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Modeling the Effects of Size on Patch Dynamics of an Inert Tracer ...

By: F. Chai; P. Xiu

Description: School of Marine Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, Maine, USA. Mesoscale iron enrichment experiments have revealed that additional iron affects the phytoplankton productivity and carbon cycle. However, the role of initial size of fertilized patch in determining the patch evolution is poorly quantified due to the limited time of research vessels at sea. Using a three-dimensional ocean circulation model, we simulated different sizes of inert tracer pa...

Abraham, E. R., Law, C. S., Boyd, P. W., Lavender, S. J., Maldonado, M. T., and Bowie, A. R.: Importance of stirring in the development of an iron-fertilized phytoplankton bloom, Nature, 407, 727–730, 2000.; Bowie, A. R., Maldonado, M. T., Frew, R. D., Croot, P. L., Achterberg, E. P., Mantoura, R. F. C., Worsfold, P. J., Law, C. S., and Boyd, P. W.: The fate of added iron during a mesoscale fertilisation experiment in the Southern Ocean, Deep-Sea Res. II, 48, 2703–2743, ...

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The Transient Distributions of Nuclear Weapon-generated Tritium an...

By: P. Jean-baptiste; E. Fourré; J. Sültenfuß; W. Roether

Description: Institut für Umweltphysik, University Bremen, Otto Hahn Allee, 28355, Bremen, Germany. We present a comprehensive account of tritium and 3He in the Mediterranean Sea since the appearance of the tritium generated by the atmospheric nuclear-weapon testing in the 1950's and early 1960's, based on essentially all available observations. Tritium in surface waters rose to 20–30 TU in 1964 (TU = 1018 · [3H]/[H]), a facto...

Andrie, C. and Merlivat, L.: Tritium in the western Mediterranean during the 1981 Phycemed cruise, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 35, 247–267, 1988.; Benson, B. B. and Krause, D.: Isotopic fractionation of helium during solution: a probe for the liquid state, J. Solut. Chem., 9, 895–909, 1980.; Charlou, J. L., Donval, J. P., Roy, N., Jean-Baptiste, P., Foucher, J. P., Woodside, J., and the MEDINAUT Scientific Party: Evidence of methane venting and geochemistry of brines ass...

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Sediment 231Pa/230Th as a Recorder of the Rate of the Atlantic Mer...

By: R. Francois; S. E. Allen; Y. Luo

Description: Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, 6339 Stores Road, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada. A two dimensional scavenging model is used to investigate the patterns of sediment 231Pa/230Th generated by the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and further advance the application of this proxy for ocean paleocirculation studies. The scavenging parameters and the geometry of the overturning cir...

Anderson, R. F., Bacon, M. P., and Brewer, P. G.: Removal of Th-230 and Pa-231 from the Open Ocean, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 62, 7–23, 1983.; Bacon M. P.: Tracers of chemical scavenging in the ocean – boundary effects and large-scale chemical fractionation, Philos. T. Roy. Soc. London Ser. A, 325, 147–160, 1988.; Bacon M. P. and Anderson R. F.: Distribution of thorium isotopes between dissolved and particulate forms in the deep sea, J. Geophys. Res., 87, 2045–2056, 1982...

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Water Mass Transformation in the North Atlantic Over 1985-2002 Sim...

By: B. A. Cuevas; A. J. G. De Nurser; S. A. Josey; R. Marsh; A. C. Coward

Description: National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK. Water mass transformation in the North Atlantic is examined in an eddy-permitting simulation with the OCCAM ocean general circulation model, forced by realistic surface fluxes over the period 1985-2002. Three Atlantic regions are considered - the subtropics, mid-latitudes, the northeast Atlantic - along with the Labrador Sea. The oceanic boundaries of each region coincide with hydrographic sections occupied...

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The Effect of Tides on Dense Water Formation in Arctic Shelf Seas ...

By: M. A. Morales Maqueda; A. J. Willmott; V. Le Fouest; G. R. Tattersall; C. F. Postlethwaite; J. Holt

Description: National Oceanography Centre, Joseph Proudman Building, 6 Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L3 5DA, UK. Ocean tides are not explicitly included in many ocean general circulation models, which will therefore omit any interactions between tides and the cryosphere. We present model simulations of the wind and buoyancy driven circulation and tides of the Barents and Kara Seas, using a 25 km × 25 km 3-D ocean circulation model coupled to a dynamic and thermodynamic...

Arbic, B. K., Wallcraft, A. J., and Metzger, E. J.: Concurrent simulation of the eddying general circulation and tides in a global ocean model, Ocean Model., 32, 175–187, 2010.; Andreu-Burillo, I., Holt, J., Proctor, R., Annan, J. D., James, I. D., and Prandle, D.: Assimilation of sea surface temperature in the POL Coastal Ocean Modelling System, J. Marine Syst., 65, 27–40, 2007.; Barron, C. N., Kara, A. B., Martin, P. J., Rhodes, R. C., and Smedstad, L. F.: Formulation,...

