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On the Atlantic Cold Tongue Mode and the Role of the Pacific Enso ...

By: P. Nobre; R. A. F. De Almeida

Description: National Institute for Space Research, Brazil. The dominant mode of coupled ocean-atmosphere variability in the Tropical Atlantic is analysed in this work from a melange of datasets, focusing on the seasonal development and evolution of the Bjerknes feedback responsible for the generation of the Atlantic cold tongue mode. The strength, seasonality and interannual variability of this mode is investigated through a joint EOF analysis of the anomalies of z...

Atlas, R., Hoffman, R. N., Bloom, S. C., Jusem, J. C., and Ardizzone, J.: A Multiyear Global Surface Wind Velocity Dataset Using SSM/I Wind Observations, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 77, 869–882, 2.0.CO;2>doi:10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<0869:AMGSWV>2.0.CO;2, 1996.; Bourlès, B., Lumpkin, R., McPhaden, M. J., Hernandez, F., Nobre, P., Campos, E., Yu, L., Planton, S., Busalacchi, A., Moura, A. D., Servain, J., an...

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Antarctic Circumpolar Transport and the Southern Mode: a Model Inv...

By: Joanne Williams; B. A. De Cuevas; A. C. Coward; C. W. Hughes

Description: School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK. It is well-established that, at periods shorter than a year, variations in Antarctic circumpolar transport are reflected in a barotropic mode, known as the southern mode, in which sea level and bottom pressure varies coherently around Antarctica. Here, we use two multidecadal ocean model runs to investigate the behaviour of the southern mode at timescales on which dens...

Allison, L. C., Johnson, H. L., and Marshall, D. P.: Spin-up and adjustment of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and global pycnocline, J. Mar. Res., 69, 167–189, 2011.; Aoki, S.: Coherent sea level response to the Antarctic Oscillation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 1950, doi:10.1029/2002GL015733, 2002.; Blaker, A. T., Hirschi, J. J.-M., McCarthy, G., Sinha, B., Taws, S., Marsh, R., Coward, A., and de Cuevas, B.: Historical ...

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Influence of Winds on Temporally Varying Short and Long Period Gra...

By: J. Glejin; J. Singh; V. Sanil Kumar; T. M. Balakrishnan Nair

Description: Ocean Engineering, CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography (Council of Scientific & Industrial Research), Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 India. Wave data collected off Ratnagiri, west coast of India, during 1 May 2010 to 30 April 2012 are used in this study. Seasonal and annual variations in wave data controlled by the local wind system such as sea breeze and land breeze, and remote wind generated long period waves are also studied. The role of sea breeze on th...

Barber, N. F. and Ursell, F.: The generation and propagation of ocean waves and swell, I. Wave periods and velocities, Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. A, 240, 527–560, 1948.; Ardhuin, F., Chapron, B., and Collard, F.: Observation of swell dissipation across oceans, J. Geophys. Res., 6, 1–5, 2009.; Aboobacker, V. M., Vethamony P., and Rashmi R.: Shamal swells in the Arabian Sea and their influence along the west coast of India, Geophys.Res. Lett., 38, 1–7, 2011a.; Aboobacker, V....

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Metrological Traceability of Oceanographic Salinity Measurement Re...

By: S. Weinreben; R. Feistel; D. G. Wright; P. De Bièvre; S. Seitz; P. Spitzer

Description: Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, 38116 Braunschweig, Germany. Consistency of observed oceanographic salinity data is discussed with respect to contemporary metrological concepts. The claimed small uncertainty of salinity measurement results traceable to the conductivity ratio of a certified IAPSO Standard Seawater reference is not metrologically justified if results are compared on climatic time scales. This applies in particular to Practical Sali...

Aoyama, M., Joyce, T. M., Kawano, T., and Takatsuki, Y.: Standard seawater comparison up to P129, Deep-Sea Res. I, 49, 1103–1114, 2002.; Bacon, S., Snaith, H. M., and Yelland, M. J.: An evaluation of some recent batches of IAPSO standard seawater, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 17, 854–861, 2000.; Chen, C. T. and Millero, F. J.: Precise thermodynamical properties for natural waters covering only the limnological range, Limnol. Oceanogr., 31, 657–662, 1986.; Bacon, S., Culkin, F...

