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On the Modulation of the Periodicity of the Faroe Bank Channel Ove...

By: I. Fer; C. Guo; K. M. H. Larsen; T. Rasmussen; E. Darelius

Description: Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway. The Faroe Bank Channel (FBC) is one of the major pathways where dense, cold water formed in the Nordic Seas flows southward towards the north Atlantic. The plume region downstream of the FBC sill is characterized by high mesoscale variability, quasi-regular oscillations and intense mixing. Here, one year-long time series of velocity and temperature from eigh...

Amante, C. and Eakins, B. W.: ETOPO1 1 Arc-Minute Global Relief Model: Procedures, Data Sources and Analysis, Tech. rep., NOAA, technical memorandum NESDIS NGDC-24, 19 pp., 2009.; Bishop, S. P., Watts, D. R., and Donohue, K. A.: Divergent eddy heat fluxes in the Kuroshio extension at 144°–148° E. Part I: Mean structure, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 43, 1533–1550, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-12-0221.1, 2013.; Bleck, R.: An oceanic genera...

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Southern Ocean Overturning Across Streamlines in an Eddying Simula...

By: S. R. Rintoul; G. Madec; M. H. England; J.-m. Molines; J. Le Sommer; A. M. Treguier

Description: Laboratoire de Physique de Oceans, CNRS-IFREMER-UBO, Plouzané, France. An eddying global model is used to study the characteristics of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) in a streamline-following framework. Previous model-based estimates of the meridional circulation were calculated using zonal averages: this method leads to a counter-intuitive poleward circulation of the less dense waters, and underestimates the eddy effects. We show that on the c...

Barnier, B., Madec, G., Penduff, T., Molines, J.M., Treguier, A.M., Le Sommer, J., Beckmann, A., Biastoch, A., Böning, C., Dengg, J., Derval, C., Durand, E., Gulev, S., Remy, E., Talandier, C., Theetten, S., Maltrud, M., McClean, J., and De Cuevas, B.: Impact of partial steps and momentum advection schemes in a global ocean circulation model at eddy permitting resolution, Ocean Dynam., doi:10.1007/s10236-006-0082-1, 2006. \bibitem[]brodeau2007 Brodeau L.: Contribution à ...

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Agulhas Ring Injection Into the South Atlantic During Glacials and...

By: D. Nof; V. Zharkov

Description: Geophysical Fluid Dynamics institute, Florida State University, USA. Recent proxies suggest that, at the end of the last glacial, there was a significant increase in the injection of Agulhas rings into the South Atlantic (SA). This brought about a dramatic increase in the salt-influx (from the Indian Ocean) into the SA helping re-start the then-collapsed meridional overturning cell (MOC), leading to the termination of the Younger Dryas (YD). Here, we pr...

Andrews, J. C. and Scully-Power, P.: The structure of an East Australian Current anticyclonic eddy, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 6, 756–765, 1976.; Arruda, W. Z., Nof, D., and O'Brien, J. J.: Does the Ulleung eddy owe its existence to \textit$\beta $ and nonlinearities?, Deep-Sea Res., 51, 2073–2090, 2004.; Bard, E.: Climate shock: abrupt changes over millennial time scales, Phys. Today, 55, 32–38, 2002.; Berger, W. H. and Wefer, G.: Expeditions into the past: paleoceanographic s...

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N/P Ratio of Nutrient Uptake in the Baltic Sea : Volume 8, Issue 3...

By: H. Bi; L. Jonasson; Z. Wan

Description: Centre for Ocean and Ice, Danish Meteorological Institute, Lyngbyvey 100, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. The N/P ratio of nutrient uptake, i.e., the ratio of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) to dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) taken by primary producers, varies in different basins and in different seasons in the Baltic Sea. The N/P ratio of nutrient alteration fore and after spring blooms is not same as the N/P ratio of nutrient uptake, but the former c...

Anderson, T. R. and Pondaven, P.: Non-redfield carbon and nitrogen cycling in the Sargasso Sea: pelagic imbalances and export flux, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 50(5), 573–591, 2003.; Arrigo, K. R., Robinson, D. H., Worthen, D. L., Dunbar, R. B., DiTullio, G. R., VanWoertand, M., and Lizotte, M. P.: Phytoplankton community structure and the drawdown of nutrients and CO2 in the Southern Ocean, Science, 283, 365–367, 1999.; Bergström, S.: Development and application of ...

