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Seawater Capacitance – a Promising Proxy for Mapping and Character...

By: J. A. Fleming; J. C. Wynn

Description: Cascades Volcano Observatory, US Geological Survey, 1300 SE Cardinal Ct, Vancouver, WA 98683, USA. Hydrocarbons released into the deep ocean are an inevitable consequence of natural seep, seafloor drilling, and leaking wellhead-to-collection-point pipelines. The Macondo 252 (Deepwater Horizon) well blowout of 2010 was even larger than the Ixtoc event in the Gulf of Campeche in 1979. History suggests it will not be the last accidental release, as deep...

Breier, J. S., Rauch, C. G., McKartney, K., Toner, B. M., Fakra, S. C., White, S. N., and German, C. R.: A suspended-particle rosette multi-sampler for discrete biogeochemical sampling in low-particle-density waters, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Paper LBNL-3586E, 11 pp., 2010.; Camilli, R., Reddy, C. M., Yoerger, D. R., Van Mooy, B. A. S., Jakuba, M. V., Kinsey, J. C., McIntyre, C. P., Sylva, S. P., and Maloney, J. V.: Tracking hydrocarbon plume transport and bi...

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Chl A Trends in European Seas Estimated Using Ocean-colour Product...

By: V. Lyubarstev; N. Pinardi; S. Colella; R. Santoleri; G. Coppini; T. Christiansen

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Bologna, Italy. Ocean-colour remote-sensing products have been used to estimate Chl a trends in European seas. This work aims to develop a new indicator based on ocean-colour data for the European Environment Agency (EEA). The new indicator, called CSI023(+), produced from satellite ocean-colour products from the MyOcean Marine Core Service (www.myocean....

D'Ortenzio, F. and Ribera d'Alcalà, M.: On the trophic regimes of the Mediterranean Sea: a satellite analysis, Biogeosciences, 6, 139–148, doi:10.5194/bg-6-139-2009, 2009.; Ferreira, J. G., Andersen, J. H., Borja, A., Bricker, S. B., Camp, J., Cardoso da Silva, M., Garcés, E., Heiskanen, A.-S., Humborg, C., Ignatiades, L., Lancelot, C., Menesguen, A., Tett, P., Hoepffner, N., and Claussen, U.: Overview of eutrophication...

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Agulhas Ring Injection Into the South Atlantic During Glacials and...

By: V. Zharkov; D. Nof

Description: Geophysical Fluid Dynamics institute, Florida State University, FL, USA. Recent proxies analysis suggest that, at the end of the last glacial, there was a significant increase in the injection of Agulhas rings into the South Atlantic (SA). This brought about a dramatic increase in the salt-influx (from the Indian Ocean) into the SA helping re-start the then-collapsed meridional overturning cell (MOC), leading to the termination of the Younger Dryas (YD)....

Andrews, J. C. and Scully-Power, P.: The structure of an East Australian Current anticyclonic eddy, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 6, 756–765, 1976.; Arruda, W. Z., Nof,D., and O'Brien, J. J.: Does the Ulleung eddy owe its existence to β and nonlinearities?, Deep-Sea Res., 51, 2073–2090, 2004.; Bard, E.: Climate shock: abrupt changes over millennial time scales, Phys. Today, 55, 32–38, 2002.; Berger, W. H. and Wefer, G.: Expeditions into the past: paleoceanographic studies in the S...

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Measuring Air–sea Gas-exchange Velocities in a Large-scale Annular...

By: M. Bopp; J. Williams; K. E. Krall; F. Helleis; B. Jähne; E. Mesarchaki; C. Kräuter

Description: Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie (Otto-Hahn-Institut) Hahn-Meitner-Weg 1, 55128 Mainz, Germany. In this study we present gas-exchange measurements conducted in a large-scale wind–wave tank. Fourteen chemical species spanning a wide range of solubility (dimensionless solubility, Α = 0.4 to 5470) and diffusivity (Schmidt number in water, Scw = 594 to 1194) were examined under various turbulent (u10 = 0.73 to 13.2 m s−...

Benkelberg, H. J., Hamm, S., and Warneck, P.: Henry's law coefficients for aqueous solutions of acetone, acetaldehyde and acetonitrile, and equilibrium constants for the addition compounds of acetone and acetaldehyde with bisulfite, J. Atmos. Chem., 20, 17–34, doi:10.1007/Bf01099916, 1995.; Betterton, E. A. and Hoffmann, R. M.: Henry's law constants of some environmentally important aldehydes., Environ. Sci. Technol., 22, ...

