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The Effect of Various Vertical Discretization Schemes and Horizont...

By: M. Luneva; J. Pickering; D. Storkey; G. Shapiro

Description: University of Plymouth, UK. Results of a sensitivity study are presented from various configurations of the NEMO ocean model in the Black Sea. The standard choices of vertical discretization, viz. z-levels, s-coordinates and enveloped s-coordinates, all show their limitations in the areas of complex topography. Two new hydrid vertical coordinate schemes are presented: the s-on-top-of-z and its enveloped version. The hybrid grids use s-coordinates or en...

Becker, E. and Burkhard, U.: Nonlinear Horizontal Diffusion for GCMs, Mon. Weather Rev., 135, 1439–1454, 2007.; Berntsen, J., Xing, J., and Davies, A. M.: Numerical studies of flow over a sill: sensitivity of the non-hydrostatic effects to the grid size, Ocean Dynam., 59, 1043–1059, 2010.; Besiktepe, S. T., Ünlüata, Ü., and Bologa, A. S. E.: Environmental Degradation of the Black Sea: Challenges and Remedies, Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop, Constanta-...

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An Operational Implementation of the Gher Model for the Black Sea,...

By: A. Capet; M. Grégoire; J. M. Beckers; L. Vandenbulcke; S. Besiktepe

Description: GeoHydrodynamics and Environment Research, Université de Liège, Belgium. In this article, we describe the first operational implementation of the GHER hydrodynamic model. This happened onboard the research vessel Alliance, in the context of the Turkish Straits System 2008 campaign, which aimed at the real-time characterization of the Marmara Sea and (south-western) Black Sea. The model performed badly at first, mainly because of poor initial conditions....

Aubrey, D. G., Oguz, T., Demirev, E., Ivanov, V., McSherry, T., Diaconu, V., and Nikolaenko, E.: Hydroblack '91 CTD Intercalibration Workshop, in: IOC Workshop Report No.91, 1992.; Barth, A., Alvera-Azcárate, A., Rixen, M., and Beckers, J. M.: Two-way nested model of mesoscale circulation features in the {L}igurian {S}ea, Progress In Oceanography, 66, 171–189, doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2004.07.017, 2005.; Beckers, J. M.: Application of a 3 D model to the {W}estern {M}editerra...

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Evaluation of Meris Products from Baltic Sea Coastal Waters Rich i...

By: S. Kratzer; C. Brockmann; J. M. Beltrán-abaunza

Description: Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden. In this study, retrievals of the medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS) reflectances and water quality products using 4 different coastal processing algorithms freely available are assessed by comparison against sea-truthing data. The study is based on a pair-wise comparison using processor-dependent quality flags for the retrieval of vali...

ACRI-ST: The AMORGOS MERIS CFI (Accurate MERIS Ortho-Rectified Geo-location Operational Software) Software User Manual & Interface Control Document, pO-ID-ACR-GS-0003, 2011.; ACRI-ST: ODESA software distribution, Quick start guide, ODESA-ACR-QSG, 2012.; Babin, M.: COAstal Surveillance Through Observation of Ocean Colour (COAST-LOOC), Final Report, Project ENV4-CT96-0310, 2000.; Attila, J., Koponen, S., Kallio, K., Lindfors, A., Kaitala, S., and Ylöstalo, P.: MERIS Case I...

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Variability in the Subtropical-tropical Cells and Its Effect on Ne...

By: C. W. Böning; A. Biastoch; J. F. Lübbecke

Description: Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences at the University of Kiel, Germany (IfM-GEOMAR). A set of experiments utilising different implementations of the global ORCA-LIM model with horizontal resolutions of 2°, 0.5° and 0.25° is used to investigate tropical and extra-tropical influences on equatorial Pacific SST variability at interannual to decadal time scales. The model experiments use a bulk forcing methodology building on the global forcing data set for...

Gent, P R. and McWilliams, J.: Isopycnal mixing in ocean circulation models, J Phys Oceanogr., 20, 150–156, 1990.; Adcroft, A., Hill, C., and Marshall, J.: Representation of topography by shaved cells in a height coordinate ocean model, Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 2293–2315, 1997.; Alory, G., Cravatte, S., Izumo, T., and Rodgers, K B.: Validation of a decadal OGCM simulation for the tropical pacific, Ocean Modelling, 10, 272–282, 2005.; Barnier, B., Siefridt, L., and P., M.: Th...

