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Observations of New Western Mediterranean Deep Water Formation Usi...

By: H. L. Bryden; R. O. Smith

Description: National Oceanography Centre, Empress Dock, Southampton, SO14 3ZH, Hampshire, UK. The deep convection that occurs in the western basin of the Mediterranean Sea was investigated using ARGO float data over two consecutive winters in 2004–2005 and 2005–2006. The results showed deep mixed layers reaching 2000 m in surprising locations, namely the eastern Catalan subbasin (39.785° N, 4.845° E) and the western Ligurian subbasin (43.392° N, 7.765° E). Subseque...

Bethoux, J. P., Gentili, B., Raunet, J., and Tailliez, D.: Warming trend in the Western Mediterranean Deep Water, Nature, 347, 660–662, 1990.; Astraldi, M. and Gasparini, G. P.: The seasonal characteristics of the circulation in the North Mediterranean Basin and their relationship with the atmospheric-climatic conditions, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 9531–9540, 1992.; Avsic, T., Karstensen, J., Send, U., and Fischer, J.: Interannual variability of newly formed Labrador Sea Wate...

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Investigation of Model Capability in Capturing Vertical Hydrodynam...

By: D. Bellafiore; F. Braga; G. Sannino; W. J. McKiver

Description: ISMAR-CNR, Arsenale – Tesa 104, Castello 2737/F, 30122 Venice, Italy. In this work we consider a numerical study of hydrodynamics in the coastal zone using two different models, SHYFEM and MITgcm, to assess their capability to capture the main processes. We focus on the North Adriatic Sea during a strong dense water event that occurred at the beginning of 2012. This serves as an interesting test case to examine both the models strengths and weaknes...

Bellafiore, D. and Umgiesser, G.: Hydrodynamic coastal processes in the North Adriatic investigated with a 3D finite element model, Ocean Dynam., 60, 255–273, 2010.; Bougeault, P. and Lacarrere, P.: Parametrization of orography-induced turbulence in a mesoscale model, Mon. Weather Rev., 117, 1872–1890, 1989.; Benetazzo, A., Bergamasco, A., Bonaldo, D., Falcieri, F. M., Sclavo, M., Langone, L., and Carniel, S.: Response of the Adriatic Sea to an intense cold air outbreak:...

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Numerical Tools to Estimate the Flux of a Gas Across the Air-water...

By: V. M. N. De C. Da S. Vieira

Description: CCMar–Centre of Marine Sciences, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005–139 Faro, Portugal. A numerical tool was developed for the estimation of gas fluxes across the air water interface. The primary objective is to use it to estimate CO2 fluxes. Nevertheless application to other gases is easily accomplished by changing the values of the parameters related to the physical properties of the gases. A user friendly software was develop...

Borges, A. V.: Do we have enough pieces of the jigsaw to integrate CO2 fluxes in the coastal ocean? Estuaries, 28, 3–27, 2005.; Borges, A. V., Delille, B., Schiettecatte, L. S., Gazeau, F., Abril, G., and Frankignoulle, M.: Gas transfer velocities of CO2 in three European estuaries (Randers Fjord, Scheldt, and Thames), Limnol. Oceanogr., 49, 1630–1641, 2004a.; Borges, A. V., Vanderborght, J. P., Schiettecatte, L. S., Gazeau, F., Ferron-Smith, S., Delille, B., and Frankig...

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Transient Tracer Applications in the Southern Ocean : Volume 11, I...

By: T. Tanhua; T. Stöven; M. Hoppema

Description: Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, GEOMAR, Germany. Transient tracers can be used to constrain the Inverse-Gaussian transit time distribution (IG-TTD) and thus provide information about ocean ventilation. Individual transient tracers have different time and application ranges which are defined by their atmospheric history (chronological transient tracers) or their decay rate (radioactive transient tracers). The classification ranges from tracers ...

Bullister, J. L.: Atmospheric CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CCl4 and SF6 Histories (1910–2011), Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, available at: http://cdiac.ornl.gov/oceans/new_atmCFC.html (last access: 14 October 2014), 2011.; CLSI: Protocols for Determination of Limits of Detection and Limits of Quantification, approved Guideline, CLSI document EP17, Clinical and Laboratory Standards In...