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Operative Forecast of Hydrophysical Fields in the Georgian Black S...

By: D. I. Demetrashvili; A. A. Kordzadze

Description: M. Nodia Institute of Geophysics, Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, 1, M. Alexidze Str., 0193 Tbilisi, Georgia. One of the part of the Black Sea Nowcasting/Forecasting System is the regional forecasting system for the Easternmost part of the Black Sea (including the Georgian water area), which have been developed within the context of the EU International projects ARENA and ECOOP. A core of the regional system is a high-resolution baroclinic re...

Zilitinkevich, S. S. and Monin, A. S.: Turbulence in Dynamic Models of the Atmosphere (in Russian), Nauka, Leningrad, 41 pp., 1971.; Berlyand, G. G.: Method of climatological calculation of the net radiation (in Russian), Meteorologia i gidrologia, Moscow, 6, 9–12, 1960.; Besiktepe, S. T.: Development of the regional forecasting system for the Black Sea, Proceeding of the Second International Conference on Oceanography of Eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea: Similarities...

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Circulation, Eddies, Oxygen, and Nutrient Changes in the Eastern T...

By: T. Fischer; R. A. Weller; L. Stramma; R. Czeschel

Description: GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany. A large subsurface oxygen deficiency zone is located in the eastern tropical South Pacific Ocean (ETSP). The large-scale circulation in the eastern equatorial Pacific and off the coast of Peru in November/December 2012 shows the influence of the equatorial current system, the eastern boundary currents, and the northern reaches of the subtropical gyre. In November ...

Anderson, L. A.: On the hydrogen and oxygen content of marine phytoplankton, Deep-Sea Res. I, 42, 1675–1680, 1995.; Ayon, P., Criales-Hernandez, M. I., Schwamborn, R., and Hirche, H.-J.: Zooplankton research off Peru: A review, Prog. Oceanogr., 79, 238–255, 2008.; Behrenfeld, M. J., Boss, E., Siegel, D. A., and Shea, D. M.: Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 19, d...

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Deep Ocean Exchange with West-european Shelf Seas : Volume 6, Issu...

By: S. L. Wakelin; J. M. Huthnance; J. T. Holt

Description: Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory, 6 Brownlow Street, Liverpool L3 5DA, UK. We review mechanisms and studies of exchange between the north-east Atlantic and the adjacent shelf sea. Mechanisms include: well-developed summer upwelling and associated filaments off Portugal and north-west Spain giving exchange O(3 m2/s per unit length of shelf); prevailing westerly winds further north driving exchange O(1 m2/s); poleward flow along most...

Allen, J. I., Blackford, J., Holt, J. T., Proctor, R., Ashworth M., and Siddorn, J.: A highly spatially resolved ecosystem model for the North West European continental shelf, Sarsia, 86, 423–440, 2001.; Barton, E. D., Inall, M. E., Sherwin, T. J., and Torres, R.: Vertical structure, turbulent mixing and fluxes during Lagrangian observations of an upwelling filament system off Northwest Iberia, Prog. Oceanogr., 51, 249–267, 2001.; Biscaye, P. E., Flagg, C. N., and Falkow...

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Influence of Frontal Cyclone Evolution on the 2009 (Ekman) and 201...

By: V. H. Kourafalou; M. Le Hénaff; Y. S. Androulidakis

Description: University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS/MPO 4600), Rickenbacker Cswy, Miami, FL 33149, USA. The anticyclonic Loop Current Eddy (LCE) shedding events are strongly associated with the evolution of Loop Current Frontal Eddies (LCFEs) over the eastern Gulf of Mexico (GoM). A numerical simulation, in tandem with in situ measurements and satellite data, was used to investigate the Loop Current (LC) evolution and the surr...

Androulidakis, Y. S. and Kourafalou, V. H.: On the processes that influence the transport and fate of Mississippi waters under flooding outflow conditions, Ocean Dynam., 63, 143–164, 2013.; Biggs, D., Fargion, G., Hamilton, P., and Leben, R.: Cleavage of a Gulf of Mexico Loop Current eddy by a deep water cyclone, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 20629–20620, 1996.; Athié, G., Candela, J., Ochoa, J., and Sheinbaum, J.: Impact of Caribbean cyclones on the detachment of Loop Current ...

