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Estimating Suspended Sediment Concentrations Using a Broadband Adc...

By: V. Chegini; M. Shah-hosseini; J. Azizpour; M. Noranian; V. Tavakoli; P. Ghaffari

Description: Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, Blindern, 0315, Oslo, Norway. Data sets of Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) backscatter intensities (ABS) were used to evaluate suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) in the Mahshahr Channel (MC) of the Persian Gulf. Since the echo intensity is closely related to turbidity in water, the ADCP may be a promising tool to monitor the sediment transport. The low susceptibility of the acou...

Ainslie, M. A. and McColm, J. G.: A simplified formula for viscous and chemical absorption in sea water, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 103, 1671–1672, 1998.; Allen, G. P., Salamon, J. C., Bassouliet, P., Du Penhoat, Y., and De Grandpre, C.: Effects of tides mixing and suspended sediment transport in macrotidal estuaries, Sediment. Geol., 26, 69–90, 1980.; Alvarez, L. G. and Jones, S. E.: Factors influencing suspended sediment flux in the upper gulf of California, Estuar. Coast. S...

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What Are Ecogenomic Sensors? – a Review and Thoughts for the Futur...

By: C. A. Scholin

Description: Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institue 7700 Sandholdt Road Moss Landing, CA 95039, USA. The OceanSensors08 workshop held 31 March–4 April 2008 in Warnemünde, Germany, brought together an international group of marine scientists, sensor developers and technologists with a common interest in shaping the future of ocean sensing. In preparation for that meeting a series of review papers were commissioned, one of which was meant to cover Sensors for Ocean...

Agilent: http://www.chem.agilent.com/Scripts/PCol.asp?lPage=494, last access January, 2009.; Ahn, S., Kulis, D. M., Erdner, D. L., Anderson, D. M., and Walt, D. R: Fiber-Optic Microarray for Simultaneous Detection of Multiple Harmful Algal Bloom Species, Appl. Env. Microbiol., 72, 5742–5749, 2006.; Bavykin, S. G., Akowski, J. P., Zakhariev, V. M., Barsky, V. E., Perov, A. N., and Mirzabekov, A. D.: Portable system for microbial sample preparation and oligonucleotide micr...

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Qualified Temperature, Salinity and Dissolved Oxygen Climatologies...

By: A. Rabitti; E. Partescano; M. Lipizer; A. Crise; A. Giorgetti

Description: OGS – Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale, Trieste, Italy. An updated climatology, based on a comprehensive data set (1911–2009) of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen, has been produced for the whole Adriatic Sea with the variational inverse method using the DIVA (Data-Interpolating Variational Analysis) software. Climatological maps were produced at 26 levels and validated with ordinary cross-validation and with a rea...

Artegiani, A., Bregant, D., Paschini, E., Pinardi, N., Raicich, F., and Russo, A.: The Adriatic Sea general circulation. Part I: air-sea interactions and water mass structure, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 1492–1514, 1997a.; Artegiani, A., Bregant, D., Paschini, E., Pinardi, N., Raicich, F., and Russo, A.: The Adriatic Sea general circulation, Part II: Baroclinic circulation structure, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 1515–1532, 1997b.; Barth, A., Alvera-Azcárate, A., Troupin, C., Oube...

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Comparing Historical and Modern Methods of Sea Surface Temperature...

By: J. B. R. Matthews; J. B. Matthews

Description: School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada. Discrepancies between historical sea surface temperature (SST) datasets have been partly ascribed to use of different adjustments to account for variable measurement methods. Until recently, adjustments had only been applied to bucket temperatures from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with the aim of correcting their supposed coolness relative to engine cooling water...

Brooks, C. F.: Observing Water-Surface Temperatures at Sea, Mon. Wea. Rev., 54, 241–253, 2.0.CO;2>doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1926)54<241:OWTAS>2.0.CO;2, 1926.; Brooks, C. F.: Reliability of different methods of taking sea-surface temperatures, J. Washington Acad. Sci., 18, 525–545, 1928.; Delcroix, T., Alory, G., Diverres, D., Gouriou, Y., Jacquin, S., Maes, C., Morrow, R., Reverdin, G., Téchiné, P., Varillon, ...