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Changes in Extreme Regional Sea Surface Height Due to an Abrupt We...

By: B. Van Werkhoven; M. A. Kliphuis; H. A. Dijkstra; F. Seinstra; H. E. Bal; J. Maassen; S.-e. Brunnabend; M. Van Meersbergen

Description: Institute of Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht, the Netherlands. As an extreme scenario of dynamical sea level changes, regional sea surface height (SSH) changes that occur in the North Atlantic due to an abrupt weakening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) are simulated. Two versions of the same ocean-only model are used to study the effect of ocean model resolution on th...

Antonov, J. I., Levitus, S., and Boyer, T. P.: Thermosteric sea level rise, 1955–2003, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L12602, doi:10.1029/2005GL023112, 2005.; Berge-Nguyen, M., Cazenave, A., Lombard, A., Liovel, W., Viarra, J., and Cretaux, J. F.: Reconstruction of past decades sea level using thermosteric sea level, tide gauge, satellite altimetry and ocean reanalysis data, Global Planet. Change, 62, 1–13,

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A Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer for Continuous Underway Sh...

By: M. J. Lawler; C. A. Marandino; C. A. McCormick; E. S. Saltzman; W. J. De Bruyn

Description: University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, USA. A compact, low-cost atmospheric pressure, chemical ionization mass spectrometer (mini-CIMS) has been developed for continuous underway shipboard measurements of dimethylsulfide (DMS) in seawater. The instrument was used to analyze DMS in air equilibrated with flowing seawater across a porous Teflon membrane equilibrator. The equilibrated gas stream was diluted with air containing an isotopically...

Andreae, M. O. and Barnard, W. R.: Determination of trace quantities of dimethyl sulfide in aqueous solutions, Anal. Chem., 55, 608–612, 1983.; Bandy, A. R., Thornton, D. C., Tu, F. H., Blomquist, B. W., Nadler, W., Mitchell, G. M., and Lenschow, D. H.: Determination of the vertical flux of dimethyl sulfide by eddy correlation and atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (APIMS), J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 107, 4743, doi:10.1029/2002JD002472, 2002.; Bates, T. S., ...

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Effects of the 2003 European Heatwave on the Central Mediterranean...

By: S. Natale; A. Ribotti; A. Olita; S. Gaberšek; R. Sorgente

Description: IMC – International Marine Centre Loc. Sa Mardini, 09170 Oristano – Italy. The effects of anomalous weather conditions on the sea surface layer over the Central Mediterranean were studied with an eddy resolving regional ocean model by performing a 5-year long simulation from 2000 to 2004. The focus was on surface heat fluxes, temperature and dynamics. The analysis of the time series of the selected variables permitted us to identify and quantify the ano...

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Meridional Transport of Salt in the Global Ocean from an Eddy-reso...

By: J. Deshayes; J. Le Sommer; C. Lique; J.-m. Molines; R. Bourdalle-badie; G. Madec; A. M. Treguier; B. Barnier; C. Talandier; T. Penduff

Description: Laboratoire de Physique de Oceans, CNRS-IFREMER-IRD-UBO, Plouzané, France. The meridional transport of salt is computed in a global eddy-resolving numerical model (1/12° resolution) in order to improve our understanding of the ocean salinity budget. A methodology is proposed that allows a global analysis of the salinity balance in relation to surface water fluxes, without defining a freshwater anomaly based on an arbitrary reference salinity. The method...

Wijffels, S.: Towards a physical understanding of the North Atlantic: a review of model studies, in: Ocean Transport of Fresh Water, Ocean Circulation and Climate, edited by: Siedler, G., Church, J., and Gould, J., 475–488, Academic Press, London, 2001.; Yu, L.: A global relationship between the ocean water cycle and near-surface salinity, J. Geophys. Res., 116, C10025, doi:10.1029/2010JC006937, 2011.; Barnier, B., Madec...

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Coastal Upwelling Along the Southwest Coast of India – Enso Modula...

By: V. Kovačević; M. Gačić; K. Muni Krishna

Description: Dept. of Meteorology and Oceanography, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam – 530 003, India. An index of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the Pacific during pre monsoon is shown to account for a significant part of the variability of coastal Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies measured a few months later within the wind driven southwest coast of India coastal upwelling region 7° N–14° N. This teleconnection is thought to result from an atmospheri...

Banse, K.: On upwelling and bottom-trawling off the southwest coast of India, J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. India, 1, 33–49, 1959.; Banse, K.: Hydrography of the Arabian Sea shelf of India and Pakistan and effects on dimersal fishes, Deep Sea Res., 15, 45–79, 1968.; Bohua Huang and Shukla, J.: Mechanisms for the Interannual Variability in the Tropical Indian Ocean. Part II: Regional Processes, J. Climate, 17, 2937–2960, 2007; Darbyshire, M.: The surface waters off the coast of Ke...

