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Multi-objective Entropy Evolutionary Algorithm for Marine Oil Spil...

By: M. Marghany

Description: Geoscience {&} Digital Earth Center, Research Institute for Sustainability & Environment, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, UTM, Johor, Malaysia. Oil spill pollution has a substantial role in damaging the marine ecosystem. Oil spill that floats on top of water, as well as decreasing the fauna populations, affects the food chain in the ecosystem. In fact, oil spill is reducing the sunlight penetrates the water, limiting the photosynthesis...

Amorocho, J. and Espildora, B.: Entropy in the assessment of uncertainty in hydrologic systems and models, Water Resour. Res., 9, 1511–1522, 1973.; Barni, M., Betti, M., and Mecocci, A.: A fuzzy approach to oil spill detection an SAR images, International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 1995, IGARSS'95, Quantitative Remote Sensing for Science and Applications, 157–159, 1995.; Calabresi, G., Del Frate, F., Lichtenegger, J., Petrocchi, A., and Trivero, P.: Neural ...

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Comparative Heat and Gas Exchange Measurements in the Heidelberg A...

By: K. E. Krall; B. Jähne; L. Nagel

Description: Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. A comparative study of simultaneous heat and gas exchange measurements was performed in the large annular Heidelberg Air–Sea Interaction Facility, the Aeolotron, under homogeneous water surface conditions. The use of two gas tracers, N2O and C2HF5, resulted not only in gas transfer velocities, but also in the...

Asher, W. E., Jessup, A. T., and Atmane, M. A.: Oceanic application of the active controlled flux technique for measuring air–sea transfer velocities of heat and gases, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C08S12, doi:10.1029/2003JC001862, 2004.; Atmane, M. A., Asher, W., and Jessup, A. T.: On the use of the active infrared technique to infer heat and gas transfer velocities at the air–water free surface, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C08S14...

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The Land-ice Contribution to 21St Century Dynamic Sea-level Rise :...

By: A. K. Pardaens; J. Ridley; R. H. Giesen; T. L. Edwards; A. J. Payne; R. T. W. L. Hurkmans; T. Howard; J. A. Lowe; J. Oerlemans; J. L. Bamber

Description: Met Office Hadley Centre, FitzRoy Road, Exeter, EX1 3PB, UK. Climate change has the potential to locally influence mean sea level through a number of processes including (but not limited to) thermal expansion of the oceans and enhanced land ice melt. These lead to departures from the global mean sea level change, due to spatial variations in the change of water density and transport, which are termed dynamic sea level changes.

In this s...

Aiken, C. M. and England, M. H.: Sensitivity of the present-day climate to freshwater forcing associated with Antarctic sea ice loss, J. Climate, 21, 3936–3946, doi:10.1175/2007jcli1901.1, 2008.; Baldwin, M. P., Stephenson, D. B., and Jolliffe, I. T.: Spatial weighting and iterative projection methods for EOFs, J. Climate, 22, 234–243, doi:10.1175/2008jcli2147.1, 200...

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Structure of Phytoplankton (Continuous Plankton Recorder and Seawi...

By: R. D. Pingree; S. C. Leterme

Description: Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science, The Laboratory, Citadel Hill, Plymouth, UK. All marine organisms are affected to some extent by the movement and thermal properties of oceanic currents. However phytoplankton, because of its small size is most directly coupled to the physical environment. The intense hydrodynamic activity observed in the Northwest Atlantic Shelves Province makes this region especially intriguing from the point of view of p...

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Coastal Sea Level Response to the Tropical Cyclonic Forcing in the...

By: Y. Agarvadekar; M. Soumya; P. Vethamony; S. Lobo; K. Vijaykumar; P. Mehra; R. Luis; K. Jyoti; T. M. Balakrishnan Nair; B. Harmalkar; K. Sudheesh

Description: CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Goa, India. The study examines the observed storm-generated sea level variation due to deep depression (event 1: E1) in the Arabian Sea from 26 November to 1 December 2011 and a cyclonic storm THANE (event 2: E2) over the Bay of Bengal during 25–31 December 2011. The sea level and surface meteorological measurements collected during these extreme events exhibit strong synoptic disturbances leading to storm ...