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Sea-air Co2 Flux Estimated from Socat Surface-ocean Co2 Partial Pr...

By: D. C. E. Bakker; C. Sabine; N. Metzl; R. F. Keeling; C. Rödenbeck; M. Heimann; A. Olsen

Description: Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena, Germany. Surface-ocean CO2 partial pressure data have been assimilated into a simple diagnostic model of surface-ocean biogeochemistry to estimate the spatio-temporal CO2 partial pressure field and ultimately the sea-air CO2 fluxes. Results compare well with the widely used monthly climatology by Takahashi et al. (2009) but also contain some short-term and interannual variat...

While, J., Totterdell, I., and Martin, M.: Assimilation of pCO2 Data Into a Global Coupled Physical-Biogeochemical Ocean Model, J. Geophys. Res., 117, C03037, doi:10.1029/2010JC006815, 2012.; Yu, L. and Weller, R. A.: Objectively Analyzed air-sea heat Fluxes (OAFlux) for the global oceans, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 88, 527–539, 2007.; Archer, D., Kheshgi, H., and Maier-Reimer, E.: Multiple timescales for n...

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Accelerated Sea Level Rise and Florida Current Transport : Volume ...

By: J. Park; W. Sweet

Description: National Park Service, Everglades National Park, 950 N Krome Ave, Homestead, FL, USA. The Florida Current is the headwater of the Gulf Stream and is a component of the North Atlantic western boundary current from which a geostrophic balance between sea surface height and mass transport directly influence coastal sea levels along the Florida Straits. A linear regression of daily Florida Current transport estimates does not find a significant change ...

Robson, J., Hodson, D., Hawkins, E., and Sutton, R.: Atlantic overturning in decline?, Nat. Geosci., 7, 2–3, 2014.; Barringer, M. O. and Larsen, J. C.: Sixteen years of Florida Current transport at 27° N, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 3179–3182, 2001.; Blaha, J. P.: Fluctuations of monthly sea level as related to the intensity of the Gulfstream from Key West to Norfolk, J. Geophys. Res., 89, 8033–8042, 1984.; Brunnabend, S.-E., Dijkstra, H. A., Kliphuis, M. A., van Werkhoven,...

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First Images and Orientation of Fine Structure from a 3-d Seismic ...

By: W. S. Holbrook; T. M. Blacic

Description: University of Wyoming, Geology and Geophysics Department, 1000 E. University Ave., Laramie, WY 82071, USA. We present 3-D images of ocean fine structure from a unique industry-collected 3-D multichannel seismic dataset from the Gulf of Mexico that includes expendable bathythermograph casts for both swaths. 2-D processing reveals strong laterally continuous reflections throughout the upper ~800 m as well as a few weaker but still distinct reflections as ...

Biescas, B., Sallarès, V., Pelegrí, J. L., Machín, F., Carbonell, R., Buffett, G., Dañobeitia, J. J., and Calahorrano, A.: Imaging meddy finestructure using multichannel seismic reflection data, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L11609, doi:10.1029/2008GL033971, 2008.; Cooper, C., Forristall, G. Z., and Joyce, T. M.: Velocity and hydrographic structure of two Gulf of Mexico warm-core rings, J. Geophys. Res., 95(C2), 1663–1679, 1990.; Egbert, G. D., Bennett, A. F., and Foreman, M....

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Modelling Survival and Connectivity of Mnemiopsis Leidyi in the So...

By: J. Van Der Molen; S. Pitois; V. Langenberg; L. Vansteenbrugge; L. Van Walraven; H. W. Van Der Veer; J. Van Beek; S. Augustine; J. Robbens; K. Hostens

Description: The Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS), Lowestoft, UK. Three different models were applied to study the reproduction, survival and dispersal of Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Scheldt estuaries and the southern North Sea: a high-resolution particle tracking model with passive particles, a low-resolution particle tracking model with a reproduction model coupled to a biogeochemical model, and a dynamic energy budget (DEB) mode...