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Ventilation of the Mediterranean Sea Constrained by Multiple Trans...

By: T. Tanhua; T. Stöven

Description: Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, GEOMAR, Kiel, Germany. Ventilation is the primary pathway for atmosphere–ocean boundary perturbations, such as temperature anomalies, to be relayed to the ocean interior. It is also a conduit for gas exchange between the interface of atmosphere and ocean. Thus it is a mechanism whereby, for instance, the ocean interior is oxygenated and enriched in anthropogenic carbon. The ventilation of the Mediterranean Sea i...

Artegiani, A., Bregant, D., Paschini, E., Pinardi, N., Raicich, F., and Russo, A.: The Adriatic Sea General Circulation. Part I: Air-Sea Interactions and Water Mass Structure, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 1492–1514, 1996a.; Artegiani, A., Bregant, D., Paschini, E., Pinardi, N., Raicich, F., and Russo, A.: The Adriatic Sea General Circulation. Part II: Baroclinic Circulation Structure, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 1515–1532, 1996b.; Bullister, J., Wisegarver, D., and Menzia, F.: Th...

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A Global Algorithm for Estimating Absolute Salinity : Volume 8, Is...

By: F. J. Millero; D. R. Jackett; R. Pawlowicz; T. J. McDougall; P. M. Barker

Description: School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater – 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic propert...

Brewer, P. G. and Bradshaw, A.: The effect of non-ideal composition of seawater on salinity and density, J. Mar. Res., 33, 157–175, 1975.; Feistel, R.: A Gibbs function for seawater thermodynamics for −6 to 80 \textdegree C and salinity up to 120 g kg−1, Deep-Sea Res. I, 55, 1639–1671, 2008.; Feistel, R., Wright, D. G., Miyagawa, K., Harvey, A. H., Hruby, J., Jackett, D. R., McDougall, T. J., and Wagner, W.: Mutually consistent thermodynamic potentials for flu...

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Arctic Surface Temperatures from Metop Avhrr Compared to in Situ O...

By: R. Tonboe; J. L. Høyer; G. Dybkjær

Description: Center for Ocean and Ice, Danish Meteorological Institute, Lyngbyvej 100, 2100 København, Denmark. The ice surface temperature (IST) is an important boundary condition for both atmospheric and ocean and sea ice models and for coupled systems. An operational ice surface temperature product using satellite Metop AVHRR infra-red data was developed for MyOcean. The IST can be mapped in clear sky regions using a split window algorithm specially tuned for sea ...

Parrett, C.: Drifter and Ship blacklist, UK meteorological Office, personal communication, Oktober 2011.; Andersen, S., Tonboe, R., Kern, S., and Schyberg, H.: Improved retrieval of sea ice total concentration from spaceborne passive microwave observations using numerical weather prediction model fields: An intercomparison of nine algorithms, Remote Sens. Environ., 104, 4, 374–392, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2006.05.013, 200...

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Daily Scale Winter-time Sea Surface Temperature Variability and th...

By: E. Zorita; A. Fontán; J. Sáenz; P. Lazure; V. Valencia; G. Esnaola

Description: AZTI-Tecnalia, Marine Research Division, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110 Pasaia, Gipuzkoa, Spain. The combination of remotely sensed gappy sea surface temperature (SST) images with the missing data filling Data Interpolating EOFs (DINEOF) technique followed by a Principal Component Analysis of the reconstructed data, has been used to identify the time evolution and the daily scale variability of the winter-time surface signal of the Iberian Poleward...

Alvera-Azcárate, A., Barth, A., Rixen, M., and Beckers, J. M.: Reconstruction of incomplete oceanographic data sets using empirical orthogonal functions: application to the Adriatic Sea surface temperature, Ocean Model., 9, 325–346, 2005.; Alvera-Azcárate, A., Barth, A., Beckers, J. M., and Weisberg, R. H.: Multivariate reconstruction of missing data in sea surface temperature, chlorophyll, and wind satellite fields, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 112, C03008,

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Towards Closure of Regional Heat Budgets in the North Atlantic Usi...

By: S. A. Josey; R. E. Hadfield; N. C. Wells

Description: National Oceanography Centre, European Way, Southampton, SO14 3ZH, UK. The upper ocean heat budget (0–300 m) of the North Atlantic from 20°–60° N is investigated using data from Argo profiling floats for 1999–2005 and the NCEP/NCAR and NOC surface flux datasets. Estimates of the different terms in the budget (heat storage, advection, diffusion and surface exchange) are obtained using the methodology developed by Hadfield et al. (2007a, b). The method in...