Antony, C. and Unnikrishnan, A. S.: Observed characteristics of tide-surge interaction along the east coast of India and the head of Bay of Bengal, Estuar. Coast. Shelf S., 131, 6–11, doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2013.08.004, 2013.; Bell, C., Vassie, J. M., and Woodworth, P. L.: Tidal Analysis Software Kit 2000 (Task 2000), POL/PSMSL Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level, Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory, UK, 2000.; Das, P. ...

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Modelling Approach to the Assessment of Biogenic Fluxes at a Selec...

By: M. Ravaioli; F. Giglio; M. Azzaro; G. Catalano; F. Azzaro; M. Vichi; S. Cozzi; L. Langone; R. La Ferla; A. Coluccelli

Description: Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, Bologna, Italy. Several biogeochemical data have been collected in the last 10 years of Italian activity in Antarctica (ABIOCLEAR, ROSSMIZE, BIOSESO-I/II). A comprehensive 1-D biogeochemical model was implemented as a tool to link observations with processes and to investigate the mechanisms that regulate the flux of biogenic material through the water column. The model is ideally located at station ...

Asper, V. L. and Smith, W. O.: Abundance, distribution and sinking rates of aggregates in the Ross {Sea,} antarctica, Deep-Sea Res. II, 50, 131–150, 2003.; Azzaro, M., La Ferla, R., and Azzaro, F.: Microbial respiration in the aphotic zone of the Ross {Sea} (antarctica), Mar. Chem., 99, 199–209, 2006.; Blumberg, A. and Mellor, G.: A description of a three-dimensional coastal ocean circulation model, in: Three-dimensional coastal ocean model, edited by: Heaps, N., America...

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A Global Comparison of Argo and Satellite Altimetry Observations :...

By: G. Larnicol; S. Guinehut; P.-y. Le Traon; A. -l. Dhomps

Description: CLS, Space Oceanography Division, Ramonville Saint-Agne, France. Differences, similarities and complementarities between Sea Level Anomalies (SLA) deduced from altimeter measurements and dynamic height anomalies (DHA) calculated from Argo in situ temperature (T) and salinity (S) profiles are globally analyzed. SLA and DHA agree remarkably well and, compared to previous studies, Argo dataset allows an improvement in the coherence between SL...

Antonov, J. I., Boyer, T. P., Mishonov, A. V., and Garcia, H. E.: Salinity. Vol. 2, World Ocean Atlas 2005, NOAA Atlas NESDIS, 65, 182 pp., 2006.; AVISO: Ssalto/Duacs user Handbook: (M)SLA and (M)ADT near-real time and delayed time products, SALP-MU-P-EA-21065-CLS, Edition 2.2, 2010.; Bell, M. J., Lefebvre, M., Le Traon, P. Y., Smith, N., and Wilmer-Becker, K.: The Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment, Oceanography, 22(3), 14–21, 2009.; Cazenave, A., Dominh, K., Gui...

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Sensitivity of Oxygen Dynamics in the Water Column of the Baltic S...

By: A. Stips; S. Miladinova

Description: CEC Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Ispra (VA), Italy. A 1-D biogeochemical/physical model of marine systems has been applied to study the oxygen cycle in four stations of different sub-basins of the Baltic Sea, namely, in the Gotland Deep, Bornholm, Arkona and Fladen. The model consists of the biogeochemical model of Neumann et al. (2002) coupled with the 1-D General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM). The model has been ...

Axell, L. B.: On the variability of Baltic Sea deep-water mixing, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 667–682, 1998.; Blackford, J. C, Allen, J. I., and Gilbert, F. J.: Ecosystem dynamics at six contrasting sites: a generic modelling study, J. Marine Syst. 52, 191–215, 2004.; Bonsdorff, E., Rönnberg, C., and Aarnio, R.: Some ecological properties in relation to eutrophication in the Baltic Sea, Hydrobiologia, 475/476, 371–377, 2002.; Lass, H. U. and Mohrholz, V.: On dynamics and mixi...

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The Near-inertial Variability of Meridional Overturning Circulatio...

By: C. Liu; J. Xiao; J. Chen; D. Wang; Y. Shu; Q. Xie

Description: State Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography (LTO), South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China. The near-inertial variability of the meridional overturning circulation in the South China Sea (SCSMOC) has been analyzed based on a global 1/12° ocean reanalysis. The wavelet analysis and power spectrum of deep SCSMOC time series shows that there is a significant signal in the near-inertial band. The maximum amplit...