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Temporal Energy Partitions of Florida Extreme Sea Level Events as ...

By: J. Barnes; J. Obeysekera; J. Park

Description: South Florida Water Management District, Hydrologic & Environmental Systems Modeling, West Palm Beach, FL, USA. An energy-conservative metric based on the discrete wavelet transform is applied to assess the relative energy distribution of non-stationary extreme sea level events across different temporal scales. The metric is applied to coastal events at Key West and Pensacola Florida as a function of two Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) regimes. U...

Bindoff, N. L., Willebrand, J., Artale, V., et al.: Observations: Oceanic Climate Change and Sea Level, in: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by: Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K. B., Tignor, M., and Miller, H. L., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 2007.; Bromirski, P. D., Flick, R. E., and Cayan, D...

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Consequences of Artificial Deepwater Ventilation in the Bornholm B...

By: R. Rosenberg; L. Råman Vinnå; M. Ödalen; A. Stigebrandt

Description: Dept. of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. We develop and use a circulation model to estimate hydrographical and ecological changes in the isolated basin water of the Bornholm Basin. By pumping well-oxygenated so-called winter water to the greatest depth, where it is forced to mix with the resident water, the rate of deepwater density reduction increases as well as the frequency of intrusions of new oxygen-rich deepwater. We ...

Arneborg, L., Fiekas, V., Umlauf, L., and Burchard, H.: Gravity current dynamics and entrainment – a process study based on observations in the Arkona Basin, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37, 2094–2113, 2007.; Bonsdorff, E. and Pearson, Y. H.: Variation in the sublittoral macrozoobenthos of the Baltic Sea along environmental gradients: A functional-group approach, Aust. J. Ecol., 24, 312–326, 1999.; Bonsdorff, E., Blomqvist, E. M., Mattila, J., and Norkko, A.: Coastal eutrophicati...

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An Optimised Method for Correcting Quenched Fluorescence Yield : V...

By: C. Guinet; L. Boehme; A. Brierley; M. Bester; L. Biermann

Description: Sea Mammal Research Unit, Scottish Oceans Institute, St. Andrews, UK. Under high light intensity, phytoplankton protect their photosystems from bleaching through non-photochemical quenching processes. The consequence of this is suppression of fluorescence emission, which must be corrected when measuring in situ yield with fluorometers. Previously, this has been done using the limit of the mixed layer, assuming that phytoplankton are uniformly mixed f...

Behrenfeld, M. J. and Boss, E.: Beam attenuation and chlorophyll concentration as alternative optical indices of phytoplankton biomass, J. Mar. Res., 64, 431–451, 2006.; Behrenfeld, M. J., Westberry, T. K., Boss, E. S., O'Malley, R. T., Siegel, D. A., Wiggert, J. D., Franz, B. A., McClain, C. R., Feldman, G. C., Doney, S. C., Moore, J. K., Dall'Olmo, G., Milligan, A. J., Lima, I., and Mahowald, N.: Satellite-detected fluorescence reveals global physiology of ocean phytop...

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Modelling of the Anthropogenic Tritium Transient and Its Decay Pro...

By: J. Beuvier; P. Jean-baptiste; K. Beranger; J.-c. Dutay; M. Ayache; T. Arsouze; W. Roether; J. Palmieri; B. Le-vu

Description: Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE), IPSL, CEA/UVSQ/CNRS, Orme des Merisiers, Gif-Sur-Yvette, France. This numerical study provides the first simulation of the anthropogenic tritium invasion and its decay product helium-3 (3He) in the Mediterranean Sea. The simulation covers the entire tritium (3H) transient generated by the atmospheric nuclear-weapon tests performed in the 1950s and early 1960s and run t...

Andrié, C. and Merlivat, L.: Tritium in the western Mediterranean Sea during 1981 Phycemec cruise, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 35, 247–267, 1998.; Antonov, J. I., Locarnini, R. A., Boyer, T. P., Mishonov, A. V., and Garcia, H. E.: World Ocean Atlas 2005, Vol. 2 Salinity, edited by: Levitus, S., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 62, US Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 182 pp., 2006.; Attané, I. and Courbage, Y.: Demography in the Mediterranean region: situation and projections, Pl...