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Deep Western Boundary Current Transport Variability in the South A...

By: S. L. Garzoli; R. C. Perez; A. R. Piola; C. S. Meinen

Description: Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Miami, Florida, USA. The first direct estimates of the temporal variability of the absolute transport of the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) at 34.5° S in the South Atlantic Ocean are obtained using just under one year of data from a line of four pressure-equipped inverted echo sounders. Hydrographic sections collected in 2009 and 2010 confirm the presence of the DWBC, one of the main deep pa...

van Aken, H. M., Ridderinkhof, H., and de Ruister, W. P. M.: North Atlantic deep water in the South-Western Indian Ocean, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 51, 755–776, 2004.; Baringer, M. O. and Garzoli, S. L.: Meridional heat transport determined with expendable bathythermographs, Part I: Error estimates from model and hydrographic data, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 54(8), 1390–1401, 2007.; Dengler, M., Schott, F. A., Eden, C., Brandt, P., Fischer, J., and Zantopp, R.: Break-up of the Atla...

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Impact of Variable Sea-water Conductivity on Motional Induction Si...

By: M. Thomas; C. Irrgang; J. Saynisch

Description: Helmholtz Centre Potsdam, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Section 1.3, Earth System Modelling, Potsdam, Germany. Carrying high concentrations of dissolved salt, ocean water is a good electrical conductor. As sea-water flows through the Earth's ambient geomagnetic field, electric fields are generated, which in turn induce secondary magnetic fields. In current models for oceanic induced magnetic fields, a realistic consideration of sea-wate...

Tyler, R. H., Mysak, L. A., and Oberhuber, J. M.: Electromagnetic fields generated by a three dimensional global ocean circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 5531–5551, 1997.; Tyler, R. H., Maus, S., and Lühr, H.: Satellite observations of magnetic fields due to ocean tidal flow, Science, 299, 239–241, 2003.; Apel, J. R.: Principles of Ocean Physics, vol. 38, International Geophysics Series, Academic Press, San Diego, California, 1987.; Chave, A. D.: On the theory of electr...

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Improvements to the Phytodoas Method for Identification of Major P...

By: T. Dinter; B. Taylor; A. Bracher; M. Vountas; I. Peeken; A. Sadeghi

Description: Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany. The goal of this study was to improve PhytoDOAS, which is a new retrieval method for quantitative identification of major Phytoplankton Functional Types (PFTs) using hyper-spectral satellite data. PhytoDOAS is an extension of the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS, a method for detection of atmospheric trace gases), developed for remote identifi...

Aguirre-Gomez, R., Weeks, A. R., and Boxall, S. R.: The identication of phytoplankton pigments from absorption spectra, Int. J. Remote Sens., 22(2), 315–338, 2001.; Aiken, J., Fishwick, J. R., Lavender, S. J., Barlow, R., Moore, G., and Sessions, H.: Validation of MERIS reflectance and chlorophyll during the BENCAL cruise October 2002: preliminary validation of new products for phytoplankton functional types and photosynthetic parameters, Int. J. Remote Sens., 28, 497–51...

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Transient Residence and Exposure Times : Volume 2, Issue 3 (26/05/...

By: E. J. M. Delhez

Description: University of Liège, Belgium. The residence time measures the time spent by a water parcel or a pollutant in a given water body and is therefore widely used in environmental studies. The adjoint method introduced by Delhez et al. (Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Sciences, 2004) to compute this diagnostic is revised here to take into account the effect of the initialisation and of the boundary conditions.

In addition to the equation for the mean r...

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Geothermal Heating, Diapycnal Mixing and the Abyssal Circulation :...

By: G. Madec; J. Emile-geay

Description: Department of Earth Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA. The dynamical role of geothermal heating in abyssal circulation is reconsidered using three independent arguments. First, we show that a uniform geothermal heat flux close to the observed average (86.4 mW m−2) supplies as much heat to near-bottom water as a diapycnal mixing rate of ~10−4 m2 s−1 – the canonical value thought to b...