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About Uncertainties in Practical Salinity Calculations : Volume 7,...

By: M. Le Menn

Description: French Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (SHOM), SHOM, CS 92803, 29228 Brest Cedex 2, France. In the current state of the art, salinity is a quantity computed from conductivity ratio measurements, with temperature and pressure known at the time of the measurement, and using the Practical Salinity Scale algorithm of 1978 (PSS-78). This calculation gives practical salinity values S. The uncertainty expected in PSS-78 values is ±0.002, but no de...

BIPM: Evaluation of measurement data – Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement, JCGM 100:2008, GUM 1995 with minor corrections, 2008.; Bacon, S., Culkin, F., Higgs, N., and Ridout, P.: IAPSO Standard Seawater: definition of the uncertainty in the calibration procedure and stability of recent batches, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 24, 1785–1799, 2007.; BIPM: Evaluation of measurement data – Supplement 1 to the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurem...

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A Clustering Analysis of Eddies' Spatial Distribution in the South...

By: Z. He; Y. Du; C. Zhou; X. Wang; J. Yi

Description: State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Science and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. Spatial variation is important for studying the mesoscale eddies in the South China Sea (SCS). To investigate such spatial variations, this study made a clustering analysis on eddies' distribution using the K-means approach. Results showed that clustering tendency of ant...

Banerjee, A. and Dave, R. N.: Validating clusters using the hopkins statistic, IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE 2004), Budapest (Hungary), 149–153, 2004.; Brown, M. B. and Forsythe, A. B.: Robust Tests for the Equality of Variances, J. Am. Stat. Assoc., 69, 364–367, doi:10.1080/01621459.1974.10482955, 1974.; Cai, S., Su, J., Gan, Z., and Liu, Q.: The numerical study of the South China S...

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A New Method for Forming Approximately Neutral Surfaces : Volume 5...

By: D. R. Jackett; T. J. McDougall; A. Klocker

Description: CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Castray Esplanade, TAS 7000, Australia. We introduce a simple algorithm to improve existing density surfaces to ensure that the resulting surfaces are as close to neutral as possible. This means the slopes at any point on the surfaces are close to neutral tangent planes – the directions along which layered stirring and mixing occurs – minimizing the fictitious diapycnal diffusivity. Inverse techniques and layered m...

McDougall, T J.: Neutral surfaces, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 17, 1950–1964, 1987.; de~Szoeke, R A., Springer, S R., and Oxilia, D M.: Orthobaric Density: A Thermodynamic Variable for Ocean Circulation Studies, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 2830–2852, 2000.; Eden, C. and Willebrand, J.: Neutral density revisited, Deep Sea Research II, 46, 33–54, 1999.; Gouretski, V V. and Koltermann, K P.: WOCE global hydrographic climatology, Tech. rep., Bundesamtes für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrograph...

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Sensors for Observing Ecosystem Status : Volume 5, Issue 4 (04/11/...

By: E. R. Parker; D. B. Sivyer; J. D. Metcalfe; R. M. Forster; S. Kröger; D. J. Pearce; N. Greenwood

Description: Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Pakefield Rd, Lowestoft, Suffolk NR33 0HT, UK. This paper aims to review the availability and application of sensors for observing marine ecosystem status. It gives a broad overview of important ecosystem variables to be investigated, such as biogeochemical cycles, primary and secondary production, species distribution, animal movements, habitats and pollutants. Some relevant legislative ...

Arnold, G. P. and Dewar, H.: Electronic tags in marine fisheries research: A 30 year perspective., in: Electronic tagging and tracking in marine fisheries, edited by: Nielsen, J. R. S. J. L., Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht, The Netherland, 7–64, 2001.; Aylott, J. W., Richardson, D. J., and Russell, D. A.: Optical biosensing of nitrate ions uisng a sol-gel immobilized nitrate reductase, Analyst, 122, 77–80, 1997.; Campas, M. and Katakis, I.: DNA biochip arraying, detect...

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Internal Tides and Energy Fluxes Over Great Meteor Seamount : Volu...