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Assessment of Sensor Performance : Volume 6, Issue 1 (17/02/2010)

By: R. D. Prien; P. Fietzek; M. Tamburri; C. Waldmann

Description: Bremen University/MARUM, Bremen, Germany. There is an international commitment to develop a comprehensive, coordinated and sustained ocean observation system. However, a foundation for any observing, monitoring or research effort is effective and reliable in situ sensor technologies that accurately measure key environmental parameters. Ultimately, the data used for modelling efforts, management decisions and rapid responses to ocean hazards are only as...

AMS Applied Microsystems: What is the difference between accuracy and precision?, online available at: http://www.appliedmicrosystems.com/Products/Services/Conductivity Calibration.aspx, 2008.; Bacon, S., Culkin, F., Higgs, N., and Ridout, P.: IAPSO standard seawater: definition of the uncertainty in the calibration procedure and stability of recent batches, J. Atmos. Ocean. Te...

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Estuarine Circulation Reversals and Related Rapid Changes in Winte...

By: J. Elken; J. Laanemets; T. Liblik; I. Suhhova; U. Raudsepp

Description: Marine Systems Institute, Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia Road 15a, 12618 Tallinn, Estonia. The reversal of estuarine circulation caused by southwesterly wind forcing may lead to vanishing of stratification and oxygenation of deep layers during the cold season in the Gulf of Finland. Six CTD + oxygen transects (130 km long, 10 stations) were conducted along the thalweg from the western border to the central gulf (21 December 2011–8 May ...

Elken, J., Raudsepp, U., and Lips, U.: On the estuarine transport reversal in deep layers of the Gulf of Finland, J. Sea Res., 49, 267–274, 2003.; Alenius, P., Myrberg, K., and Nekrasov, A.: The physical oceanography of the Gulf of Finland: a review, Boreal Env. Res., 3, 97–125, 1998.; Alenius, P., Nekrasov, A., and Myrberg, K.: Variability of the baroclinic Rossby radius in the Gulf of Finland, Cont. Shelf Res., 23, 563–573, 2003.; Almroth, E., Tengberg, A., Andersson, ...

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Observations of Turbulence Beneath Sea Ice in Southern McMurdo Sou...

By: N. J. Robinson; T. G. Haskell; M. J. M. Williams; C. L. Stevens

Description: National Institute for Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), Greta Point Wellington, New Zealand. The first turbulence profiler observations beneath land fast sea ice which is directly adjacent to an Antarctic ice shelf are described. The stratification in the 325 m deep water column consisted of a layer of supercooled water in the upper 40 m lying above a quasi-linearly stratified water column with a sharp step in density at mid-depth. Turbulent energy...

Albrecht, N., Vennell, R., Williams, M., Stevens, C., Langhorne, P., Leonard, G., and Haskell, T.: Observation of sub-inertial internal tides in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L24606, doi:10.1029/2006GL027377, 2006.; Arrigo, K.R., van Dijken, G., and Long, M.: Coastal Southern Ocean: A strong anthropogenic CO2 sink, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L21602, doi:10.1029/2008GL035624, 208.; Dempsey, D., Langhorne, P. J., Robinson, N. J., Williams, M....

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Long-term Monitoring Programme of the Hydrological Variability in ...

By: G. Budillon; H. Kontoyiannis; S. Sparnocchia; V. Cardin; L. Bengara; I. Taupier-letage; J. Salat; M. Bensi; A. Sanchez-roman; B. El Moumni; M. Borghini; C. Sammari; J. García-lafuente; J. C. Sánchez Garrido; M. Vargas-yáñez; S. Ben Ismail; P. Raimbault; A. Drago; J. L. Fuda; L. Coppola; J. Font; K. Schroeder; P. Puig; G. Rougier; A. Theocharis; G. P. Gasparini; A. Vetrano; C. Curtil; C. Millot; C. Tamburini; D. Lefevre

Description: CNR-ISMAR, Forte Santa Teresa, 19036 Pozzuolo di Lerici, La Spezia, Italy. The long-term monitoring of basic hydrological parameters (temperature and salinity), collected as time series with adequate temporal resolution (i.e. with a sampling interval allowing the resolution of all important timescales) in key places of the Mediterranean Sea (straits and channels, zones of dense water formation, deep parts of the basins), constitute a priority in the con...