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The Multifractal Structure of Satellite Sea Surface Temperature Ma...

By: G. Larnicol; V. Nieves; E. Garcia-ladona; J. Font; M.-h. Rio; A. Turiel

Description: Institut de Ciències del Mar, CSIC, Barcelona, Spain. Nowadays Earth observation satellites provide information about many relevant variables of the ocean-climate system, such as temperature, moisture, aerosols, etc. However, to retrieve the velocity field, which is the most relevant dynamical variable, is still a technological challenge, specially in the case of oceans. New processing techniques, emerged from the theory of turbulent flows, have come t...

Arneodo, A., Argoul, F., Bacry, E., Elezgaray, J., and Muzy, J F.: Ondelettes, multifractales et turbulence, Diderot Editeur, Paris, France, 169 pp., 1995.; Bowen, M., Emery, W., Wilkin, J., Tildesley, P., Barton, I., and Knewtson, R.: Extracting multiyear surface currents from sequential thermal imagery using the Maximum Cross-correlation Technique, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 19, 1665–1676, 2002.; Chapron, B., Collard, F., and Ardhuin, F.: Direct measurement of ocean s...

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Internal Tides and Energy Fluxes Over Great Meteor Seamount : Volu...

By: H. Van Haren; T. Gerkema

Description: Royal NIOZ, P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands. Internal-tide energy fluxes are determined halfway over the southern slope of Great Meteor Seamount (Canary Basin), using data from combined CTD/LADCP yoyoing, covering the whole water column. The strongest signal is semi-diurnal and is concentrated in the upper few hundred meters of the water column. An indeterminacy in energy flux profiles is discussed; it is argued that a commonly app...

Hibiya, T., Nagasawa, M., and Niwa, Y.: Nonlinear energy transfer within the oceanic internal wave spectrum at mid and high latitudes, J. Geophys. Res., 107(C11), 3207, doi:10.1029/2001JC001210, 2002.; Dietrich, G.: Ozeanographie – physische Geographie des Weltmeeres, Georg Westermann Verlag, Braunschweig, 1970.; Egbert, G D. and Ray, R D.: Semi-diurnal and diurnal tidal dissipation from TOPEX/Poseidon altimetry, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1907, doi:10.1029/2003GL017676, 2...

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Variability in the Air–sea Interaction Patterns and Time-scales Wi...

By: M. González; J. Sáenz; G. Esnaola; A. Fontán

Description: AZTI-Tecnalia, Marine Research Division. Herrera Kaia, Portualdea, z/g, 20110 Pasaia, Spain. Two high frequency (HF) radar stations were installed on the Southeastern Bay of Biscay in 2009, providing high spatial and temporal resolution and large spatial coverage currents for the first time in the area. This has enabled to determine quantitatively the air–sea interaction patterns and time-scales for the period 2009–2010. The analysis was conducted by u...

Abascal, A. J., Castanedo, S., Méndez, F. J., Medina, R., and Losada, I. J.: Calibration of a lagrangian transport model using drifting buoys deployed during the Prestige oil spill, J. Coast. Res., 25, 80–90, 2009.; Álvarez-Salgado, X. A., Herrera, J. L., Gago, J., Otero, P., Soriano, J. A., Pola, C. G., and García-Soto, C.: Influence of the oceanographic conditions during spring 2003 on the transport of the Prestige tanker fuel oil to the Galician coast, Mar. Pollut. Bu...

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Three Decades of Research on the Greater Agulhas Current : Volume ...

By: J. R. E. Lutjeharms

Description: Department of Oceanography, University of Cape Town, 7700 Rondebosch, South Africa. The greater Agulhas Current has been shown to be a key link in the global thermohaline circulation and an increased understanding of this current system is therefore of more than just local interest. Knowledge on the Agulhas Current system has in fact increased enormously over the past 30 years. This review covers some aspects of what has been learnt on the northern and ...

Anderson, F. P., Gründlingh, M. L., and Stavropoulos, C. C.: Kinematics of the southern Natal coastal circulation: some historic measurements 1962–63, S. Afr. J. Sci., 84, 857–860, 1988.; Arhan, M., Mercier, H., and Lutjeharms, J. R. E.: The disparate evolution of three Agulhas rings in the South Atlantic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 20 987–21 005, 1999.; Bang, N. D.: Major eddies and frontal structures in the Agulhas Current retroflexion (sic) area in March, 1969, in: ...