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The Mediterranean Ocean Colour Observing System – System Developme...

By: V. Forneris; C. Tronconi; S. Colella; G. Volpe; R. Santoleri

Description: Istituto di Scienze dell'Atmosfera e del Clima, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome, Italy. This paper presents the Mediterranean Ocean Colour Observing System in the framework of the growing demand of near real-time data emerging within the operational oceanography international context. The main issues related to the satellite operational oceanography are tied to the following: (1) the near real-time ability to track data flow uncertainty sources; ...

Le Traon, P. Y.: Satellites and Operational Oceanography, in: Operational Oceanography in the 21st Century, edited by: Schiller, A., and Brassington, G., Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg London New York, 29–54, 2011.; McClain, C. R., Arrigo, K. R., Esaias, W., Darzi, M., Patt, F. S., Evans, R. H., Brown, C. W., Brown, J. W., Barnes, R. A., and Kumar, L.: SeaWiFS Quality Control Masks and Flags: Initial Algorithms and Implementation Strategy, SeaWiFS Technical Report Series,...

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Arctic Rapid Sea Ice Loss Events in Regional Coupled Climate Scena...

By: R. Döscher; T. Koenigk

Description: SMHI/Rossby Centre Folkborgsvägen 17, 60176 Norrköping, Sweden. Rapid sea ice loss events (RILEs) in a mini-ensemble of regional Arctic coupled climate model scenario experiments are analyzed. Mechanisms of sudden ice loss are strongly related to atmospheric circulation conditions and preconditioning by sea ice thinning during the seasons and years before the event. Clustering of events in time suggests a strong control by large-scale atmospheric circul...

Maslanik, J. A., Fowler, C., Stroeve, J., Drobot, S., Zwally, H. J., Yi, D., and Emery, W. J.: A younger, thinner Arctic ice cover: Increased potential for rapid, extensive sea ice loss, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L24501, doi:10.1029/2007GL032043, 2007.; Massonnet, F., Fichefet, T., Goosse, H., Bitz, C. M., Philippon-Berthier, G., Holland, M. M., and Barriat, P.-Y.: Constraining projections of summer Arctic sea ice, The Cr...

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The Mediterranean Sea System: a Review and an Introduction to the ...

By: D. Hainbucher; K. Schroeder; M. Álvarez; G. Civitarese; V. Cardin; T. Tanhua

Description: GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Department of Chemical Oceanography, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany. The Mediterranean Sea is a semi-enclosed sea characterized by high salinities, temperatures and densities. The net evaporation exceeds the precipitation, driving an anti-estuarine circulation through the Strait of Gibraltar, contributing to very low nutrient concentrations. The Mediterranean Sea has an active overturning circu...

Álvarez, M., Sanleón-Bartolomé, H., Tanhua, T., Mintrop, L., Luchetta, A., Cantoni, C., Schroeder, K., and Civitarese, G.: The CO2 system in the Mediterranean Sea: a basin wide perspective, Ocean Sci. Discuss., 10, 1447–1504, doi:10.5194/osd-10-1447-2013, 2013.; Astraldi, M., Balopoulos, S., Candela, J., Font, J., Gacic, M., Gasparini, G. P., Manca, B., Theocharis, A., and Tintore, J.: The role of st...

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The Influence of the Brazil and Malvinas Currents on the Southwest...

By: A. R. Piola; E. D. Palma; R. P. Matano

Description: College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. The oceanic circulation over the southwestern Atlantic shelf is influenced by large tidal amplitudes, substantial freshwater discharges, high wind speeds and – most importantly – by its proximity to two of the largest western boundary currents of the world ocean: the Brazil and Malvinas currents. This review article aims to describe the dynamical processes cont...

Acha, E. M., Mianzan, H. W., Guerrero, R. A., Favero, M., and Bava, J.: Marine fronts at the continental shelves of austral South America, physical and ecological processes, J. Mar. Syst., 44, 83–105, 2004.; Bakun, A., and Parrish, R. H.: Comparative studies of coastal pelagic fish reproductive habitats: The anchovy (Engraulis anchoita) of the southwestern Atlantic, ICES J. Mar. Sci, 48, 343–361, 1991.; Bianchi, A. A., Bianucci, L., Piola, A. R., Pino, D. R., Schloss, I....