Baker, L. D. and Reeve, M. R.: Laboratory Culture of the Lobate Ctenophore Mnemiopsis mccradyi with Notes on Feeding and Fecundity, Mar. Biol., 26, 57–62, 1974.; Antajan, E., Bastian, T., Raud, T., Brylinski, J.-M., Hoffman, S., Breton, G., Cornille, V., Delegrange, A., and Vincent, D.: The invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi A. Agassiz, 1865 along the English Channel and the North Sea French coasts: another introduction pathway in northern European water...

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Retroflection from a Double-slanted Coastline: a Model for the Agu...

By: W. Weijer; V. Zharkov; D. Nof

Description: Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Institute, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, 32306, USA. The Agulhas leakage to the South Atlantic exhibits a strong anti-correlation with the mass flux of the Agulhas Current. When the Agulhas retroflection is in its normal position near Cape Agulhas, leakage is relatively high and the nearby South African coastal slant (angle of derivation from zonal) is very small and relatively invariant alongshore. During periods ...

Arruda, W. Z., Nof, D., and O'Brien, J. J.: Does the Ulleung eddy owe its existence to β and nonlinearities?, Deep-Sea Res., 51, 2073–2090, 2004.; Biastoch, A., Böning, C. W., and Lutjeharms, J. R. E.: Agulhas leakage dynamics affects decadal variability in Atlantic overturning circulation, Nature, 456, 489–492, 2008.; Bleck, R. and Boudra, D.: Wind-driven spin-up in eddy-resolving ocean models formulated in isopycnic and isobaric coordinates, J. Geophys. Res., 91...

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A High-resolution Free-surface Model of the Mediterranean Sea : Vo...

By: S. Dobricic; I. Pujol; N. Pinardi; C. Fratianni; M. Tonani

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna, Italy. This study describes a new model implementation for the Mediterranean Sea with what is currently the highest vertical resolution over the Mediterranean basin. The resolution is of 1/16°×1/16° in the horizontal and has 72 unevenly spaced vertical levels. This model has been developed in the frame of the EU-MFSTEP project and is the operational forecast model currently used at the basin scale...

Beranger, K., Mortier, L., Gasparini, G. P., Gervasio, L., Astraldi, M., and Crepon, M.: The dynamics of the Sicily Strait: a comprehensive study from observations and model, Deep Sea Res. II, 51, 411–440, 2004.; Castellari, S., Pinardi, N. and Leaman, K.: A model study of air-sea interactions in the Mediterranean Sea, J. Mar. Syst., 18, 89–114, 2000.; Beranger, K., Mortier, L., and Crepon, M.: Seasonal variability of water transport through the Straits of Gibraltar, Sic...

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Estimation of Friction Parameters in Gravity Currents by Data Assi...

By: A. Wirth

Description: LEGI/MEOM/CNRS, France. This paper is the last in a series of three investigating the friction laws and their parametrisation in idealised gravity currents in a rotating frame. Results on the dynamics of a gravity current (Wirth, 2009) and on the estimation of friction laws by data assimilation (Wirth and Verron, 2008) are combined to estimate the friction parameters and discriminate between friction laws in non-hydrostatic numerical simu...

Brusdal, K., Brankart, J. M., Halberstadt, G., Evensen, G., Brasseur, P., van Leeuwen, P. J., Dombrowsky, E., and Verron, J.: A demonstration of ensemble-based assimilation methods with a layered OGCM from the perspective of operational ocean forecasting systems, J. Mar. Syst., 40–41, 253–289, 2003.; Burgers, G., van Leeuwen, P., and Evensen, G.: Analysis scheme in the ensemble Kalman filter, Mon. Weather Rev., 126, 1719–1724, 1998.; Evensen, G.: The ensemble Kalman filt...

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A Quantitative Description of the Norwegian Atlantic Current by Co...

By: K. A. Mork; Ø. Skagseth

Description: Institute of Marine Research and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway. In this study, we quantified the mean flow and the variability in the Norwegian Atlantic Current (NwAC), including the individual branches, with associated error estimates. We accomplished this by combining repeated hydrographic data in the Svinøy section (at 62° N off the coast of Norway toward the northwest) with absolute dynamic sea surface topography data for the ...