Ambar, I., Serra, N., Brogueira, M. J., Cabeçadas, G., Abrantes, F., Freitas, P., Gonçalves, C., and Gonzalez, N.: Physical, Chemical and Sedimentological Aspects of the Mediterranean Outflow Off Iberia, Deep-Sea Res. II, 49, 4163–4177, 2002.; ANTARES Collaboration: First results of the Instrumentation Line for the deep-sea ANTARES neutrino telescope, Astropart. Phys., 26, 314–324, 2006.; Artegiani, A., Paschini, E., Russo, A., Bregant, D., Raicich, F., and Pinardi, N.: ...

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Flow Dynamics Around Downwelling Submarine Canyons : Volume 11, Is...

By: S. E. Allen; J. M. Spurgin

Description: Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Flow dynamics around a downwelling submarine canyon were analysed with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model. Blanes Canyon (Northwest Mediterranean) was used for topographic and initial forcing conditions. Fourteen scenarios were modelled with varying forcing conditions. Rossby number and Burger nu...

Adcroft, A., Hill, C., Campin, J.-M., Marshall, J., and Heimbach, P.: Overview of the formulation and numerics of the MIT GCM, in: Proceedings of the ECMWF seminar series on Numerical Methods, Recent developments in numerical methods for atmosphere and ocean modelling, 139–149, 2004.; Allen, S. E.: Topographically generated, subinertial flows within a finite length canyon, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 26, 1608–1632, 1996.; Allen, S. E., Vindeirinho, C., Thomson, R. E., Foreman, M...

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Operational Evaluation of the Mediterranean Monitoring and Forecas...

By: A. Grandi; D. Hayes; V. Lyubartsev; J. A. U. Nilsson; I. Gertman; P. Lorente; J. Gatti; L. Renault; J. Azzopardi; G. Korres; L. Perivoliotis; A. Teruzzi; A. Aydogdu; G. Bolzon; V. Malacic; G. Nardone; M. Tonani; A. Bruschi; S. Pensieri; A. Olita; M. Ravaioli; M. G. Sotillo; R. Goldman; T. Garau; I. Pairaud; A. Drago; G. Zodiatis; S. Sofianos; E. Ozsoy; B. Petelin; A. Mantziafou

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna, Italy. A web-based validation platform has been developed at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) for the Near Real Time validation of the MyOcean-Mediterranean Monitoring and Forecasting Centre products (Med-MFC).

A network for the collection of the in-situ observations, the nested sub-basin forecasting systems model data (provided by the partners of the Mediterrane...

Dobricic. S. and Pinardi, N.: An oceanographic three-dimensional variational data assimilation scheme, Ocean Modell., 22, 89–105, 2008.; Desaubies, Y.: Mersea, Development of a European Ocean Monitoring and Forecasting System – Ocean and Marine applications for Gmes, Ocean Weather Forecasting: An Integrated View of Oceanography, Chapter 19, 449-453, Springer, 2006.; Drevillon, M., Bourdalle-Badie, R., Derval, C., Drillet, Y., Lellouche, J. M., Remy, E., Tranchant, B., Be...

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Comparing the Steric Height in the Northern Atlantic with Satellit...

By: M. Wenzel; D. V. Sidorenko; J. Schroeter; D. L. Aleynik; V. O. Ivchenko; S. D. Danilov

Description: Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Germany. Anomalies of dynamic height derived from an analysis of Argo profiling buoys data are analysed to assess the relative roles of contributions from temperature and salinity over the North Atlantic for the period of 1999–2004. They are compared with dynamic topography anomalies based on TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason altimetry. It is shown that the halosteric contribution to the anomalies of dynam...

Antonov, J. I., Levitus, S., and Boyer, T. P.: Steric sea level variations during 1957–1994: Importance of salinity, J. Geophys. Res., 107(C12), 8013, doi:10.1029/2001JC000964, 2002.; Bretherton, F. P., Davis, R. E., and Fandry, C. B.: A technique for objective analysis and design of oceanographic experiments applied to MODE-73, Deep-Sea Res., 23, 559–582, 1976.; Gandin, L. S.: Objective analysis of meteorological fields, Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 287 pp. (in Russian),...

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Freshwater Components and Transports in the Fram Strait – Recent O...