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Problems with Estimating Oceanic Heat Transport – Conceptual Remar...

By: U. Schauer; A. Beszczynska-möller

Description: Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany. While the concept of oceanic heat transport – or rather heat transport divergence – is known since long, it is sometimes applied inaccurately. Often temperature transports are computed across sections with unbalanced volume flow which then depend entirely on the choice of the temperature scale. The consequences of such arbitrariness are demonstrated with a simple calculation e...

Cuny, J., Rhines Peter B. , and Kwok, R.: Davis Strait volume, freshwater and heat fluxes, Deep-Sea Res. I, 52(3), 519–542, 2005.; Fahrbach, E., Meincke, J., Østerhus, S., Rohardt, G., Schauer, U., Tverberg, V., and Verduin, J.: Direct measurements of volume transports through Fram Strait, Polar Res., 20(2), 217–224, 2001.; Hall, M. M. and Bryden, H. L.: Direct estimates and mechanisms of ocean heat transport, Deep-Sea Res. I, 29, 339–359, 1982.; Ingvaldsen, R. B., Aspli...

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Density and Absolute Salinity of the Baltic Sea 2006–2009 : Volume...

By: S. Weinreben; H. Wolf; B. Adel; P. Spitzer; D. G. Wright; R. Feistel; G. Nausch; S. Seitz; B. Schneider

Description: Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, 18119 Warnemünde, Germany. The brackish water of the Baltic Sea is a mixture of ocean water from the Atlantic/North Sea with fresh water from various rivers draining a large area of lowlands and mountain ranges. The evaporation-precipitation balance results in an additional but minor excess of fresh water. The rivers carry different loads of salts washed out of the ground, in particular calcium carbonate, which...

Anderko, A. and Lencka, M. M.: Computation of electrical conductivity of multicomponent aqueous systems in wide concentration and temperature ranges, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 36, 1932–1943, 1997.; Brinkmann, F., Dam, N. E., Deák, E., Durbiano, F., Ferrara, E., Fükö, J., Jensen, H. D., Máriássy, M., Shreiner, R. H., Spitzer, P., Sudmeier, U., Surdu, M., and Vyskocil, L.: Primary methods for the measurement of electrolytic conductivity, Accred. Qual. Assur., 8, 346–353, 2003....

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Effect of Tidal Stream Power Generation on the Region-wide Circula...

By: G. I. Shapiro

Description: University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, PL4 8AA, UK. Ocean tides are deemed to become a stable source of renewable energy for the future. Tidal energy has two components, the first is the potential energy due to sea level variations and the second comes from the kinetic energy of the tidal streams. This paper is concerned with the backward effect on the ocean currents by a tidal stream farm located in the open shallow sea. Recent studies in chan...

Bjorn, S., Duan, J., McWilliams, J. C., Münnich, M., and Neelin, J. D.: Entrainment, Rayleigh Friction, and Boundary Layer Winds over the Tropical Pacific. J. Climate, 15, 30–44, 2002.; Black and Veatch Consulting Ltd.: Phase I UK tidal stream energy resource assessment. Technical report 107799/D/2200/03, Carbon Trust, London, July 2005.; Boyer, T. P., Levitus, S., Garcia, H., Locarnini, R. A., Stephens, C., and Antonov, J.: Objective analyses of annual, seasonal, and mo...

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Adding Nitrate and Phosphate Separately or Together in the Central...

By: Z. J. Wu; L. Jiang; S. Tang

Description: Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China. Nutrient enrichment experiments were carried out in the Central Indian Ocean during the Chinese First Around-the world Research Cruise, adding nitrate, phosphate, or a mixture of both of them to surface seawater. The concentration of nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and phosphate were analyzed spectrophotometrically, the chlorophyll-a concentration with f...

