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Silicon Pool Dynamics and Biogenic Silica Export in the Southern O...

By: L. André; F. Fripiat; F. Dehairs; D. Cardinal; A.-j. Cavagna; S. Speich

Description: Section of Mineralogy and Petrography, Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Belgium. Water column silicon isotopic signatures (Δ30Si) of silicic acid (Si(OH)4) in the Southern Ocean were measured along a meridional transect from South Africa (Subtropical Zone) down to 57° S (northern Weddell Gyre). These data are the first reported for a summer transect across the whole Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Δ30Si va...

Altabet, M. A. and Francois, R.: Nitrogen isotope biogeochemistry of the Antarctic Polar Frontal Zone at 170° W, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 48, 4247–4273, 2001.; Abraham, K., Opfergelt, S., Fripiat, F., Cavagna, A.-J., de Jong, J. T. M., Foley, S. F., André, L., and Cardinal, D.: $\delta ^{30}$Si and $\delta ^{29}$Si determinations on USGS BHVO-1 and BHVO-2 reference materials with a new configuration on a Nu Plasma Multi-Collector ICP-MS, Geostand. Geoanal. Res., 32(2), 193–...

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Distribution of Overwintering Calanus in the North Norwegian Sea :...

By: D. Slagstad; T. Semenova; J. M. Pedersen; A. Timonin; A. Edvardsen

Description: Department of Aquatic BioSciences, Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of TromsØ, 9037 TromsØ, Norway. During winter 2003 and 2004, zooplankton and hydrographic data were collected in the northern parts of the Norwegian Sea (68–72° N, 8–17° E) west of the Norwegian shelf break at depths down to 1800 m. The results cover both inter and intra annual changes of hydrography and distribution of Calanus spp. For the whole survey area, ave...

Backhaus, J O., Harms, I H., Krause, M., and Heath, M R.: An hypothesis concerning the space-time succession of \textitCalanus finmarchicus in the northern North Sea, ICES J. Mar. Sci., 51, 169–180, 1994.; Bryant, A D., Hainbucher, D., and Heath, M.: Basin-scale advection and population persistence of \textitCalanus finmarchicus, Fisheries Oceanogr., 7, 235–244, 1998.; Campbell, R W. and Dower, J F.: Role of lipids in the maintenance of neutral buoyancy by zooplankton, M...

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Liquid Export of Arctic Freshwater Components Through the Fram Str...

By: P. A. Dodd; E. Falck; E. Hansen; A. MacKensen; E. J. Rohling; B. Rabe; A. Beszczynska-möller; U. Schauer; K. Cox; G. Kattner

Description: Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany. We estimated the magnitude and composition of southward liquid freshwater transports in the East Greenland Current near 79° N in the Western Fram Strait between 1998 and 2011. Previous studies have found this region to be an important pathway for liquid freshwater export from the Arctic Ocean to the Nordic Seas and the North Atlantic subpolar gyre.

Our transport est...

Aaboe, S. and Nost, O. A.: A Diagnostic Model of the Nordic Seas and Arctic Ocean Circulation: Quantifying the Effects of a Variable Bottom Density along a Sloping Topography, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38, 2685–2703, doi:10.1175/2008JPO3862.1, 2008.; Aaboe, S., Nost, O. A., and Hansen, E.: Along-slope variability of barotropic transport in the Nordic Seas: Simplified dynamics tested against observations, J. Geophys. Res., 114...

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Transport of Warm Upper Circumpolar Deep Water Onto the Western An...

By: D. C. McKee; D. G. Martinson

Description: Division of Ocean and Climate Physics, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, 61 Route 9W, Palisades, NY 10964, USA. Five thermistor moorings were placed on the continental shelf of the western Antarctic Peninsula (between 2007 and 2010) in an effort to identify the mechanism(s) responsible for delivering warm Upper Circumpolar Deep Water (UCDW) onto the broad continental shelf from the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) flowing over t...