Anderson, D. L. T. and Gill, A. E.: Beta dispersion of inertial waves, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 84, 1836–1842, 1979.; Blaker, A. T., Hirschi, J. J. M., Sinha, B., de Cuevas, B., Alderson, S., Coward, A., and Madec, G.: Large near-inertial oscillations of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, Ocean Model., 42, 50–56, 2012.; Chao, S. Y., Shaw, P. T., and Wu, S. Y.: Deep water ventilation in the South China Sea, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 43, 445–466, 1996.; Chen, G., ...

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An Empirical Model for the Statistics of Sea Surface Diurnal Warmi...

By: C. J. Merchant; P. Le Borgne; H. Kettle; M. J. Filipiak

Description: Institute of Atmospheric and Environmental Science, School of GeoSciences, The University of Edinburgh, Crew Building, The King's Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JN, UK. A statistical model is derived relating the diurnal variation of sea surface temperature (SST) to the net surface heat flux and surface wind speed from a numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. The model is derived using fluxes and winds from the European Centre for Medium-Ra...

Bellenger, H. and Duvel, J.-P.: An analysis of tropical ocean diurnal warm layers, J. Climate, 22, 3629–3646, doi:10.1175/2008JCLI2598.1, 2009.; Bernie, D. J., Woolnough, S. J., Slingo, J. M., and Guilyardi, E.: Modeling diurnal and intraseasonal variability of the ocean mixed layer, J. Climate, 18, 1190–1202, 2005.; Bernie, D. J., Guilyardi, E., Madec, G., Slingo, J. M., Woolnough, S. J., and Cole, J.: Impact of resol...

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A Simple and Self-consistent Geostrophic-force-balance Model of th...

By: J. Marotzke; J. Callies

Description: Ozean im Erdsystem, Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Bundesstraße 53, 20146 Hamburg, Germany. A simple model of the thermohaline circulation (THC) is formulated, with the objective to represent explicitly the geostrophic force balance of the basinwide THC. The model comprises advective-diffusive density balances in two meridional-vertical planes located at the eastern and the western walls of a hemispheric sector basin. Boundary mixi...

Adcroft, A., Scott, J. R., and Marotzke, J.: Impact of geothermal heating on the global ocean circulation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 1735–1738, doi:10.1029/2000GL012182, 2001.; Armi, L.: Some evidence for boundary mixing in the deep ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 83, 1971–1979, doi:10.1029/JC083iC04p01971, 1978.; Bryan, F.: High-latitude salinity effects and interhemispheric...

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Correlation Between Subsurface High-salinity Water in the Northern...

By: W. Zhuang; Y. Du; Y. Qi; A. Wang

Description: State Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography (LTO), South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China. The North Pacific Tropical Water (NPTW), characterized by subsurface high salinity, is observed in the South China Sea (SCS) and is often used as an indicator of the water intrusion from the northwestern Pacific into the SCS. Based on the assimilation product from a global high-resolution Hybrid Coordinate Oc...

Centurioni, L. R., Niiter, P. P., and Lee, D. K.: Observations of inflow of Philippine Sea surface water into the South China Sea through the Luzon Strait, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34, 113–121, 2004.; Chao, S.-Y., Shaw, P. T., and Wu, S. Y.: Deep sea ventilation in the South China Sea, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 43, 445–466, 1996.; Chen, Z. H.: Study on the multi time scale variability and dynamics of the North Equatorial Current Bifurcation in the Pacific, Ph.D. thesis, Ocean Univ...

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Spatiotemporal Variations of FCo2 in the North Sea : Volume 6, Iss...

By: M. Hoppema; T. Johannessen; A. Olsen; A. V. Borges; H. Thomas; A. M. Omar

Description: Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Allégaten 70, 5007 Bergen, Norway. Data from two Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) (MS Trans Carrier and MV Nuka Arctica), acquired along one zonal and one meridional transect (2005–2007) augmented with data subsets from ten cruises (1987–2005) were used to investigate the spatio-temporal variations of the CO2 fugacity in seawater (fCO2sw) in the North ...