By: H. Van Haren; T. Gerkema

Description: Royal NIOZ, P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands. Internal-tide energy fluxes are determined halfway over the southern slope of Great Meteor Seamount (Canary Basin), using data from combined CTD/LADCP yoyoing, covering the whole water column. The strongest signal is semi-diurnal and is concentrated in the upper few hundred meters of the water column. An indeterminacy in energy flux profiles is discussed; it is argued that a commonly app...

Hibiya, T., Nagasawa, M., and Niwa, Y.: Nonlinear energy transfer within the oceanic internal wave spectrum at mid and high latitudes, J. Geophys. Res., 107(C11), 3207, doi:10.1029/2001JC001210, 2002.; Dietrich, G.: Ozeanographie – physische Geographie des Weltmeeres, Georg Westermann Verlag, Braunschweig, 1970.; Egbert, G D. and Ray, R D.: Semi-diurnal and diurnal tidal dissipation from TOPEX/Poseidon altimetry, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1907, doi:10.1029/2003GL017676, 2...

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Sensitivity of Phytoplankton Distributions to Vertical Mixing Alon...

By: H. J. Van Der Woerd; H. A. Dijkstra; L. Hahn-woernle

Description: Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht (IMAU), Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.005, 3508 TA Utrecht, the Netherlands. Using in situ data of upper ocean vertical mixing along a transect in the North Atlantic and a one-dimensional phytoplankton growth model, we study the sensitivity of the surface phytoplankton concentration to vertical mixing distributions. The study is divided into two parts. In the first par...

Antoine, D., Morel, A., Gordon, H., Banzon, V., and Evans, R.: Bridging ocean color observations of the 1980s and 2000s in search of long-term trends, J. Geophys. Res., 110, C06009, doi:10.1029/2004JC002620, 2005.; Beckmann, A. and Hense, I.: Beneath the surface: Characteristics of oceanic ecosystems under weak mixing conditions – A theoretical investigation, Prog. Oceanogr., 75, 771–796,

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Density and Absolute Salinity of the Baltic Sea 2006–2009 : Volume...

By: S. Weinreben; H. Wolf; B. Adel; P. Spitzer; D. G. Wright; R. Feistel; G. Nausch; S. Seitz; B. Schneider

Description: Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, 18119 Warnemünde, Germany. The brackish water of the Baltic Sea is a mixture of ocean water from the Atlantic/North Sea with fresh water from various rivers draining a large area of lowlands and mountain ranges. The evaporation-precipitation balance results in an additional but minor excess of fresh water. The rivers carry different loads of salts washed out of the ground, in particular calcium carbonate, which...

Anderko, A. and Lencka, M. M.: Computation of electrical conductivity of multicomponent aqueous systems in wide concentration and temperature ranges, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 36, 1932–1943, 1997.; Brinkmann, F., Dam, N. E., Deák, E., Durbiano, F., Ferrara, E., Fükö, J., Jensen, H. D., Máriássy, M., Shreiner, R. H., Spitzer, P., Sudmeier, U., Surdu, M., and Vyskocil, L.: Primary methods for the measurement of electrolytic conductivity, Accred. Qual. Assur., 8, 346–353, 2003....

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On the Use of the Stokes Number to Explain Frictional Tidal Dynami...

By: A. J. Souza

Description: National Oceanography Centre, Joseph Proudman Building, 6 Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L3 5DA, UK. In recent years coastal oceanographers have suggested using the Strouhal number or its inverse, the Stokes number, to describe the effect of bottom boundary layer turbulence on the vertical structure of both density and currents. These are defined as the ratios of the frictional depth (Δ) to the water column depth (h) or vice versa. Although many res...

Arakawa, A.: Design of the UCLA general circulation model, Tech. Rep. 7, Department of Meteorology, University of California, 1972.; Baumert, H. and Radach, G.: Hysteresis of turbulent kinetic energy in nonrotational tidal flows: A model study, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 3669–3677, 1992.; Burchard, H.: Combined effects of wind, tide, and horizontal density gradients on stratification in estuaries and coastal seas, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39, 2117–2136, 2009.; Burchard, H. and Het...

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Southern Ocean Overturning Across Streamlines in an Eddying Simula...