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Mesoscale Variability in the Arabian Sea from Hycom Model Results ...

By: R. Baraille; R. Duarte; P. L'Hégaret; D. Ciani; C. Vic; X. Carton; S. Corréard

Description: LPO UMR 6525, UNO/UEB – CNRS-IFREMER-IRD, UFR Sciences et Techniques/IUEM, Brest, France. The Arabian Sea and Sea of Oman circulation and water masses, subject to monsoon forcing, reveal a strong seasonal variability and intense mesoscale features. We describe and analyze this variability and these features, using both meteorological data (from ECMWF reanalyses), in situ observations (from the ARGO float program and the GDEM – Generalized Digital Environ...

Bower, A. S., Hunt, H. D., and Price, J. F.: Character and dynamics of the red Sea and the Persian Gulf outflows, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 105, 6387–6414, 2000.; Carnes, M. R.: Description and Evaluation of GDEM-V 3.0, Naval Research Lab Stennis Space Center Ms Oceanography Div, 2009.; Carton, X., L'Hegaret, P., and Baraille, R.: Mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea as revealed by ARGO floats, Ocean Sci., 8, 227–248,

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Implementation of Position Assimilation for Argo Floats in a Reali...

By: V. Taillandier; A. Griffa

Description: CNR-ISMAR, La Spezia, Italy. In this paper, a Lagrangian assimilation method is presented and implemented in a realistic OPA OGCM with the goal of providing an assessment of the assimilation of realistic Argo float position data. We focus on an application in the Mediterranean Sea, where in the framework of the MFSTEP project an array of Argo floats have been deployed with parking depth at 350 m and sampling interval of 5 days. In order to quantitativel...

Béranger, K., Mortier, L., and Crépon, M.: Seasonal variability of transports through the Gibraltar, Sicily and Corsica straits from a high resolution Mediterranean model, Prog. Oceanogr., 66, 341–364, 2005.; Gilbert, J.-C. and Lemaréchal, C.: Some numerical experiments with variable-storage quasi-Newton algorithms, Math. Program., 45, 407–435, 1989.; Ide, K., Kuznetsov, L., and Jones, C. K. R. T.: Lagrangian data assimilation for point vortex systems, J Turbul., 3, 53–5...

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Residual Circulation and Fresh-water Transport in the Dutch Wadden...

By: T. Gerkema; J. J. Nauw; G. J. De Boer; U. Gräwe; M. Duran-matute

Description: Dept. of Physical Oceanography, Royal NIOZ, P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg (Texel), the Netherlands. The Dutch Wadden Sea is a region of intertidal flats located between the chain of Wadden Islands and the Dutch mainland. We present numerical model results on the tidal prisms and residual flows through the tidal inlets and across one of the main watersheds. The model also provides insight into the pathways of fresh water originating from the two sluices...

Buijsman, M. C. and Ridderinkhof, H.: Water transport at subtidal frequencies in the Marsdiep inlet, J. Sea Res., 58, 255–268, 2007b.; Abdelrhman, M. A.: Simplified modeling of flushing and residence times in 42 embayments in New England, USA, with special attention to Greenwich Bay, Rhode Island, Estuar. Coast. Shelf S., 62, 339–351, 2005.; Bolin, B. and Rodhe, H.: A note on the concepts of age distribution and transit time in natural reservoirs, Tellus, 25, 58–62, 1973...

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Possible Signals of Poleward Surface Ocean Heat Transport, of Arct...

By: J. B. Matthews; J. B. R. Matthews

Description: Tennis Road, Douglas, Isle of Man, British Isles. This is the second of two papers on observational timeseries of top of ocean heat capture. The first reports hourly and daily meridional central tropical Pacific top 3 m timeseries showing high Southern Hemisphere evaporation (2.67 m yr−1) and Northern Hemisphere trapped heat (12 MJ m−2 day−1). We suggested that wind drift/geostrophic stratified gyre circulation tr...

Aagaard, K. and Carmack, E.: The role of sea-ice and other freshwater in the Arctic Circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 14485–14498, doi:10.1029/JC094iC10p14485, 1989.; Aberson, S. D.: Regimes and cycles in tropical cyclone activity in the north Atlantic, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 90, 39–43, doi:10.1175/2008BAMS2549.1, 2009.; Allen, E. J.: The Stockholm Fisheries Confer...