Chen, Y. L. L., Chen, H. Y., Karl, D. M., and Takahashi, M.: Nitrogen modulates phytoplankton growth in spring in the South China Sea, Cont. Shelf Res., 24, 527–541, 2004.; Dufour, P. and Berland, B.: Nutrient control of phytoplanktonic biomass in atoll lagoons and Pacific Ocean waters: Studies with factorial enrichment bioassays, J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 234, 147–166, 1999.; Eppley, R. W.: Temperature and phytoplankton growth in the sea, Fish. B., 70, 1063–1085, 1972.;...

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Phytoplankton Distribution and Nitrogen Dynamics in the Southwest ...

By: S. J. Thomalla; I. J. Ansorge; M. I. Lucas; E. Pakhomov; H. N. Waldron; J. F. Read

Description: Department of Oceanography, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch, Cape Town 7701, South Africa. During the 1999 Marion Island Oceanographic Survey (MIOS 4) in late austral summer, a northbound and reciprocal southbound transect were taken along the Southwest Indian and Madagascar Ridge, between the Prince Edward Islands and 31° S. The sections crossed a number of major fronts and smaller mesoscale features and covered a wide productivity spec...

Atkinson, A., Whitehouse, M. J., Priddle, J., Cripps, G. C., Ward, P., and Brandon, M. A.: South Georgia, Antarctica: a productive, cold water, pelagic ecosystem, Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 216, 279–308, 2001.; Barange, M., Pakhomov, E. A., Perissinotto, R., Froneman, P. W., Verheye, H. M., Taunton-Clark, J., and Lucas, M. I.: Pelagic community structure of the subtropical convergence region south of Africa and in the mid-Atlantic Ocean, Deep-Sea Res., 45, 1663–1687, 1998.; ...

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Derivation and Assessment of a Mixed Layer Sub-mesoscale Model : V...

By: M. S. Dubovikov; V. M. Canuto

Description: NASA, Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY, 10025, USA. Present studies of mixed layer sub-mesoscales rely primarily on high resolution numerical simulations. Only few of these studies have attempted to parameterize the ensuing buoyancy submesoscale fluxes in terms of the resolved fields so that they can be used in OGCMs (ocean circulation models) that do not resolve sub-mesoscales. In reality, OGCMs used in climate studi...

Batchelor, G. K.: The theory of homogeneous turbulence, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK, 195 pp., 1970.; Boccaletti, G., Ferrari, R., and Fox-Kemper, B.: Mixed layer instabilities and restratification, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37, 2228–2250, 2007.; Canuto, V. M. and Dubovikov, M. S.: A new approach to turbulence, Int. J. Mod. Phys., 12(18), 3121–3152, 1997.; Canuto, V. M. and Dubovikov, M. S.: Modeling mesoscale eddies, Ocean Model., 8, 1–30, 2005, cited as CD5.; Canuto,...

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Inferring the Zonal Distribution of Measured Changes in the Meridi...

By: H. L. Johnson; A. De Boer

Description: University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK. Recently, hydrographic measurements have been used to argue that the meridional overturning circulation at 25° N has decreased by 30% over the last 50 years. Here, we show that the most likely interpretation consistent with this approach (i.e., with the dynamic method together with a level-of-no-motion assumption and Ekman dynamics), is that any decrease in strength of the deep western boundary current must have b...

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Structure and Forcing of the Overflow at the Storfjorden Sill and ...

By: I. Fer; L. H. Smedsrud; F. Geyer

Description: Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Thormølensgate 47, 5006 Bergen, Norway. Storfjorden (Svalbard) is a sill-fjord with an active polynya and exemplifies the dense water formation process over the Arctic shelves. Here we report on our simulations of Storfjorden covering the freezing season of 1999–2000 using an eddy-permitting 3-D ocean circulation model with a fully coupled dynamic and thermodynamic sea-ice model. The model results in the po...

Aagaard, K., Coachman, L. K., and Carmack, E.: On the halocline of the Arctic Ocean, Deep-Sea Res., 28A, 529–545, 1981.; Aagaard, K., Swift, J. H., and Carmack, E.: Thermohaline circulation in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, J. Geophys. Res., 90, 4833–4846, 1985.; Anderson, L. G., Falck, E., Jones, E. P., Jutterstr{ö}m, S., and Swift, J. H.: Enhanced uptake of atmospheric CO2 during freezing of seawater: A field study in Storfjorden, Svalbard, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C0600...