Adcroft, A., Scott, J R., and Marotzke, J.: Impact of geothermal heating on the global ocean circulation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 1735–1738, 2001.; Adkins, J., McIntyre, K., and Schrag, D P.: The Salinity, Temperature, and $\delta^18$O of the Glacial Deep Ocean, Science, 298, 1769–1773, 2002.; Adkins, J., Ingersoll, A., and Pasquero, C.: Rapid climate change and conditional instability of the glacial deep ocean from the thermobaric effect and geothermal heating, Quatern...

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Carbon Export and Sequestration in the Southern Benguela Upwelling...

By: N. C. Swart; P. M. S. Monteiro; H. N. Waldron

Description: Department of Oceanography, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700, South Africa. Three independent studies of carbon export and sequestration in the southern Benguela upwelling system are presented. They were undertaken by Waldron (upwelling index), Monteiro (discrete upwelling centres – gate hypothesis model) and Swart (cross-shelf advection in bottom nelpheloid layers). The annual estimates were, 3.9×1013, 0.72×1013 and 8.6×10<...

Biscaye, P. E., Flagg, C. N., and Falkowski, P. G.: The Shelf Edge Exchange Processes experiment, SEEP-II an introduction to hypotheses, results and conclusions, Deep-Sea Res. Pt II, 41(2/3), 231–252, 1994.; Brown, P. C., Painting, S. J., and Cochrane, K. L.: Estimates of phytoplankton and bacterial biomass and production in the northern and southern Benguela ecosystems, S. Afr. J. Marine Sci., 11, 537–564, 1991.; Chavez, F. P. and Toggweiler, J. R.: Physical Estimates o...

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Imbalance of Energy and Momentum Source Terms of the Sea Wave Tran...

By: G. V. Caudal

Description: Université Versailles St-Quentin, UMR8190, CNRS/INSU, LATMOS-IPSL, 11 Boulevard d'Alembert, 78280 Guyancourt, France. Using a two-dimensional empirical sea wave spectral model at full development, this paper performs an assessment of the compatibility of the energy and momentum budgets of sea waves over the whole spectral range. Among the various combinations of model functions for wave breaking and wind source terms tested, no one fulfilled simultan...

Banner, M. L. and Morison, R. P.: Refined source terms in wind wave models with explicit wave breaking prediction. Part I: Model framework and validation against field data, Ocean Model., 33, 177–189, 2010.; Banner, M. L., Jones, I. S. F., and Trinder, J. C.: Wavenumber spectra of short gravity waves, J. Fluid Mech., 198, 321–344, 1989.; Hasselmann, K.: On the nonlinear energy transfer in a gravity-wave spectrum. Part 1: General theory, J. Fluid Mech., 12, 481–500, 1962....

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Influence of Frontal Cyclones Evolution on the 2009 (Ekman) and 20...

By: V. H. Kourafalou; M. Le Hénaff; Y. S. Androulidakis

Description: University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science RSMAS/MPO 4600 Rickenbacker Cswy., Miami, FL 33149, USA. The anticyclonic Loop Current Eddy (LCE) shedding events are strongly associated with the evolution of Loop Current Frontal Eddies (LCFEs) over the eastern Gulf of Mexico (GoM). A numerical simulation, in tandem with in situ measurements and satellite data, was used to investigate the Loop Current (LC) evolution and the surro...

Androulidakis, Y. S. and Kourafalou, V. H.: On the processes that influence the transport and fate of Mississippi waters under flooding outflow conditions, Ocean Dynam., 63, 143–164, 2013.; Athié, G., Candela, J., Ochoa, J., and Sheinbaum, J.: Impact of Caribbean cyclones on the detachment of Loop Current anticyclones, J. Geophys. Res., 117, C03018, doi:10.1029/2011JC007090, 2012.; Biggs, D., Fargion, G., Hamilton, P., a...

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Self-organizing Maps Approaches to Analyze Extremes of Multivariat...