Allen, S. E. and Durrieu de Madron, X.: A review of the role of submarine canyons in deep-ocean exchange with the shelf, Ocean Sci., 5, 607–620, doi:10.5194/os-5-607-2009, 2009.; Böning, C. W., Dispert, A., Visbeck, M., Rintoul, S. R., and Schwarzkopf, F. U.: The response of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current to recent climate change, Nat. Geosci., 1, 864–869, 2008.; Cook, A. J., Fox, A. J., Vaughan, D. G., and Ferrigno, J. C.: Retreating glacial fronts on the Antarctic P...

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Multi-year Satellite Observations of Instability Waves in the Trop...

By: L. P. Pezzi; A. C. V. Caltabiano; I. S. Robinson

Description: Laboratory for Satellite Oceanography, Southampton Oceanography Centre, European Way, Southampton, SO14 3ZH, UK. Instability waves in the tropical Atlantic Ocean are analysed by microwave satellite-based data spanning from 1998 to 2001. This is the first multi-year observational study of these waves in the region. Sea surface temperature (SST) data were used to show that the waves spectral characteristics vary from year-to-year. They also vary on each l...

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Water Level Oscillations in Monterey Bay and Harbor : Volume 11, I...

By: R. Heitsenrether; W. Sweet; J. Park

Description: NOAA, 1305 East West Hwy, Silver Spring, MD, USA. Seiches are normal modes of water bodies responding to geophysical forcings with potential to significantly impact ecology and maritime operations. Analysis of high-frequency (1 Hz) water level data in Monterey California identifies Harbor modes between 10 and 120 s that are attributed with specific geographic features. It found that modal amplitude modulation arises from cross-modal i...

AMS: Seiches in Lake Garda, Mon. Weather Rev., 31, 532–533, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1903)31[532b:SILG]2.0.CO;2, 1903.; Bloomfield, P.: Fourier Analysis of Time Series: An Introduction, Wiley, New York, 1st Edn., 1976.; AMS: The seiche and its mechanical explanation, Mon. Weather Rev., 34, 226, doi:2.0.CO;2>10.1175/1520-0493(1906)34<226b...

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Surface Expression of Mediterranean Water Dipoles and Their Contri...

By: D. Boutov; I. Ambar; N. Serra

Description: Institut für Meereskunde, Universität Hamburg, Germany. The generation of dipolar eddies within the Mediterranean Water (MW) layers, at the Portuguese continental slope, was observed using subsurface RAFOS floats. The surface expression of these mid-depth dipoles is here characterized with remote sensing data, namely with sea surface temperature, chlorophyll concentration and sea surface height measurements. Two cases are presented demonstrating the remo...

Afansyev, Y., Kostianoy, A., Zatsepin, A., and coauthors: Analysis of velocity field in the eastern Black Sea from satellite data during the Black Sea 1999 experiment, J. Geophys. Res., 107(C8), 3098, doi:{10.1029/2000JC000578}, 2002.; Ambar, I. and Howe, M.: Observations of the Mediterranean outflow – I: Mixing in the Mediterranean outflow, Deep-Sea Res., 26, 535–554, 1979.; Ambar, I., Serra, N., Neves, F., and Ferreira, T.: Observations of the Mediterranean Undercurren...

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Importance of the Variability of Hydrographic Preconditioning for ...

By: D. A. Smeed; H. L. Bryden; K. Schroeder; L. Grignon

Description: National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK. We study the variability of hydrographic preconditioning defined as the heat and salt contents in the Ligurian Sea before convection. The stratification is found to reach a maximum in the intermediate layer in December, whose causes and consequences for the interannual variability of convection are investigated. Further study of the interannual variability and correlation tests between the properties of the...

Alverson, K.: Mechanisms for lateral exchange with oceanic convection sites, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 1436–1446, 1997.; Astraldi, M. and Gasparini, G.: The Seasonal Characteristics of the Circulation in the North Mediterranean Basin and their Relationship with the Atmospheric-Climatic Conditions, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 97, 9531–9540, 1992.; Astraldi, M., Gasparini, G., Manzella, G., and Hopkins, T.: Temporal Variability of Currents in the Eastern Ligurian Sea, J. Geophy...

