, E.: Characteristic frequency distributions of remotely sensed...

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Quality Control of Automated Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Measurem...

By: O. Zielinski; S. P. Garaba; M. R. Wernand

Description: University of Bremen, Department of Geosciences, P.O. Box 330440, 28334 Bremen, Germany. In this study four data quality flags are presented for automated and unmanned above-water hyperspectral optical measurements collected underway in the North Sea, The Minch, Irish Sea and Celtic Sea in April/May 2009. Coincident to these optical measurements a DualDome D12 (Mobotix, Germany) camera system was used to capture sea surface and sky images. The first thr...

Aas, E.: Estimates of radiance reflected towards the zenith at the surface of the sea, Ocean Sci., 6, 861–876, doi:10.5194/os-6-861-2010, 2010.; Bricaud, A., Morel, A., and Prieur, L.: Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains, Limnol. Oceanogr., 26, 43–53, 1981.; Deschamps, P.-Y., Fougnie, B., Frouin, R., Lecomte, P., and Verwaerde, C.: SIMBAD: A Field Radiometer...

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Mediterranean Intermediate Circulation Estimated from Argo Data in...

By: P. M. Poulain; M. Menna

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale – OGS, Sgonico (TS), Italy. Data from 38 Argo profiling floats are used to describe the intermediate Mediterranean currents for the period October 2003–January 2010. These floats were programmed to execute 5-day cycles, to drift at a neutral parking depth of 350 m and measure temperature and salinity profiles from either 700 or 2000 m up to the surface. At the end of each cycle the floats re...

Davis, R., Webb, L., Regier, L., and Dufour, J.: The Autonomous Lagrangian Circulation Explorer (ALACE), J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 9, 264–285, 1992.; Artale, V., Astraldi, M., Buffoni, G., and Gasparini, G. P.: Seasonal variability of gyre-scale circulation in the northern Tyrrhenian Sea, J. Geophys. Res., 99(C7), 14127–14137, 1994.; Astraldi, M. and Gasparini, G. P.: \blackbox\bf title?, Coast. Estuar. Stud., 46, 115–134, 1994.; Astraldi, M., Gasparini, G. P., Gervasio, L...

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Spatio-temporal Complexity Analysis of the Sea Surface Temperature...

By: R. C. H. Del Rosario; L. Parrott; L. T. David; Z. T. Botin

Description: Institute of Mathematics, University of the Philippines Diliman, 1101 Quezon City, Philippines. A spatio-temporal complexity (STC) measure which has been previously used to analyze data from terrestrial ecosystems is employed to analyse 21 years of remotely sensed sea-surface temperature (SST) data from the Philippines. STC on the Philippine wide SST showed the monsoonal variability of the Philippine waters but did not show significant differences betwee...

Andrienko, Y. A., Brillantov, N. V., and Kurths, J.: Complexity of two-dimensional patterns, The European Physical Journal, 15, 539–546, 2000.; Atmanspacher, H.: A {S}emiotic {A}pproach to {C}omplex {S}ystems, in: Aspects of Automatic Text Analysis, edited by: Mehler, A. and K{ö}hler, R., Springer, Berlin, 79–91, 2007.; Bak, P. and Chen, K.: Self-organized criticality, Scientific American, 264, 46–53, 1991.; Banks, H., del Rosario, R., and Tran, H.: Experimental Implemen...

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Corrigendum to Observations of a Phytoplankton Spring Bloom Onset ...

By: A. Olita; A. Ribotti; J. Tintoré; L. Fazioli; R. Sorgente; S. Cusí; S. Sparnocchia

Description: CNR-IAMC, Institute for Coastal Marine Environment, Oristano Section, Torregrande (OR), Italy. No abstract available.

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Improved Near Real Time Surface Wind Resolution Over the Mediterra...

By: P. Queffeulou; D. Croize-fillon; H.-l. Ayina; A. Bentamy

Description: Institut Franc¸ais pour la Rechercher et l’exploitation de la MER (IFREMER), DOPS, BP 70, 20280 Plouzane, France. Several scientific programs, including the Mediterranean Forecasting System Toward Environmental Predictions (MFSTEP project), request high space and time resolutions of surface wind speed and direction. The purpose of this paper is to focus on surface wind improvements over the global Mediterranean Sea, based on the blending near real time r...

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Seasonal Cycles of Mixed Layer Salinity and Evaporation Minus Prec...

By: G. R. Foltz; M. J. McPhaden; T. Suga; F. M. Bingham

Description: Center for Marine Science, University of North Carolina Wilmington, 601 S. College Rd., Wilmington, NC 28403-5928, USA. The seasonal variability of mixed-layer salinity (MLS) is examined in the Pacific Ocean between 20° S and 60° N using a variety of data sources. Significant seasonal cycles were found in 5 regions: 1) the western North Pacific, 2) the northeastern North Pacific and Alaska gyre, 3) the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) 4) an area of...

Adler, R. F., Huffman, G. J., Chang, A., Ferraro, R., Xie, P., Janowiak, J., Rudolf, R., Schneider, U., Curtis, S., Bolvin, D., Gruber, A., Susskind, J., Arkin, A., and Nelkin, E.: The version 2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly precipitation analysis (1979–Present), J. Hydrometeorol., 4, 1147–1167, 2003.; Berger, M., Camps, A., Font, J., Kerr, Y., Miller, J., Johannessen, J., Boutin, J., Drinkwater, M. R., Skou, N., Floury, N., Rast, M., Rebhan, H....

