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A Semi-analytical Model for Diffuse Reflectance in Marine and Inla...

By: Y.-h. Ahn; P. Shanmugam; J. D. Pravin

Description: Ocean Optics and Imaging Laboratory, Department of Ocean Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, 600036, India. A semi-analytical model for predicting diffuse reflectance of coastal and oceanic waters is developed based on the water-column optical properties and illumination conditions. Diffuse reflectance (R) is an apparent optical property that is related to the Gordon's parameter (bb/(a+bb)) thr...

Ahn, Y.-H. and Shanmugam, P.: Derivation and analysis of the fluorescence algorithms to estimate phytoplankton pigment concentrations in optically complex coastal waters, J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Op., 9, 352–362, doi:10.1088/1464-4258/9/4/008, 2007.; Albert, A. and Mobley, C. D.: An analytical model for subsurface irradiance and remote sensing reflectance in deep and shallow case-2 waters, Opt. Express, 11, 2873–2890, <...

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Mesoscale Variability in the Arabian Sea from Hycom Model Results ...

By: R. Baraille; R. Duarte; P. L'Hégaret; D. Ciani; C. Vic; X. Carton; S. Corréard

Description: LPO UMR 6525, UNO/UEB – CNRS-IFREMER-IRD, UFR Sciences et Techniques/IUEM, Brest, France. The Arabian Sea and Sea of Oman circulation and water masses, subject to monsoon forcing, reveal a strong seasonal variability and intense mesoscale features. We describe and analyze this variability and these features, using both meteorological data (from ECMWF reanalyses), in situ observations (from the ARGO float program and the GDEM – Generalized Digital Environ...

Bower, A. S., Hunt, H. D., and Price, J. F.: Character and dynamics of the red Sea and the Persian Gulf outflows, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 105, 6387–6414, 2000.; Carnes, M. R.: Description and Evaluation of GDEM-V 3.0, Naval Research Lab Stennis Space Center Ms Oceanography Div, 2009.; Carton, X., L'Hegaret, P., and Baraille, R.: Mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea as revealed by ARGO floats, Ocean Sci., 8, 227–248,

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Assimilation of Ocean Colour Data Into a Biogeochemical Flux Model...

By: G. Korres; G. Petihakis; I. Hoteit; G. Triantafyllou; A. C. Banks

Description: Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, Anavissos, Greece. An advanced multivariate sequential data assimilation system has been implemented within the framework of the European MFSTEP project to fit a three-dimensional biogeochemical model of the Eastern Mediterranean to satellite chlorophyll data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). The physics are described by the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) while the biochemistry of the ecosystem i...

Allen, J. I., Ekenes, M., and Evensen, G.: An Ensemble Kalman Filter with a complex marine ecosystem model: Hindcasting phytoplankton in the Cretan Sea, Ann. Geophys., 21, 399–411, 2002.; Anderson, L. A., Robinson, A. R., and Lozano, C. J.: Physical and biological modelling in the Gulf Stream region: Data assimilation methodology, Deep Sea Res., 47, 1787–1827, 2000.; Baith, K., Lindsay, R., Fu, G., and McClain, C. R.: SeaDAS, A Data Analysis System for Ocean-Color Satell...

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Tracers Confirm Downward Mixing of Tyrrhenian Sea Upper Waters Ass...

By: J. E. Lupton; W. Roether

Description: Institut für Umweltphysik, Universität Bremen, Bremen, Germany. Observations of tritium and 3He in the Tyrrhenian Sea, 1987–2009, confirm the enhanced convective mixing of intermediate waters into the deep waters that has been noted and associated with the Eastern Mediterranean Transient in previous studies. Our evidence for the mixing rests on increasing tracer concentrations in the Tyrrhenian deep waters, accompanied by decreases in the upp...