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An Empirical Stochastic Model of Sea-surface Temperatures and Surf...

By: I. Kamenkovich; S. Kravtsov; M. Ghil; D. Kondrashov

Description: University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Atmospheric Science group, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA. This study employs NASA's recent satellite measurements of sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) and sea-level winds (SLWs) with missing data filled-in by Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA), to construct empirical models that capture both intrinsic and SST-dependent aspects of SLW variability. The model construction methodology us...

Abdi, H.: Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression, In: Encyclopedia of Social Sciences Research Methods, edited by: Lewis-Beck, M., Bryman, A., and Futing, T., Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2003.; Arya, S. P.: Introduction to Micrometeorology, Academic Press, New York, 307 pp, 1988.; Bretherton, C. S. and Battisti, D. S.: An interpretation of the results from atmospheric general circulation models forced by the time history of the observed sea surface temperature distribution,...

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Seasonal Variability of Phytoplankton Fluorescence in Relation to ...

By: E. Crisafi; F. Raffa; F. Decembrini; F. Azzaro

Description: Institute for Coastal Marine Environment, CNR, Sp. S. Raineri, 86, 98122 Messina, Italy. In the Straits of Messina the large gradients of tidal displacements as well as the topographic constrictions determine the upwelling of deeper waters in the surface layer. This work describes the seasonal variability of surface distribution of phytoplankton biomass depending on upwelling phenomena. Temperature, salinity, nitrates and phytoplankton fluorescence were ...

Androsov, A. A., Kagan, B. A., Romanenkov, D. A., and Voltzinger, N. E.: Numerical modelling of barotropic tidal dynamics in the Straits of Messina, Advances in Water Resources, 25, 401–415, 2002.; Azzaro, F., Decembrini, F., and Crisafi, E.: Sequenza temporale delle condizioni termo-aline e distribuzione della biomassa fotoautotrofa nello Stretto di Messina. Biol. Mar. Medit., 7(1), 541–548, 2000.; Azzaro, F., Cavalli, R. M., Decembrini, F., Pignatti, S., and Santella, ...

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Imbalance of Energy and Momentum Source Terms of the Sea Wave Tran...

By: G. V. Caudal

Description: Université Versailles St-Quentin, UMR8190, CNRS/INSU, LATMOS-IPSL, 11 Boulevard d'Alembert, 78280 Guyancourt, France. Using a two-dimensional empirical sea wave spectral model at full development, this paper performs an assessment of the compatibility of the energy and momentum budgets of sea waves over the whole spectral range. Among the various combinations of model functions for wave breaking and wind source terms tested, no one fulfilled simultan...

Banner, M. L. and Morison, R. P.: Refined source terms in wind wave models with explicit wave breaking prediction. Part I: Model framework and validation against field data, Ocean Model., 33, 177–189, 2010.; Banner, M. L., Jones, I. S. F., and Trinder, J. C.: Wavenumber spectra of short gravity waves, J. Fluid Mech., 198, 321–344, 1989.; Hasselmann, K.: On the nonlinear energy transfer in a gravity-wave spectrum. Part 1: General theory, J. Fluid Mech., 12, 481–500, 1962....

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Thermohaline Properties in the Eastern Mediterranean in the Last T...

By: D. Hainbucher; G. Civitarese; M. Bensi; V. Cardin; A. Rubino

Description: OGS, Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale, Borgo Grotta Gigante 42/c, 34018 Sgonico, Trieste, Italy. Temperature, salinity and oxygen data collected during April and June 2011 (M84/3 and P414 cruises respectively) are analysed to derive the oceanographic characteristics of the Eastern Mediterranean (EM) basin. These observed characteristics are compared with those from previous cruises over the period 1987–2011. As a result, the...

Bensi, M., Rubino, A., Cardin, V., Hainbucher, D., and Mancero-Mosquera, I.: Structure and variability of the abyssal water masses in the Ionian Sea in the period 2003-2010, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 1–13, doi:10.1029/2012JC008178, 2013.; Bignami, F., Marullo, S., Santoleri, R., and Schiano M. E.: Longwave radiation budget in the Mediterranean Sea, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 2501–2514, 1995.; Cardin, V. and Gačić, M.: Long-term...

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