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The Subtropical Deacon Cells : Volume 3, Issue 4 (21/07/2006)

By: J. A. Polton; D. P. Marshall

Description: Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, UK. The circulation of the subtropical gyres can be decomposed into a horizontal recirculation along contours of constant Bernoulli potential and an overturning circulation across these contours. While the geometry and topology of Bernoulli contours is more complicated in the subtropical gyres than in the Southern Ocean, these subtropical overturning circulations are very much analogous to the Deacon cel...

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Variability of Water Mass Properties in the Strait of Sicily in Su...

By: G. Basilone; F. Placenti; B. Patti; G. Tranchida; I. Fontana; S. Mazzola; R. Mifsud; E. Quinci; R. Ferreri; M. Barra; G. Giacalone; M. Di Bitetto; S. Genovese; G. Buscaino; A. Bonanno; S. Aronica

Description: Istituto per l'Ambiente Marino Costiero (IAMC) of the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Detached Units of Capo Granitola (TP), Naples and Mazara del Vallo (TP), Italy. The Strait of Sicily plays a crucial role in determining the water-mass exchanges and related properties between the western and eastern Mediterranean. Hydrographic measurements carried out from 1998 to 2013 allowed the identification of the main water masses present in the Strait o...

Astraldi, M., Gasparini, G. P., Vetrano, A., and Vigudelli, S.: Hydrographic characteristics and interannual variability of water masses in the central Mediterranean: a sensitivity test for long-term changes in the Mediterranean Sea, Deep Sea Res. I, 49, 661–680, 2002a.; Astraldi, M., Conversano, F., Civitarese, G., Gasparini, G. P., Ribera d'Alcalà, M., and Vetrano, A.,: Water mass properties and chemical signatures in the central Mediterranean region, J. Mar. Syst., 33...

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The Barents Sea Polar Front and Water Masses Variability (1980–201...

By: J.-c. Gascard; J. Sirven; L. Oziel

Description: Sorbonne Universités (UPMC, Univ. Paris 06)-CNRS-IRD-MNHN, LOCEAN Laboratory, IPSL, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005, Paris, France. The polar front separates the warm and saline Atlantic Waters encountered in the western part of the Barents Sea from the cold and fresh Arctic Waters situated in the northern part. These water masses can mix together, mainly in the eastern part of the Barents Sea, generating dense waters in winter which can cascade in...

Harris, C. L., Plueddemann, A. J., and Gawarkiewicz, G. G.: Water mass distribution and polar front structure in the western Barents Sea, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 2905–2917, 1998.; Hunke, E. C. and Dukowicz, J. K.: An elastic–viscous–plastic model for sea ice dynamics, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 1849–1867, 1997.; Ingvaldsen, R., Loeng, H., and Asplin, L.: Variability in the Atlantic inflow to the Barents Sea based on a one-year time series from moored current meters, Cont. Sh...

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On the Multiple Time Scales of Variability in the Northeast Pacifi...

By: R. Tokmakian

Description: Department of Oceanography, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, USA. The spatial and temporal sea surface height energy distribution of the Northeast Pacific Ocean is described and discussed. Using an altimetric data set covering 15 years (1993–2007), the energy within the 3–9 month band is primarily located within 10° of the coast. In the Gulf of Alaska, this energy signal is on the shelf, while further south, west of the California/Oregon...

Barnston, A. G. and Livezey, R. E: Classification, seasonality and persistence of low-frequency atmospheric circulation patterns, Mon. Weather Rev., 115, 1083–1126, 1987.; Beamish, R. J., Neville, C. E., and Cass, A. J.: Production of Fraser River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in relation to decadal-scale changes in the climate and the ocean, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 54, 543–554, 1997.; Capotondi, A., Alexander, M. A., Deser, C., and Miller, A. J.: Low-frequency ...

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Inferring the Zonal Distribution of Measured Changes in the Meridi...

By: H. L. Johnson; A. De Boer

Description: University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK. Recently, hydrographic measurements have been used to argue that the meridional overturning circulation at 25° N has decreased by 30% over the last 50 years. Here, we show that the most likely interpretation consistent with this approach (i.e., with the dynamic method together with a level-of-no-motion assumption and Ekman dynamics), is that any decrease in strength of the deep western boundary current must have b...

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High Resolution Modelling of the North Icelandic Irminger Current ...

By: I. Harms; K. Logemann

Description: Centre for Marine and Climate Research, Institute for Oceanography, University of Hamburg, Bundesstraße 53, 20146 Hamburg, Germany. The northward inflow of Atlantic Water through Denmark Strait – the North Icelandic Irminger Current (NIIC) – is simulated with a numerical model of the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean. The model uses the technique of adaptive grid refinement which allows a high spatial resolution (1 km horizontal, 10 m vertical) around Icel...

van Aken, H. M. and Becker, G.: Hydrography and through-flow in the north-eastern North Atlantic Ocean: the Nansen project, Progress in Oceanography, 38, 297–346, 1996.; Backhaus, J. O.: A three-dimensional model for the simulation of shelf sea dynamics, Deutsche hydrographische Zeitschrift 38, 165–187, 1985.; Bamber, J., Muller, J. P., and Mandanayake, A.: A Global 5 Arc Minute Digital Elevation Model Derived from the Geodetic Phase of ERS-1. Proc. 3rd ERS Symp. On spac...

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