Béthoux, J.-P., Gentili, B., and Tailliez, D.: Warming and freshwater budget change in the Mediterranean since the 1940s, their possible relation to the greenhouse effect, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25(7), 1023–1026, 1998.; Cortecci, G., Molcard, R., and Noto, P.: Isotopic analysis of the deep structure in the Tyrrhenian Sea, Nature, 250, 134–136, 1974.; Andrie, C. and Merlivat, L.: Tritium in the western Mediterranean during the 1981 Phycemed cruise, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 35(2...

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Estimates of Radiance Reflected Towards the Zenith at the Surface ...

By: E. Aas

Description: Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, Norway. Remote sensing of water colour by ship-mounted sensors represents an important tool for the validation of satellite products and the monitoring of water quality. The recorded radiance from the sea has to be corrected for the surface-reflected radiance from sun and sky in order to obtain the water-leaving radiance. Here the simple case of radiance reflected towards the zenith is studied. A set of obs...

Aas, E.: Calibration of a marine radiance and colour index meter, Rep. No. 87, Dept. Geophys., Univ. Oslo, 1993.; Aas, E. and Høkedal, J.: Reflection of spectral sky irradiance on the surface of the sea and related properties, Remote Sens. Environ., 70, 181–190, 1999.; Aas, E. and Højerslev, N. K.: Analysis of underwater radiance observations: Apparent optical properties and analytic functions describing the angular radiance distribution, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 8015–8024...

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Corrigendum to Nemo on the Shelf: Assessment of the Iberia–biscay–...

By: The Mercator Research and Development Team; J. Chanut; B. Levier; G. Reffray; P. De Mey; P. Marsaleix; M. Drévillon; E. A. Fanjul; N. Ayoub; C. Maraldi; F. Lyard; M. G. Sotillo; S. Cailleau

Description: LEGOS/CNRS/Université de Toulouse, UMR5566, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France. No abstract available.

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Eastern Mediterranean Biogeochemical Flux Model – Simulations of t...

By: A. Pollani; G. Petihakis; G. Korres; G. Triantafyllou; I. Hoteit; K. Tsiaras

Description: Institute of Oceanography, Hellenic Center for Marine Research, P.O. BOX 2214, Iraklion-Crete Greece, GR 71003, Greece. During the second phase (2003–2006) of the Mediterranean ocean Forecasting System Project (MFS) named Toward Environmental Predictions (MFSTEP) one of the three major aims was the development of numerical forecasting systems. In this context a generic Biogeochemical Flux Model (BFM) was developed and coupled with hydrodynamic models alr...

Abdel-Hamid, M. I., Shaaban-Dessouki, S. A. and Skulberg, O. M.: Water quality of the River Nile in Egypt. 1. Physical and chemical characteristics, Archiv. Hydrobiol., 90, 283–310, 1992.; Aksnes, D. L. and Egge, J. K.: A theoretical model for nutrient uptake in phytoplankton, Marine Ecology Progress Series, 70, 65–72, 1991.; Allen, J. I., Ekenes, M., and Evensen, G.: An Ensemble Kalman Filter with a complex marine ecosystem model: Hindcasting phytoplankton in the Cretan...

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Heat in the Barents Sea: Transport, Storage, and Surface Fluxes : ...

By: Ø. Skagseth; R. Ingvaldsen; J. E. Ø. Nilsen; L. H. Smedsrud

Description: Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway. A column model is set up for the Barents Sea to explore sensitivity of surface fluxes and heat storage from varying ocean heat transport. Mean monthly ocean transport and atmospheric forcing are synthesised and force the simulations. Results show that by using updated ocean transports of heat and freshwater the vertical mean hydrographic seasonal cycle can be reproduced fairly well.

Our res...

Aagaard, K. and Carmack, E.: The role of Sea Ice and Other Fresh Water in the Arctic Circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 14485–14489, 1989.; Ådlandsvik, B.: The Polar Front in the Barents Sea, in preparation, 2010.; Aksenov, Y., Bacon, S., Coward, A., and Nurser, A.: The North Atlantic inflow to the {Arctic Ocean}: High-resolution model study, J. Marine Syst., 79(1–2), 1–22, doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2009.05.003, 201...