By: S. R. Rintoul; G. Madec; M. H. England; J.-m. Molines; J. Le Sommer; A. M. Treguier

Description: Laboratoire de Physique de Oceans, CNRS-IFREMER-UBO, Plouzané, France. An eddying global model is used to study the characteristics of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) in a streamline-following framework. Previous model-based estimates of the meridional circulation were calculated using zonal averages: this method leads to a counter-intuitive poleward circulation of the less dense waters, and underestimates the eddy effects. We show that on the c...

Barnier, B., Madec, G., Penduff, T., Molines, J.M., Treguier, A.M., Le Sommer, J., Beckmann, A., Biastoch, A., Böning, C., Dengg, J., Derval, C., Durand, E., Gulev, S., Remy, E., Talandier, C., Theetten, S., Maltrud, M., McClean, J., and De Cuevas, B.: Impact of partial steps and momentum advection schemes in a global ocean circulation model at eddy permitting resolution, Ocean Dynam., doi:10.1007/s10236-006-0082-1, 2006. \bibitem[]brodeau2007 Brodeau L.: Contribution à ...

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Measuring Air–sea Gas-exchange Velocities in a Large-scale Annular...

By: M. Bopp; J. Williams; K. E. Krall; F. Helleis; B. Jähne; E. Mesarchaki; C. Kräuter

Description: Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie (Otto-Hahn-Institut) Hahn-Meitner-Weg 1, 55128 Mainz, Germany. In this study we present gas-exchange measurements conducted in a large-scale wind–wave tank. Fourteen chemical species spanning a wide range of solubility (dimensionless solubility, Α = 0.4 to 5470) and diffusivity (Schmidt number in water, Scw = 594 to 1194) were examined under various turbulent (u10 = 0.73 to 13.2 m s−...

Benkelberg, H. J., Hamm, S., and Warneck, P.: Henry's law coefficients for aqueous solutions of acetone, acetaldehyde and acetonitrile, and equilibrium constants for the addition compounds of acetone and acetaldehyde with bisulfite, J. Atmos. Chem., 20, 17–34, doi:10.1007/Bf01099916, 1995.; Betterton, E. A. and Hoffmann, R. M.: Henry's law constants of some environmentally important aldehydes., Environ. Sci. Technol., 22, ...

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Spectral Studies of Ocean Water with Space-borne Sensor Sciamachy ...

By: A. Bracher; J. P. Burrows; T. Dinter; B. Sierk; M. Vountas

Description: Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee 1, 28359 Bremen, Germany. Methods enabling the retrieval of oceanic parameter from the space borne instrumentation Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric ChartographY (SCIAMACHY) using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) are presented. SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT measures back scattered solar radiation at a spectral resolution (0.2 to 1.5 nm...

Babin, M., Therriault, J. C., Legendre, L., and Condal, A.: Variations in the specific absorption coefficient for natural phytoplankton assemblages: impact on estimates of primary production, Limnol. Oceanogr., 38, 154–177, 1993.; Bovensmann, H., Burrows, J. P., Buchwitz, M., Frerick, J., No\el, S., and Rozanov, V. V.: SCIAMACHY: Mission Objectives and Measurement Modes, J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 127–150, 1999.; Bracher, A. and Tilzer, M.: Underwater light field and phytoplank...

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Depth Dependence of Westward-propagating North Atlantic Features D...

By: R. Tailleux; P. Cipollini; T. Penduff; B. Barnier; A. Lecointre

Description: Laboratoire des Ecoulements Géophysiques et Industriels, CNRS, UJF, INPG, Grenoble, France. A 1/6° numerical simulation is used to investigate the vertical structure of westward propagation between 1993 and 2000 in the North Atlantic ocean. The realism of the simulated westward propagating signals, interpreted principally as the signature of first-mode baroclinic Rossby waves (RW), is first assessed by comparing the simulated amplitude and zonal phase s...

Killworth, P. and Blundell, J.: The effects of bottom topography on the speed of long extratropical planetary waves, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29, 2689–2710, 1999.; Anderson, D. L T. and Gill, A E.: Spin-up of a stratified ocean, with application to upwelling, Deep-Sea Res., 22, 583–596, 1975.; Anderson, D. L T. and Killworth, P D.: Spin-up of a stratified ocean, with topography, Deep-Sea Res., 24, 709–732, 1977.; Hughes, C W.: Rossby waves in the Southern Ocean: A comparison ...