% vor jede Referenz Alderson, S. G. and Killworth, P. D.: A preoperational scheme for calculating sea surface height by Bernoulli inverse of Argo float data in the North Atlantic, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 22(9) 1416–1422, 2005.; Böhme, L. and Send, U.: Objective analyses of hydrographic data for referencing profiling float salinities in highly variable environments, Deep Sea Res. II, 52(3–4), 651–664, 2005.; Böning, C. W. and Herrmann, P.:Annual cycle of poleward heat tra...

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In Situ Autonomous Optical Radiometry Measurements for Satellite O...

By: M. Talone; F. Mélin; J.-f. Berthon; G. Zibordi

Description: European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy. The accuracy of primary satellite ocean color data products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on-board Aqua (MODIS-A) and the Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), is investigated in the Western Black Sea using in situ measurements from the Gloria site included in the Ocean Color component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET-OC). The analysis is also exte...

Bailey, S. W. and Werdell, P. J.: A multi-sensor approach for the on-orbit validation of ocean color satellite data products, Remote Sens. Environ., 102, 12–23, 2006.; Behrenfeld, M. J., O'Malley, R. T., Siegel, D. A., McClain, C. R., Sarmiento, J. L., Feldman, G. C., Milligan, A. J., Falkowski, P. G., Letelier, R. M., and Boss, E. S.: Climate-driven trends in contemporary ocean productivity, Nature, 444, 752–755, 2006.; Berthon, J.-F., Mélin, F., and Zibordi, G.: Ocean ...

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Corrigendum to Influence of Cross-shelf Water Transport on Nutrien...

By: X. Guo; L. Zhao

Description: Physical Oceanography Laboratory, Ocean University of China, 238 Songling Road, Qingdao 266100, China. No abstract available.

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Upper Ocean Response to Two Collocated Typhoons : Volume 10, Issue...

By: D. B. Baranowski; P. J. Flatau; S. Chen; P. G. Black

Description: Institute of Geophysics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland. The atmospheric wind stress forcing and the oceanic response are examined for the period between 15 September 2008 and 6 October 2008, during which two typhoons, Hagupit and Jangmi passed through the same region of the Western Pacific at Saffir–Simpson intensity categories one and three, respectively. A three-dimensional oceanic mixed layer model is compared agains...

Black, P. G., D'Asaro, E. A., Drennan, W. M., French, J. R., Niiler, P. P., Sanford, T. B., Terrill, E. J., Walsh, E. J., and Zhang, J. A.: Air–sea exchange in hurricanes – synthesis of observations from the coupled boundary layer air–sea transfer experiment, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 88, 357–374, doi:10.1175/Bams-88-3-357, 2007.; Cione, J. J. and Uhlhorn, E. W.: Sea surface temperature variability in hurricanes: implicati...

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Operational Oceanography in Support to Indicator Reporting : Volum...

By: G. Coppini; F. Soulat; G. Larnicol; J. A. Johannessen

Description: Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen, Norway. Operational Oceanography (OO) has now emerged to a stage that allows the design, development and execution of marine core services tailored to user requirements. As such it is also feasible to provide routine production of environmental and climate indicators. Indicators are synthetic indices of environmental changes at various temporal and spatial scales. In this paper we outline the possi...

Ablain, M., Cazenave, A., Valladeau, G., and Guinehut, S.: A new assessment of the error budget of global mean sea level rate estimated by satellite altimetry over 1993–2008, Ocean Sci., 5, 193–201, 2009.; Bahurel, P., Adragna, F., Bell, M., Jacq, F., Johannessen, J. A., Le Traon, P.-Y., Pinardi, N., and She, J.: MyOCEAN-A European example of a Post-GODAE initiative, online available at: ht...

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On the Numerical Resolution of the Bottom Layer in Simulations of ...

By: J. Verron; B. Barnier; N. Laanaia; A. Wirth; J. M. Molines

Description: LEGI/MEOM/CNRS-INSU, UMR 5519, Grenoble, France. The role of an increased numerical vertical resolution, leading to an explicit resolution of the bottom Ekman layer dynamics, is investigated. Using the hydrostatic ocean model NEMO-OPA9, we demonstrate that the dynamics of an idealised gravity current (on an inclined plane), is well captured when a few (around five) sigma-coordinate levels are added near the ocean floor. Such resolution allows to consid...

Coleman, G. N., Ferziger, J. H., and Spalart, P. R.: A numerical study of the turbulent Ekman layer, J. Fluid. Mech., 213, 313–348, 1990.; Ezer, T. and Weatherly, G. L.: A numerical study of the interaction between a deep cold jet and the bottom boundary layer of the ocean?, J. Phys Oceanogr, 20, 801–816, 1990.; Griffiths, R. W.: Gravity currents in rotating systems, Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech, 18, 59–89, 1986.; Jungclaus, J. H.: A three-dimensional simulation of the formation...

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