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The Density of Seawater as a Function of Salinity (5 to 70 G Kg

By: F. Huang; F. J. Millero

Description: Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33149, USA. New seawater density measurements were made as a function of temperature (0 to 90°C) and salinity (5 to 70). The measurements (N=230) from 0 to 40°C and Practical Salinity from 0 to 40 were found to be in good agreement (Σ=0.0036) with the equation of state of seawater (Millero and Poisson, 1981) made on samp...

Millero,~F J., Chetirkin,~P V., and Culkin,~F.: The relative conductivity and density of standard seawaters, Deep-Sea Res. 24, 315–321, 1976a.; Millero,~F J. and Kremling,~K.: The densities of Baltic Sea waters. Deep-Sea Res., 23, 1129–1138, 1976.; Bigg,~P H.: Density of water in SI units over the range 0–40\unit\degree C, Brit. J. Appl. Phys., 18, 521–524, 1967.; Brewer,~P G. and Bradshaw,~A.: The effect of non-ideal composition of seawater on salinity and density, J. M...

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Mechanisms of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation Variabil...

By: V. N. Stepanov; K. Haines

Description: Dept. of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, UK. We have investigated mechanisms for the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) variability at 26.5° N (other than the Ekman component) that can be related to external forcings, in particular wind variability. Resolution dependence is studied using identical experiments with 1° and 1/4° NEMO model runs over 1960–2010.

The analysis shows that much of the variability in the AMO...

Bersch, M., Yashayaev, I., and Koltermann, K.: Recent changes of the thermohaline circulation in the subpolar north atlantic, Ocean Dynam., 57, 223–235, 2007.; Barnier, B. and the DRAKKAR Group: Eddy-permitting ocean circulation hindcasts of past decades, Clivar Exchanges, 12, 8–10, 2007.; Adcroft, A., Hill, C., and Marshall, J.: Representation of topography by shaved cells in a height coordinate ocean model, Mon. Weather Rev., 125, 2293–2315, 1997.; Barnier, B., Madec, ...

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Daily Oceanographic Analyses by Mediterranean Forecasting System a...

By: A. Bonazzi; N. Pinardi; M. Adani; M. Tonani; V. Fernandez; S. Dobricic; C. Fratianni

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Bologna, Italy. This study presents the upgrade of the Optimal Interpolation scheme used in the basin scale assimilation scheme of the Mediterranean Forecasting System. The modifications include a daily analysis cycle, the assimilation of ARGO float profiles, the implementation of the geostrophic balance in the background error covariance matrix and the initialisation of the analyses. A series o...

De Mey, P. and Benkiran, M.: A multivariate reduced-order optimal interpolation method and its application to the Mediterranean basin-scale circulation, Ocean Forecasting, edited by: Pinardi, N. and Woods, J., Springer Verlag, 281–306, 2002.; Demirov, E. and Pinardi, N.,: Simulation of the Mediterranean Sea circulation from 1979 to 1993. Part I: The interannual variability, J. Mar. Syst., 33–34, 23–50, 2002.; Demirov, E., Pinardi, N., Fratianni, C., Tonani, M., Giacomell...

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Halocline Water Modification and Along Slope Advection at the Lapt...

By: I. Polyakov; S. Torres-valdes; A. Novikhin; D. Bauch; A. Mix; J. McKay; I. Dmitrenko

Description: GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Wischhofstr. 1–3, 24148 Kiel, Germany. A general pattern in water mass distribution and potential shelf-basin exchanges is revealed at the Laptev Sea continental slope based on hydrochemical and stable oxygen isotope data from summers 2005–2009. Despite considerable interannual variations, a frontal system can be inferred between shelf, continental slope and central Eurasian Basin waters in the upper 100 ...