By: M. Sclavo; C. Scotton; F. M. Falcieri; A. Benetazzo; F. Barbariol; S. Carniel

Description: Institute of Marine Sciences – Italian National Research Council, Venice, Italy. In this paper the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) technique to assess the multivariate sea wave climate at a site is analyzed and discussed with the aim of a more complete representation which includes the most severe sea states that otherwise would be missed by the standard SOM. Indeed, it is commonly recognized, and herein confirmed, that SOM is a good regressor ...

Benetazzo, A., Fedele, F., Carniel, S., Ricchi, A., Bucchignani, E., and Sclavo, M.: Wave climate of the Adriatic Sea: a future scenario simulation, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 12, 2065–2076, doi:10.5194/nhess-12-2065-2012, 2012.; Boccotti, P.: Wave Mechanics for Ocean Engineering, vol. 64, Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 2000.; Camus, P., Cofiño, A. S., Mendez, F. J., and Medina, R.: Multivariate ...

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On the Chemical Dynamics of Extracellular Polysaccharides in the H...

By: C. Leck; P. A. Matrai; C. Rauschenberg; Q. Gao

Description: Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden. The surface microlayer (SML) represents a unique system of which the physicochemical characteristics may differ from those of the underlying subsurface seawater (SSW). Within the Arctic pack ice area, the SML has been characterized as enriched in small colloids of biological origin, resulting from extracellular polymeric secretions (EPS). During the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study...

Aluwihare, L. I., Repeta, D. J., and Chen, R. F.: A major biopolymeric component to dissolved organic carbon in surface sea water, Nature, 387, 166–169, 1997.; Amon, R. M. W. and Benner, R.: Combined neutral sugars as indicators of the diagenetic state of dissolved organic matter in the Arctic Ocean, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 50, 151–169, 2003.; Andreas, E. L. and Monahan, E. C.: The role of whitecap bubbles in air-sea heat and moisture exchange, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 433–4...

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Modeling the Effects of Size on Patch Dynamics of an Inert Tracer ...

By: F. Chai; P. Xiu

Description: School of Marine Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, Maine, USA. Mesoscale iron enrichment experiments have revealed that additional iron affects the phytoplankton productivity and carbon cycle. However, the role of initial size of fertilized patch in determining the patch evolution is poorly quantified due to the limited time of research vessels at sea. Using a three-dimensional ocean circulation model, we simulated different sizes of inert tracer pa...

Abraham, E. R., Law, C. S., Boyd, P. W., Lavender, S. J., Maldonado, M. T., and Bowie, A. R.: Importance of stirring in the development of an iron-fertilized phytoplankton bloom, Nature, 407, 727–730, 2000.; Bowie, A. R., Maldonado, M. T., Frew, R. D., Croot, P. L., Achterberg, E. P., Mantoura, R. F. C., Worsfold, P. J., Law, C. S., and Boyd, P. W.: The fate of added iron during a mesoscale fertilisation experiment in the Southern Ocean, Deep-Sea Res. II, 48, 2703–2743, ...

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A Study of the Hydrographic Conditions in the Adriatic Sea from Nu...

By: A. Guarnieri; P. Oddo

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Viale Aldo Moro 44, Bologna, Italy. The inter-annual variability of Adriatic Sea hydrographic characteristics is investigated by means of numerical simulation and direct observation. The period under investigation runs from the beginning of 2000 to the end of 2008. The model used to carry out the simulation is derived from the primitive equation component of the Adriatic Forecasting System (AFS). The model...

Artegiani, A. and Salusti, E.: Field observation of the flow of dense water on the bottom of the Adriatic Sea during the winter of 1981, Oceanol. Acta, 10, 387–391, 1987.; Artegiani, A., Azzolini, R., and Salusti, E.: On the dense water in the Adriatic Sea, Oceanol. Acta, 12, 151–160, 1989.; Artegiani, A., Bregant, D., Paschini, E., Pinardi, N., Raicich, F., and Russo, A.: The Adriatic Sea general circulation. part I: Air-sea interactions and water mass structure, J. Phy...

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Propagation and Dissipation of Internal Tides in the Oslofjord : V...