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Physical Response of the Coastal Ocean to Hurricane Isabel Near La...

By: F. M. Bingham

Description: Center for Marine Science, Univ. of North Carolina Wilmington, 5600 Marvin K. Moss Lane, Wilmington, NC 28409, USA. Hurricane Isabel made landfall near Drum Inlet, North Carolina on 18 September 2003. In nearby Onslow Bay an array of 5 moorings captured the response of the coastal ocean to the passage of the storm by measuring currents, surface waves, bottom pressure, temperature and salinity. Temperatures across the continental shelf decreased by 1–3°C,...

Geisler, J. E.: Linear Theory of the Response of a Two Layer Ocean to a Moving Hurricane, Geophys. Fluid Dyn., 1, 249–272, 1970.; Ginis, I. and Sutyrin, G. G.: Hurricane-generated Depth-averaged Currents and Sea Surface Elevation, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25, 1218–1242, 1995.; Beven, J. and Cobb, H.: Tropical Cyclone Report, Hurricane Isabel, 6–19 September 2003, National Hurricane Center, Miami Fl, 2004.; Chu, P. C., Veneziano, J. M., Fan, C., Carron, M. J., and Liu, W. T.: ...

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Influence of Frontal Cyclone Evolution on the 2009 (Ekman) and 201...

By: V. H. Kourafalou; M. Le Hénaff; Y. S. Androulidakis

Description: University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS/MPO 4600), Rickenbacker Cswy, Miami, FL 33149, USA. The anticyclonic Loop Current Eddy (LCE) shedding events are strongly associated with the evolution of Loop Current Frontal Eddies (LCFEs) over the eastern Gulf of Mexico (GoM). A numerical simulation, in tandem with in situ measurements and satellite data, was used to investigate the Loop Current (LC) evolution and the surr...

Androulidakis, Y. S. and Kourafalou, V. H.: On the processes that influence the transport and fate of Mississippi waters under flooding outflow conditions, Ocean Dynam., 63, 143–164, 2013.; Biggs, D., Fargion, G., Hamilton, P., and Leben, R.: Cleavage of a Gulf of Mexico Loop Current eddy by a deep water cyclone, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 20629–20620, 1996.; Athié, G., Candela, J., Ochoa, J., and Sheinbaum, J.: Impact of Caribbean cyclones on the detachment of Loop Current ...

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Preface an Historical Perspective on the Development of the Thermo...

By: T. McDougall; R. Tailleux; R. Pawlowicz; R. Feistel
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Mean Circulation in the Coastal Ocean Off Northeastern North Ameri...

By: R. He; K. Chen

Description: Physical Oceanography Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 266 Woods Hole Road, MS# 21, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA. A regional-scale ocean model was used to hindcast the coastal circulation over the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) and Gulf of Maine (GOM) from 2004 to 2013. The model was nested inside a data assimilative global ocean model that provided initial and open boundary conditions. Realistic atmospheric forcing, tides and observed river r...

Aikman, F., Ou, H. W., and Houghton, R. W.: Current variability across the New-England continental shelf-break and slope, Cont. Shelf Res., 8, 625–651, 1988.; Beardsley, R. C. and Boicourt, W. C.: On Estuarine and Continental-Shelf Circulation in the Middle Atlantic Bight, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1981.; Beardsley, R. C., Chapman, D. C., Brink, K. H., Ramp, S. R., and Schlitz, R.: The Nantucket Shoals Flux Experiment (NSFE79). Part 1, A basic description of the current ...

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Observations of Turbulence Beneath Sea Ice in Southern McMurdo Sou...

By: N. J. Robinson; T. G. Haskell; M. J. M. Williams; C. L. Stevens

Description: National Institute for Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), Greta Point Wellington, New Zealand. The first turbulence profiler observations beneath land fast sea ice which is directly adjacent to an Antarctic ice shelf are described. The stratification in the 325 m deep water column consisted of a layer of supercooled water in the upper 40 m lying above a quasi-linearly stratified water column with a sharp step in density at mid-depth. Turbulent energy...