Anderson, L. G., Andersson, P. S., Björk, G., Peter Jones, E., Jutterström, S., and Wåhlström, I.: Source and formation of the upper halocline of the Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 118, 410–421, doi:10.1029/2012JC008291, 2013.; Bareiss, J. and Görgen, K.: Spatial and temporal variability of sea ice in the Laptev Sea: Analyses and review of satellite passive-microwave data and model results, 1979 to 2002, Global P...

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A New Method for Forming Approximately Neutral Surfaces : Volume 5...

By: D. R. Jackett; T. J. McDougall; A. Klocker

Description: CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Castray Esplanade, TAS 7000, Australia. We introduce a simple algorithm to improve existing density surfaces to ensure that the resulting surfaces are as close to neutral as possible. This means the slopes at any point on the surfaces are close to neutral tangent planes – the directions along which layered stirring and mixing occurs – minimizing the fictitious diapycnal diffusivity. Inverse techniques and layered m...

McDougall, T J.: Neutral surfaces, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 17, 1950–1964, 1987.; de~Szoeke, R A., Springer, S R., and Oxilia, D M.: Orthobaric Density: A Thermodynamic Variable for Ocean Circulation Studies, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 2830–2852, 2000.; Eden, C. and Willebrand, J.: Neutral density revisited, Deep Sea Research II, 46, 33–54, 1999.; Gouretski, V V. and Koltermann, K P.: WOCE global hydrographic climatology, Tech. rep., Bundesamtes für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrograph...

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Sources of 21St Century Regional Sea-level Rise Along the Coast of...

By: A. K. Pardaens; J. Ridley; R. T. W. L. Hurkmans; J. L. Bamber; G. Spada; J. A. Lowe; T. Howard; D. Vaughan

Description: Met Office Hadley Centre, FitzRoy Road, Exeter, EX1 3PB, UK. Changes in both global and regional mean sea level, and changes in the magnitude of extreme flood heights, are the result of a combination of several distinct contributions most, but not all, of which are associated with climate change. These contributions include effects in the solid earth, gravity field, changes in ocean mass due to ice loss from ice sheets and glaciers, thermal expansion, a...

Araujo, I. B. and Pugh, D. T.: Sea levels at Newlyn 1915–2005: analysis of trends for future flooding risks, J. Coastal Res., 24, 203–212, doi:10.2112/06-0785.1, 2008.; Brown, S., Boorman, P., McDonald, R., and Murphy, J.: Use and interpretation of surface wind projections from the 11-member Met Office Regional Climate Model ensemble, UKCP09 Technical Note. Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, UK, available at:

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Influence of Rossby Waves on Primary Production from a Coupled Phy...

By: P. Cipollini; M. Drévillon; V. Garçon; G. Charria; I. Dadou

Description: Laboratoire d'Etudes en Géophysique et Océanographie Spatiales, UMR5566/CNRS, Toulouse, France. Rossby waves appear to have a clear signature on surface chlorophyll concentrations which can be explained by a combination of vertical and horizontal mechanisms. In this study, we investigate the role of the different physical processes in the north Atlantic to explain the surface chlorophyll signatures and the consequences on primary production, using a 3-D ...

Barnier, B., Madec, G., Penduff, T., et al.: Impact of partial steps and momentum advection schemes in a global ocean circulation model at eddy-permitting resolution, Ocean Dynam., 56, 543–567, 2006.; Challenor, P. G., Cipollini, P., and Cromwell, D.: Use of the 3D Radon Transform to Examine the Properties of Oceanic Rossby Waves, J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., 18, 1558–1566, 2001, See also: Corrigendum: J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., 19, 828, 2002.; Charria, G., Mélin, F., Dadou, I...

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Is Coccolithophore Distribution in the Mediterranean Sea Related t...

By: M. Álvarez; T. Tanhua; P. Ziveri; A. M. Oviedo

Description: Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra, Spain. The Mediterranean Sea is considered a hot-spot for climate change, being characterized by oligotrophic to ultra-oligotrophic waters and rapidly changing carbonate chemistry. Coccolithophores are considered a dominant phytoplankton group in these waters. As a marine calcifying organism they are expected to respond to the ongoin...