Beaugrand, G.: The North Sea regime shift: Evidence, causes, mechanism and consequences, Progr. Oceanogr., 60, 245–262, 2004.; Bell, M. J., Barciela, R., Hines, A., Martin, M., Sellar, A., and Storkey, D.: The Forecasting Ocean Assimilation Model (FOAM) system, in: Ocean Weather Forecasting, edited by: Chassignet, E. P. and Verron, J., 397–411, Springer, The Netherlands, 2006.; Borges, A. V.: Do we have enough pieces of the jigsaw to integrate CO2 fluxes in the Coastal O...

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Deep Drivers of Mesoscale Circulation in the Central Rockall Troug...

By: E. Dumont; M. Inall; D. Alyenik; T. J. Sherwin

Description: Scottish Association for Marine Science, Scottish Marine Institute, Oban, Argyll, PA37 1QA, UK

This paper is dedicated to the memory of Tim Boyd, former friend, colleague and office mate, who was tragically killed in a freak accident in January 2013. Tim was fascinated by the display of Rockall Trough glider data that evolved in real time on my monitor and was poised to lead glider research at SAMS after I retired (TJS).. Mesoscale vari...

Ellett, D. J. and Martin, J. H. A.: The physical and chemical oceanography of the Rockall Channel, Deep-Sea Res., 20, 585–625, 1973.; Dickson, R. R., Gould, W. J., Griffiths, C., Medler, K. J., and Gmitrowicz, E. M.: Seasonality in currents of the Rockall Channel, P. Roy. Soc. Edinb. B, 88, 103–125, 1986.; Ellett, D. J., Edwards, A., and Bowers, R.: The hydrography of the Rockall Channel – an overview, P. Roy. Soc. Edinb. B, 88, 61–81, 1986.; Ellett, D. J., Kruseman, P.,...

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Wind Forcing of Salinity Anomalies in the Denmark Strait Overflow ...

By: K. J. Heywood; M. R. Wadley; S. R. Dye; S. Hall

Description: School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK. The overflow of dense water from the Nordic Seas to the North Atlantic through Denmark Strait is an important part of the global thermohaline circulation. The salinity of the overflow plume has been measured by an array of current meters across the continental slope off the coast of Angmagssalik, southeast Greenland since September 1998. During 2004 the salinity of the overflow pl...

Aagaard, K. and Carmack, E.: The Role of Sea Ice and Other Fresh Water in Arctic Circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 14485–14498, 1989.; Curry, R., Dickson, B., and Yashayaev, I.: A change in the freshwater balance of the Atlantic Ocean over the past four decades, Nature, 426, 826–829, 2003.; Coward, A. and de Cuevas, B.: The OCCAM 66 Level Model: physics, initial conditions and external forcing, SOC Internal Report No. 99, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK, 2...

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Ensemble Smoother for Optimizing Tidal Boundary Conditions by Assi...

By: J. Staneva; K.-w. Gurgel; A. Port; J.-m. Beckers; A. Alvera-azcárate; A. Barth; E. Stanev

Description: GeoHydrodynamics and Environment Research (GHER), MARE, Allée du 6-Août 17, University of Liège, Sart-Tilman B5, 4000 Liège, Belgium. High-Frequency (HF) radars measure the ocean currents at various spatial and temporal scales. These include tidal currents, wind-driven circulation, density-driven circulation and Stokes drift. Sequential assimilation methods updating the model state have been proven successful to correct the density-driven currents by assi...

Alvera-Azcárate, A., Barth, A., Bouallègue, Z. B., Rixen, M., and Beckers,  J.-M.: Forecast verification of a 3-D model of the Ligurian Sea. The use of discrete wavelet transforms in the skill assessment of spatial forecasts, J. Mar. Syst., 65, 460–483, doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2005.09.015, 2007.; Arakawa, A. and Lamb, V.: Computational design of the basic dynamical process of the UCLA general circulation model, in...

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Three-dimensional Modelling of Wave-induced Current from the Surf ...