Albrecht, N., Vennell, R., Williams, M., Stevens, C., Langhorne, P., Leonard, G., and Haskell, T.: Observation of sub-inertial internal tides in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L24606, doi:10.1029/2006GL027377, 2006.; Arrigo, K.R., van Dijken, G., and Long, M.: Coastal Southern Ocean: A strong anthropogenic CO2 sink, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L21602, doi:10.1029/2008GL035624, 208.; Dempsey, D., Langhorne, P. J., Robinson, N. J., Williams, M....

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Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies, Seasonal Cycle and Trend Regime...

By: A. Trasviña-castro; S. E. Lluch-cota; D. B. Lluch-cota; A. Ramos-rodríguez

Description: Programa de Ecología Pesquera, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste, S.C., La Paz, Mexico. We used the extended reconstruction of sea surface temperature (ERSST) to analyze the variation of surface temperature and the seasonal cycle along the coast of the eastern Pacific (60° N–60° S, 61 pixels alongshore) from 1950 to 2010 (732 months). First, we analyzed the monthly anomalies and looked for a relationship of such anomalies with total solar irr...

Ashok, K. and Yamagata, T.: The El Niño with a difference, Nature, 461, 481–484, 2009.; Bennett, K.: Milankovitch cycles and their effects on species in ecological and evolutionary time, Paleobiology, 16, 11–21, 1990.; Bloomfield, P.: Fourier Analysis of Time Series: An Introduction, Wiley Series in Probability and Mathematical Statistics, John Wiley & Sons, 1st edn., 1976.; Braun, H., Christl, M., Rahmstorf, S., Ganopolski, A., Mangini, A., Kubatzki, C., Roth, K., and K...

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Validation of the Nemo-ersem Operational Ecosystem Model for the N...

By: R. Barciela; M. Butenschön; K. P. Edwards

Description: Met Office, Exeter, UK. This paper details updates to the Met Office's operational coupled hydrodynamic-ecosystem model from the 7 km Medium-Resolution Continental Shelf – POLCOMS-ERSEM (MRCS-PE) system (Siddorn et al., 2007) to the 7 km Atlantic Margin Model NEMO-ERSEM (AMM7-NE) system. We also provide a validation of the ecosystem component of the new operational system. Comparisons have been made between the model variables and available in situ, sa...

Allen, J. I., Holt, J. T., Blackford, J., and Proctor, R.: Error quantification of a high-resolution coupled hydrodynamic-ecosystem coastal-ocean model: Part 2. Chlorophyll-a, nutrients and SPM, J. Mar. Syst., 68, 381–404, doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2007.01.005, 2007.; Barciela, R., Mahdon, R., Edwards, K., Miller, P., Shutler, J., Jonas, P., Murdoch, N., Whither, A., and Roast, S.: Operational monitoring and forecas...

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Ensemble Perturbation Smoother for Optimizing Tidal Boundary Condi...

By: K.-w. Gurgel; J. Staneva; A. Alvera-azcárate; J.-m. Beckers; A. Barth; A. Port; E. V. Stanev

Description: GeoHydrodynamics and Environment Research (GHER), MARE, AGO, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium. High-Frequency (HF) radars measure the ocean surface currents at various spatial and temporal scales. These include tidal currents, wind-driven circulation, density-driven circulation and Stokes drift. Sequential assimilation methods updating the model state have been proven successful to correct the density-driven currents by assimilation of observations s...

Alvera-Azcárate, A., Barth, A., Bouallègue, Z. B., Rixen, M., and Beckers, J.-M.: Forecast V}erification of a {3D model of the {L}igurian {S}ea. {T}he use of {D}iscrete {W}avelet {T}ransforms in the skill assessment of spatial forecasts, J. Marine Syst., 65, 460–483, doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2005.09.015, http://hdl.handle.net/2268/4264, 2007.; Amante, C. and Eakins, B. W....

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From the Chlorophyll A in the Surface Layer to Its Vertical Profil...