Austin, M. P.: Spatial prediction of species distribution: an interface between ecological theory and statistical modelling, Ecol. Model., 157, 101–118, 2002.; Álvarez, M., Sanleón-Bartolomé, H., Tanhua, T., Mintrop, L., Luchetta, A., Cantoni, C., Schroeder, K., and Civitarese, G.: The CO2 system in the Mediterranean Sea: a basin wide perspective, Ocean Sci. Discuss., 10, 1447–1504, doi:10.5194/osd-10-1447-201...

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Sea Surface Salinity Variability from a Simplified Mixed Layer Mod...

By: B. Chapron; N. Reul; J. Tournadre; S. Michel

Description: Laboratoire d'Océanographie Spatiale, IFREMER, Brest, France. A bi-dimensional mixed layer model (MLM) of the global ocean is used to investigate the sea surface salinity (SSS) balance and variability at daily to seasonal scales. Thus a simulation over an average year is performed with daily climatological forcing fields. The forcing dataset combines air-sea fluxes from a meteorological model, geostrophic currents from satellite altimeters and in situ d...

Alexander, M. A., Scott, J. D., and Deser, C.: Processes that influence sea surface temperature and ocean mixed layer depth variability in a coupled model, J. Geophys. Res., 105(C7), 16 823–16 842, 2000.; Boyer, T. P., Levitus, S., Garcia, H. E., Locamini, R. A., Stephens, C., and Antonov, J.: Objective analyses of annual, seasonal, and monthly temperature and salinity for the world ocean on a 0.25 degrees grid, Int. J. Climatol., 25(7), 931–945, 2004.; Boyer, T. P., Lev...

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Technical Note: Watershed Strategy for Oceanic Mesoscale Eddy Spli...

By: L. Sun; Q. Y. Li

Description: Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Composition and Optical Radiation, CAS, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, China. To identify oceanic mononuclear mesoscale eddies, a threshold-free splitting method was developed based on the watershed. Because oceanic eddies are similar to plateaus and basins in the map of the sea level anomaly (SLA) data, the natural divisions of the basins are the watersh...

Chaigneau, A., Gizolme, A., and Grados, C.: Mesoscale eddies off Peru in altimeter records: identification algorithms and eddy spatio-temporal patterns, Progr. Oceanogr., 79, 106–119, 2008.; Chaigneau, A., Le Texier, M., Eldin, G., Grados, C., and Pizarro, O.: Vertical structure of mesoscale eddies in the eastern South Pacific Ocean: a composite analysis from altimetry and Argo profiling floats, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 116, C11025,

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Formulation of an Ocean Model for Global Climate Simulations : Vol...

By: A. Rosati; S. M. Griffies; B. L. Samuels; M. J. Spelman; R. Gerdes; J. L. Russell; A. Gnanadesikan; M. J. Harrison; J. P. Dunne; K. W. Dixon; M. Winton; R. Zhang

Description: NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, USA. This paper summarizes the formulation of the ocean component to the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's (GFDL) coupled climate model used for the 4th IPCC Assessment (AR4) of global climate change. In particular, it reviews elements of ocean climate models and how they are pieced together for use in a state-of-the-art coupled model. Novel issues are also highlighted, with particular attenti...

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Distributions of Mixed Layer Properties in North Pacific Water Mas...

By: T. Suga; F. M. Bingham

Description: University of North Carolina Wilmington, Center for Marine Science, 5600 Marvin K. Moss Lane, Wilmington, NC 28409, USA. Winter mixed layer characteristics in the North Pacific Ocean are examined and compared between Argo floats in 2004 and 2005 and the World Ocean Atlas 2001 (WOA01) climatology for a series of named water masses, North Pacific Tropical Water (NPTW), Eastern Subtropical Mode Water (ESTMW), North Pacific Subtropical Mode Water (NPSTMW), L...

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