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Upper Layer Current Variability in the Central Ligurian Sea : Volu...

By: S. Sparnocchia; R. Bozzano; A. Cappelletti; M. E. Schiano; S. Pensieri; P. Picco

Description: ENEA CRAM, Forte S. Teresa, 19036 Pozzuolo di Lerici (SP), Italy. Long-time series of surface currents and meteorological parameters were analysed to estimate the variability of the upper layer circulation as a preliminary study of the Ligurian Air-Sea Interaction Experiment (LASIE07). Current meter data were collected by an upward-looking RDI Sentinel 300 kHz ADCP deployed in the Central Ligurian Sea (43°47.77' N; 9°02.85' E) near the meteo-oceanograph...

Astraldi, M. and Manzella, G. M. R.: Some observations on current measurements on the Eastern Ligurian Shelf, Mediterranean Sea, Cont. Shelf Res., 2, 183–193, 1983.; Astraldi, M. and Gasparini, G. P.: The seasonal characteristics of the circulation in the North Mediterranean basin and their relationship with the atmospheric-climatic conditions, J. Geophys. Res., 97(C6), 9531–9540, 1992.; Borzelli, G. and Ligi, R.: Empirical Orthogonal Function Analysis of SST Image Serie...

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Chl A Trends in European Seas Estimated Using Ocean-colour Product...

By: V. Lyubarstev; N. Pinardi; S. Colella; R. Santoleri; G. Coppini; T. Christiansen

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Bologna, Italy. Ocean-colour remote-sensing products have been used to estimate Chl a trends in European seas. This work aims to develop a new indicator based on ocean-colour data for the European Environment Agency (EEA). The new indicator, called CSI023(+), produced from satellite ocean-colour products from the MyOcean Marine Core Service (www.myocean....

D'Ortenzio, F. and Ribera d'Alcalà, M.: On the trophic regimes of the Mediterranean Sea: a satellite analysis, Biogeosciences, 6, 139–148, doi:10.5194/bg-6-139-2009, 2009.; Ferreira, J. G., Andersen, J. H., Borja, A., Bricker, S. B., Camp, J., Cardoso da Silva, M., Garcés, E., Heiskanen, A.-S., Humborg, C., Ignatiades, L., Lancelot, C., Menesguen, A., Tett, P., Hoepffner, N., and Claussen, U.: Overview of eutrophication...

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Distributions of Mixed Layer Properties in North Pacific Water Mas...

By: T. Suga; F. M. Bingham

Description: University of North Carolina Wilmington, Center for Marine Science, 5600 Marvin K. Moss Lane, Wilmington, NC 28409, USA. Winter mixed layer characteristics in the North Pacific Ocean are examined and compared between Argo floats in 2004 and 2005 and the World Ocean Atlas 2001 (WOA01) climatology for a series of named water masses, North Pacific Tropical Water (NPTW), Eastern Subtropical Mode Water (ESTMW), North Pacific Subtropical Mode Water (NPSTMW), L...

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Snapshot Observation of Physical Structure and Stratification in D...

By: J. Azizpour; H. A. Lahijani; P. Ghaffari

Description: Department of Physical Oceanography, Iranian National Center for Oceanography, No. 3, Western Fatemi, 1411813389, Tehran, Iran. In this article, we describe physical parameters structures and different water masses using CTD measurements in southwestern part of the Caspian Sea (CS) in adjacent to Anzali Port (AP). CTD profilings were conducted along a transect perpendicular to the coastline over 13 stations from the coast down to 720 m in winter 2008. Ac...

Bruevich, S. V.: Hydrochemistry of Middle and South Caspian Sea, USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 1973.; Emery, W. J., Tally, L. D., and Pickard, G. L.: Descriptive Physical Oceanography, Elsevier Science & Technology Books, 2006.; Emery, W. J. and Thomson, R. E.: Data Analysis Methods in Physical Oceanography, Elsevier Science B. V, Amsterdam, 2004.; Froehlich, K., Rozanski, K., Povinec, P., Oregioni, B., and Gastaud, J.: Isotope studies in the Caspian Sea, Sci. Total ...

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