By: E. Bauerfeind; A. Bracher; E.-m. Nöthig; C. Melsheimer; A. Cherkasheva

Description: Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany. Current estimates of global marine primary production range over a factor of two. At high latitudes, the uncertainty is even larger than globally because here in-situ data and ocean color observations are scarce, and the phytoplankton absorption shows specific characteristics due to the low-light adaptation. The improvement of the primary production estimates requires an accur...

Antoine, D. and Morel, A.: Oceanic primary production: I. Adaptation of a spectral light-photosynthesis model in view of application to satellite chlorophyll observations, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 10, 43–55, 1996.; Antoine ,D., André, J. M. and Morel, A.: Oceanic primary production: II. Estimation at global scale from satellite (Coastal Zone Color Scanner) chlorophyll, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 10, 57–69, 1996.; Behrenfeld, M. J.: Abandoning Sverdrup's Critical Depth Hypoth...

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Sea Level Variability in the Arctic Ocean Observed by Satellite Al...

By: M. Ablain; A. Cazenave; N. Picot; P. Prandi

Description: CLS, Space Oceanography Division, Ramonville St-Agne, France. We investigate sea level variability in the Arctic Ocean from observations. Variability estimates are derived both at the basin scale and on smaller local spatial scales. The periods of the signals studied vary from high frequency (intra-annual) to long term trends. We also investigate the mechanisms responsible for the observed variability. Different data types are used, the m...

Ablain, M., Cazenave, A., Valladeau, G., and Guinehut, S.: A new assessment of the error budget of global mean sea level rate estimated by satellite altimetry over 1993–2008, Ocean Sci., 5, 193–201, doi:10.5194/os-5-193-2009, 2009.; Bindoff, N., Willebrand, J., Artale, V., Cazenave, A., Gregory, J. M., Gulev, S., Hanawa, H., Le Quéré, C., Levitus, S., Nojiri, Y., Shum, C. K., Talley, L., and Unnikrishnan, A.: Observatio...

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The Structure of the Persian Gulf Outflow Subjected to Density Var...

By: M. Ezam; A. A. Bidokhti

Description: Institute of Geophysics, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14155–6466, Tehran, Iran. Oceanographic data and a dynamic model are used to consider the structure of Persian Gulf outflow. This outflow influences the physical properties of Oman seawater which appear in the CTD profiles of the Oman Sea. The observations show that thickness of the outflow, which is banked against the Oman coasts due to the earth rotation, is about 200 m with tongues extending eas...

Bidokhti, A. A.: Shear induced splitting of a plume outflow in a stratified enclosed basin, Indian J. Mar. Sci., 34(2), 192–211, 2005.; Bower, A. S., Hunt, H. D., and Price, J. F.: Character and dynamics of the Red Sea and Persian Gulf outflows, J. Geophys. Res., 105(C3), 6387–6414, 2000.; Chao S. Y., Kao, T. W., and Al-Hajri, K. R.: A numerical investigation of circulation in the Persian Gulf, J. Geophys. Res., 97(C7), 11 219–11 236, 1992.; Gill, A. E.: Atmosphere-Ocean...

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Large-scale Temperature and Salinity Changes in the Upper Canadian...

By: J. Zhao; J. Shi; P. Bourgain; J. C. Gascard

Description: Laboratoire d'océanographie et du climat: expérimentations et approches numériques (LOCEAN) – UMR7159, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France. Between 2008 and 2010, the Arctic Oscillation index over Arctic regions shifted from positive values corresponding to more cyclonic conditions prevailing during the 4th International Polar Year (IPY) period (2007–2008) to extremely negative values corresponding to strong anticyclonic conditions in 2010. I...

Aagaard, K. and Carmack, E. C.: The Role of Sea Ice and Other Fresh Water in the Arctic Circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 14485–14498, doi:10.1029/JC094iC10p14485, 1989.; Aagaard, K., Coachman, L. K., and Carmack, E.: On the halocline of the Arctic Ocean, Deep Sea Res., 28, 529–545, doi:10.1016/0198-0149(81)90115-1, 1981.; Alkire, M. B., Falkner, K. K., Moris...

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