Bevington, P. R.: Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Science, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, USA, 1969.; Bochkov, Y. A.: Water temperature in the 0–200 m layer in the Kola-Meridian section in the Barents Sea, 1900–1981, Sb. Nauchn. Trud. PINRO, 46, 113–122, 1982.; Ducet, N., LeTraon, P. Y., and Reverdin, G.: Global high-resolution mapping of ocean circulation from TOPEX/Poseidon and ERS-1 and 2, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 19477–19498, 2000.; Gordon, R. L...

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Variability of Antarctic Intermediate Water Properties in the Sout...

By: M. Tomczak

Description: School of Chemistry, Physics and Earth Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide SA 5001, Australia. Argo float time series data are used to study the salinity field at the depth of the salinity minimum produced by Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW). It is found that far from showing the smooth erosion of the minimum that would result from diffusive flow, the salinity field is characterized by features of geostrophic turbulence such as front...

Armi, L. and W. Zenk: Large lenses of highly saline Mediterranean water, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 14, 1560–1576, 19984.; Elliott, B. A. and T. B. Sanford: The subthermocline lens D1. Part I: Description of water properties and velocity profiles, J. Phys. Oceanogr$., 16$, 532–548, 1986a.; McWilliams, J. C.: Submesoscale, coherent vortices in the ocean, Rev. Geophys., $23$, 165–182, 1985.; Ichikawa, Y., Takatsuki, Y., Mizuno, K., Shikama, N., and Takeuchi, K.: Estimation of dri...

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Corrigendum to Nemo on the Shelf: Assessment of the Iberia–biscay–...

By: The Mercator Research and Development Team; J. Chanut; B. Levier; G. Reffray; P. De Mey; P. Marsaleix; M. Drévillon; E. A. Fanjul; N. Ayoub; C. Maraldi; F. Lyard; M. G. Sotillo; S. Cailleau

Description: LEGOS/CNRS/Université de Toulouse, UMR5566, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France. No abstract available.

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Improved Sea Level Record Over the Satellite Altimetry Era (1993–2...

By: M. Balmaseda; G. Timms; M. Ablain; O. Andersen; P. Cipollini; M. Roca; N. Picot; S. Rudenko; M. J. Fernandes; J. A. Johannessen; A. Cazenave; J. Benveniste; P. Knudsen; O. Henry; Y. Faugère; M. G. Scharffenberg; D. Stammer; G. Larnicol; B. Meyssignac; J. Legeais

Description: Collecte Localisation Satellite (CLS), Ramonville Saint-Agne, France. Sea level is one of the 50 Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) listed by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) in climate change monitoring. In the past two decades, sea level has been routinely measured from space using satellite altimetry techniques. In order to address a number of important scientific questions such as Is sea level rise accelerating?, Can we close the sea level...

Ablain, M., Cazenave, A., Valladeau, G., and Guinehut, S.: A new assessment of the error budget of global mean sea level rate estimated by satellite altimetry over 1993–2008, Ocean Sci., 5, 193–201, doi:10.5194/os-5-193-2009, 2009.; Ablain, M., Philipps, S., Urvoy, M., Tran, N., and Picot, N.: Detection of Long-Term Instabilities on Altimeter Backscattering Coefficient Thanks to Wind Speed Data Comparisons from Altimete...

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Evaluation of Release-05 Grace Time-variable Gravity Coefficients ...

By: J. A. Bonin; D. P. Chambers

Description: College of Marine Science, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, FL, USA. The latest release of GRACE gravity field coefficients (Release-05, or RL05) are evaluated for ocean applications. Data have been processed using the current methodology for Release-04 (RL04) coefficients, and have been compared to output from two different ocean models. Results indicate that RL05 data from the three Science Data Centers – the Center for Space Research (CSR...

Bergmann, I. and Dobslaw, H.: Short-term transport variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current from satellite gravity observations, J. Geophys. Res., 117, C05044, doi:10.1029/2012JC007872, 2012.; Bettadpur, S.: Level-2 Gravity Field Product User Handbook, GRACE 327–734, CSR Publ. GR-03-01, Rev. 2.3, University of Texas at Austin, 19 pp., 2007.; Boening, C., Timmermann, R., Danilov, S., and Schröter, J.: On the repre...

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