By: A. MacKensen; U. Schauer; M. Karcher; A. Beszczynska-möller; E. Hansen; B. Rabe

Description: Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany. We present the late summer distribution and transports of freshwater components in the upper western part of the Fram Strait during 1998, 2004 and 2005. Hydrographic data and and water Δ18O values are analyzed to distinguish Atlantic Water, ice-melt (IMW) and freshwater removal from ice formation (IFW), and Meteoric Water (precipitation and riverine sources; MW). ...

Aagaard, K. and Carmack, E. C.: The role of sea ice and other fresh water in the Arctic circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 94(C10), 14485–14498, 1989.; Anderson, L. G., Jutterström, S., Kaltin, S., Jones, E. P., and Björk, G.: Variability in river runoff distribution in the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C01016, doi:10.1029/2003JC001773, 2004.; Bauch, D., Schlosser, P., and Fairbanks, R. G.: Fresh...

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Coastal Sea Responses to Atmospheric Forcings at Two Different Res...

By: Z. Pasarić; P. Oddo; G. Beg Paklar; Z. B. Klaić

Description: Andrija Mohorovičić Geophysical Institute, Department of Geophysics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Croatia. We investigated coastal sea responses to three, multi-day strong wind episodes that occurred in the middle Adriatic during the Target Operational Period (TOP) of the European COastal sea OPerational observing and forecasting system (ECOOP) project. A high-resolution oceanographic model (1 km horizontal, 16 σ vertical layers)...

Andročec, V., Beg Paklar, G., Dadić, V., Djakovac, T., Grbec, B., Janeković, I., Krstulović, N., Kušpilić, G., Leder, N., Lončar, G., Marasović, I., Precali, R., and Šolić, M.: The Adriatic Sea Monitoring Program – Final Report, Zagreb, MZOPUG, 2009.; Beg Paklar, G., Isakov, V., Koračin, D., Kourafalou, V., and Orlić, M.: A case study of Bora-driven flow and density changes on the Adriatic shelf (January 1987), Cont. Shelf Res., 21, 1751–1783, 2001.; Beg Paklar, G., Baji...

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Numerical Implementation and Oceanographic Application of the Gibb...

By: R. Feistel

Description: Baltic Sea Research Institute, Seestrasse 15, 18119 Warnemünde, Germany. The 2003 Gibbs thermodynamic potential function represents a very accurate, compact, consistent and comprehensive formulation of equilibrium properties of seawater. It is expressed in the International Temperature Scale ITS-90 and is fully consistent with the current scientific pure water standard, IAPWS-95. Source code examples in FORTRAN, C++ and Visual Basic are presented for th...

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The 2007 North Atlantic Spring Bloom in Operational Analysis from ...

By: C. Hansen; L. Bertino; A. Samuelsen

Description: Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen, Norway. A reanalysis of the North Atlantic spring bloom in 2007 was produced using the real-time analyses from the TOPAZ (Towards an Operational Prediction system for the North Atlantic European coastal Zones) North Atlantic and Arctic forecasting system. The TOPAZ system uses a hybrid coordinate general circulation ocean model and assimilates physical observations: sea surface anoma...

Bertino, L. and Lisæter, K A.: The TOPAZ monitoring and prediction system for the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans, J. Operat. Oceanogr., 15–18, 2008.; Allen, J I., Blackford, J., Holt, J., Proctor, R., Ashworth, M., and Siddorn, J.: A~highly spatially resolved ecosystem model for the North West European Continental Shelf, Sarsia, 86, 423–440, 2001.; Berline, L., Brankart, J.-M., Brasseur, P., Ourmieres, Y., and Verron, J.: Improving the physics of a~coupled physical-biogeoche...

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M3A System (2000–2005) – Operation and Maintenance : Volume 3, Iss...

By: V. Zervakis; G. Petihakis; C. Christodoulou; C. Nittis; P. Drakopoulos; C. Tziavos

Description: Institute of Oceanography, Hellenic Center for Marine Research, P.O. BOX 2214, 71003 Iraklion, Crete, Greece. During the Pilot Phase of the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFSPP) (1998–2001) a prototype observing system (Mediterranean Moored Multi-sensor Array – M3A) was designed, developed and operated in the Cretan Sea for continuous oceanographic measurements in real time. The main problems encountered were associated with biofouling, underwater and...

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Using Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations to Determine Mixed Layer Dep...