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Characteristics of the Seasonal Cycle of Surface Layer Salinity in...

By: M. J. McPhaden; F. M. Bingham; G. R. Foltz

Description: Center for Marine Science, University of North Carolina Wilmington, 601 S. College Rd., Wilmington, NC 28403-5928, USA. The seasonal variability of surface layer salinity (SLS), evaporation (E), precipitation (P) and E-P over the global ocean is examined using in situ salinity data and the National Center for Environmental Prediction's Climate System Forecast Reanalysis. Seasonal amplitudes and phases are calculated using...

Adler, R. F., Huffman, G. J., Chang, A., Ferraro, R., Xie, P., Janowiak, J., Rudolf, R., Schneider, U., Curtis, S., Bolvin, D., Gruber, A., Susskind, J., Arkin, A., and Nelkin, E.: The version 2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly precipitation analysis (1979 – present), J. Hydrometeorol., 4, 1147–1167, 2003.; Bengtsson, L.: The global atmospheric water cycle, Environ. Res. Lett., 5, 025202, doi:1...

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Quality Control of Automated Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Measurem...

By: O. Zielinski; S. P. Garaba; M. R. Wernand

Description: University of Bremen, Department of Geosciences, P.O. Box 330440, 28334 Bremen, Germany. In this study four data quality flags are presented for automated and unmanned above-water hyperspectral optical measurements collected underway in the North Sea, The Minch, Irish Sea and Celtic Sea in April/May 2009. Coincident to these optical measurements a DualDome D12 (Mobotix, Germany) camera system was used to capture sea surface and sky images. The first thr...

Aas, E.: Estimates of radiance reflected towards the zenith at the surface of the sea, Ocean Sci., 6, 861–876, doi:10.5194/os-6-861-2010, 2010.; Bricaud, A., Morel, A., and Prieur, L.: Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains, Limnol. Oceanogr., 26, 43–53, 1981.; Deschamps, P.-Y., Fougnie, B., Frouin, R., Lecomte, P., and Verwaerde, C.: SIMBAD: A Field Radiometer...

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Mapping Flow Distortion on Oceanographic Platforms Using Computati...

By: B. Ward; N. O'Sullivan

Description: School of Physics and Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland. Ocean-Atmosphere Fluxes Eddy correlation (EC) is the most direct method to measure fluxes of trace gases over the Earth's surface. In its simplest form, an EC setup consists of a gas sensor and a sonic anemometer. EC is commonly used on land, but its adaptation at sea has proven difficult because of the marine environment, the motion of the research platform (ship or ...

Gagnon, L. and Richard, J. M.: Parallel CFD of a prototype car with OpenFOAM, Tech. rep., Dept of Mech. Eng., Laval University, Québec, Canada, 2010.; Castro, I. P. and Robins, A. G.: the flow around a surface mounted cube in uniform and turbulent streams, J. Fluids. Mech., 79, 307–335, 1977.; Broecker, W. S., Ledwell, J. R., Takahashi, T., Weiss, L. M. R., Memery, L., Peng, T. H., ihne, B. J., and Jnnich, K. O. M.: Isotopic versus micrometeorologic ocean {CO}2

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Assessment of One Year of High-resolution Operational Forecasts fo...

By: I. Gertman; A. Murashkovsky; S. Brenner

Description: Department of Geography and Environment, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900, Israel. Within the framework of the MFSTEP project an operational ocean forecasting system for the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea has been implemented and evaluated through a series of preoperational tests and subsequently for one year of operational forecasts. The system is based on the Princeton Ocean Model (POM). The high-resolution shelf model is nested in a coarser resol...

Brenner, S.: Simulations with a relocatable, nested, high-resolution model: the eastern Levantine experience, in: Oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea, edited by: A. Yilmaz , Tubitak Publishers, Ankara, Turkey, pp. 1022–1028, 2003b.; Brenner, S., Gertman, I. and Murashkovsky, A.: Pre-operational ocean forecasting in the southeastern Mediterranean: Model implementation, evaluation, and the selection of atmospheric forcing, J. Mar. Systems, in press, 200...

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