By: A. Staalstrøm; B. Liljebladh; E. Aas

Description: Norwegian Institute of Water Research, Oslo, Norway. Observations of velocity, pressure, temperature and salinity in the inner Oslofjord have been analysed. The data is used to provide new information about energy dissipation and mixing efficiency of internal tides generated by tidal current across the Drøbak Sill. The ratio between the observed amplitude of the internal wave in the pycnocline and the amplitude of the surface elevation is in the range 3...

Aas, E. and Endresen, Ø.: Accuracy of simplified transport estimations in narrow sea straits, Ocean Dynam., 51, 441–451, 1999.; Afanasyev, Y. D. and Peltier, W. R.: On breaking internal waves over the sill in Knight Inlet, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, 457, 2700–2825, 2001.; Armi, L. and Farmer, D.: Stratified flow over topography: bifurcation fronts and transition to the uncontrolled state, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, 458, 513–538, 2002.; Arneborg, L. and Liljebladh, B.: The intern...

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Meris-based Ocean Colour Classification with the Discrete Forel–ul...

By: H. J. Van Der Woerd; M. R. Wernand; A. Hommersom

Description: Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Physical Oceanography, Marine Optics and Remote Sensing, P.O. Box 59, 1790AB Den Burg, Texel, the Netherlands. Multispectral information from satellite borne ocean colour sensors is at present used to characterize natural waters via the retrieval of concentrations of the three dominant optical constituents; pigments of phytoplankton, non-algal particles and coloured dissolved organic matter. A limitation of t...

Antoine, D., Morel, A., Gordon, H. R., Banzon, V. F., and Evans, R. H.: Bridging ocean colour observations of the 1980s and 2000s in search of long-term trends, J. Geophys. Res. 110, C06009, doi:10.1029/2004JC002620, 2005.; Behrenfeld, M. J., O'Malley, R. T., Siegel, D. A., McClain, C. R., Sarmiento, J. L., Feldman, G. C., Milligan, A. J., Falkowski, P. G., Letelier, R. M., and Boss, E. S.: Climate-driven trends in conte...

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Operational Oceanography in Support to Indicator Reporting : Volum...

By: G. Coppini; F. Soulat; G. Larnicol; J. A. Johannessen

Description: Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen, Norway. Operational Oceanography (OO) has now emerged to a stage that allows the design, development and execution of marine core services tailored to user requirements. As such it is also feasible to provide routine production of environmental and climate indicators. Indicators are synthetic indices of environmental changes at various temporal and spatial scales. In this paper we outline the possi...

Ablain, M., Cazenave, A., Valladeau, G., and Guinehut, S.: A new assessment of the error budget of global mean sea level rate estimated by satellite altimetry over 1993–2008, Ocean Sci., 5, 193–201, 2009.; Bahurel, P., Adragna, F., Bell, M., Jacq, F., Johannessen, J. A., Le Traon, P.-Y., Pinardi, N., and She, J.: MyOCEAN-A European example of a Post-GODAE initiative, online available at: ht...

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Malvinas-slope Water Intrusions on the Northern Patagonia Continen...

By: F. P. Jardón; R. A. Guerrero; S. I. Romero; N. M. Avellaneda; E. D. Palma; A. R. Piola

Description: Departamento Oceanografía, Servicio de Hidrografía Naval, Buenos Aires, Argentina. The Patagonia continental shelf located off southeastern South America is bounded offshore by the Malvinas Current, which extends northward from northern Drake Passage (~55° S) to nearly 38° S. The transition between relatively warm-fresh shelf waters and Subantarctic Waters from the western boundary current is characterized by a thermohaline front extending nearly 2500 k...

Acha, E. M., Mianzan, H. W., Guerrero, R. A., Favero, M. and Bava, J.: Marine fronts at the continental shelves of austral South America, physical and ecological processes, J. Marine Sys., 44, 83–105, 2004.; Beardsley, R. C. and Flagg, C. N.: The water structure, mean currents, and shelf-water/slope-water-front on the New England continental shelf, in: Continental Shelf Dynamics, edited by: Nihoul, J. C. J., Siege de la Soc. Univ., Liege, Belgium, 209–225, 1976.; Bertolo...

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