By: J. Kaiser; K. Castro-morales

Description: University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK. Concentrations of oxygen (O2) and other dissolved gases in the oceanic mixed layer are often used to calculate air-sea gas exchange fluxes. The mixed layer depth (zmix) may be defined using criteria based on temperature or density differences to a reference depth near the ocean surface. However, temperature criteria fail in regions with strong haloclines such as the Southern Ocean wher...

Antonov, J. I., Locarnini, R. A., Boyer, T. P., Mishonov, A. V., and García, H. E.: Salinity, in: World Ocean Atlas, 2005, edited by: Levitus, S., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 62, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 182, 2006.; Arrigo, K. R., van Dijken, G. L., and Bushinsky, S.: Primary production in the Southern Ocean, 1997–2006, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C08004, doi:10.1029/2007JC004551, 2008.; Brainerd, K. E., and G...

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Scaling Aspects of the Sea-ice-drift Dynamics and Pack Fracture : ...

By: V. N. Smirnov; L. V. Panov; A. Chmel

Description: Fracture Physics Department, Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021 St. Petersburg, Russia. A study of the sea-ice dynamics in the periods of time prior to and during the cycles of basin-wide fragmentation of the ice cover in the Arctic Ocean is presented. The fractal geometry of the ice-sheets limited by leads and ridges was assessed using the satellite images, while the data on the correlated sea-ice motion were obtained...

Arneodo, A., Bacry, E., and Muzy, J. F.: The thermodynamics of fractals revisited with wavelets, Physica A, 213, 232–275, 1995.; Bouchaud, E.: Scaling properties of cracks, J. Phys.: Cond. Matter, 9, 4319–4344, 1997.; Caldarelli, G., Di Tolla, F. D., and Petri, A.: Self-organization and annealed disorder in a fracturing process, Phys. Rev. Lett., 77, 2503–2506, 1996.; Carpinteri, A., Lacidogna., G., and Pugno, N.: Scaling of energy dissipation in crushing and fragmentati...

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Impact of the Indonesian Throughflow on Agulhas Leakage : Volume 9...

By: H. A. Dijkstra; W. P. M. De Ruijter; D. Le Bars

Description: IMAU, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.005, 3508 TA Utrecht, the Netherlands. Using ocean models of different complexity we show that opening the Indonesian Passage between the Pacific and the Indian oceans increases the input of Indian Ocean water into the South Atlantic via the Agulhas leakage. In a strongly eddying global ocean model this response results from an increased Agulhas Current transport and a constant proportion of Agulhas retroflection so...

Backeberg, B. C., Bertino, L., and Johannessen, J. A.: Evaluating two numerical advection schemes in HYCOM for eddy-resolving modelling of the Agulhas Current, Ocean Sci., 5, 173–190, doi:10.5194/os-5-173-2009, 2009.; Beal, L. M., De Ruijter, W. P. M., Biastoch, A., and Zahn, R.: On the role of the Agulhas system in ocean circulation and climate, Nature, 472, 429–436, 2011.; Bryden, H. L., Beal, L. M., and Duncan, L. M....

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Heat Loss from the Atlantic Water Layer in the St. Anna Trough (No...

By: S. A. Kirillov; N. V. Koldunov; N. Serra; M. Makhotin; Y. Aksenov; I. A. Dmitrenko; U. Schauer; V. S. Lien; I. V. Polyakov; M. Janout; V. V. Ivanov; D. Barber

Description: Centre for Earth Observation Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada. A distinct, subsurface density front along the eastern St. Anna Trough in the northern Kara Sea is inferred from hydrographic observations in 1996 and 2008–2010. Direct velocity measurements show a persistent northward subsurface current (~ 20 cm s−1) along the St. Anna Trough eastern flank. This sheared flow, carrying the outflow from the Barents and Kara Se...

Årthun, M. and Schrum, C.: Ocean surface heat flux variability in the Barents Sea, J. Marine Syst., 83, 88–98, 2010.; Årthun, M., Eldevik, T., Smedsrud, L. H., Skagseth Ø., and Ingvaldsen, R. B.: Quantifying the influence of Atlantic heat on Barents Sea ice variability and retreat, J. Climate, 25, 4736–4743, 2012.; Beszczynska-Möller, A., Fahrbach, E., Schauer, U., and Hansen, E.: Variability in Atlantic water temperature and transport at the entrance to the Arctic Ocean...

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