By: Y. Leredde; C. Estournel; P. Marsaleix; H. Michaud; F. Bourrin; C. Mayet; F. Lyard; F. Ardhuin

Description: Géosciences Montpellier, UMR5243, CNRS – Université Montpellier 2 Sciences et Techniques, place E Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier cedex 5, France. We develop and implement a new method to take into account the impact of waves into the 3-D circulation model SYMPHONIE (Marsaleix et al., 2008, 2009a), following the simplified equations of Bennis et al. (2011) which use glm2z-RANS theory (Ardhuin et al., 2008b). These adiabatic equations are completed by addit...

Agrawal, Y. C., Terray, E. A., Donelan, M. A., Hwang, M. A., Williams III, A. J., Drennan, W. M., Kahma, K. K., and Kitaigorodskii, K. K.: Enhanced dissipation of kinetic energy beneath surface waves, Nature, 359, 219–233, 1992.; Aleman, N., Robin, N., Certain, R., Vanroye, C., Barusseau, J., and Bouchette, F.: Typology of nearshore bars in the Gulf of Lions (FRANCE) using LIDAR technology, J. Coastal Res., 64, 721–725, 2011.; Andrews, D. and McIntyre, M.: An exact theor...

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The Open Boundary Equation : Volume 12, Issue 3 (01/06/2015)

By: M. Toffolon; H. H. G. Savenije; D. Diederen

Description: Department of Water Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands. We present a new equation describing the hydrodynamics in infinitely long tidal channels (i.e., no reflection) under the influence of oceanic forcing. The proposed equation is a simple relationship between partial derivatives of water level and velocity. It is formally derived for a progressive wave in a frictionless, prismatic, tidal channel with a ho...

Cai, H. and Savenije, H. H. G.: Asymptotic behavior of tidal damping in alluvial estuaries, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 118, 6107–6122, doi:10.1002/2013JC008772, 2013.; Cai, H., Savenije, H. H. G., and Toffolon, M.: A new analytical framework for assessing the effect of sea-level rise and dredging on tidal damping in estuaries, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 117, C09023, doi:10.1029/...

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Observed and Simulated Estimates of the Meridional Overturning Cir...

By: H. Haak; S. Cunnningham; J. Marotzke; P. Heimbach; T. Kanzow; J. Baehr

Description: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA. Daily timeseries of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) estimated from the UK/US RAPID/MOCHA array at 26.5° N in the Atlantic are used to evaluate the MOC as simulated in two global circulation models: (I) an 8-member ensemble of the coupled climate model ECHAM5/MPI-OM, and (II) the ECCO-GODAE state estimate. In ECHAM5/MPI-OM, we find that the observed and simulated MOC have a similar v...

Baehr, J., Haak, H., Alderson, S., Cunningham, S. A., Jungclaus, J., and Marotzke, J.: Timely detection of changes in the meridional overturning circulation at 26 N in the Atlantic, J. Climate, 20, 5827–5841, 2007a.; Baehr, J., Hirschi, J., Beismann, J., and Marotzke, J.: Monitoring the meridional overturning circulation in the North Atlantic}: {A model-based array design study, J. Mar. Res., 62(3), 283–312, 2004.; Baehr, J., Keller, K., and Marotzke, J.: Detecting poten...

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Pre-operational Short-term Forecasts for Mediterranean Sea Biogeoc...

By: S. Salon; S. Campagna; P. Lazzari; S. Colella; M. Tonani; A. Teruzzi; C. Calonaci; A. Crise

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale, Sgonico, Italy. Operational prediction of the marine environment is recognised as a fundamental research issue in Europe. We present a pre-operational implementation of a biogeochemical model for the pelagic waters of the Mediterranean Sea, developed within the framework of the MERSEA-IP European project. The OPATM-BFM coupled model is the core of a fully automatic system that delivers week...

Allen, J. I., Somerfield, P. J., and Siddorn, J.: Primary and bacterial production in the Mediterranean Sea: a modelling study, J. Marine Sys., 33–34, 437–495, 2002.; Baretta-Bekker, J. G.: Neth. J. Res., 33, Elsevier, Netherlands, 1995.; Baretta-Bekker, J. C., Baretta, J. W., and Ebenhoh, W.: Microbial dynamics in the marine ecosystem model ERSEMII with decoupled carbon assimilation and nutrient uptake, Jou. Sea Res., 153, 251–261, 1997.; Behrenfeld, M. J., Prasil, O., ...

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