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Understanding Mixing Efficiency in the Oceans: Do the Nonlineariti...

By: R. Tailleux

Description: Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, UK. There exist two central measures of turbulent mixing in turbulent stratified fluids that are both caused by molecular diffusion: 1) the dissipation rate D(APE) of available potential energy APE; 2) the turbulent rate of change Wr, turbulent of background gravitational potential energy GPEr. So far, these two quantities have often been regarded as the ...

Barry, M. E., Ivey, G. N., Winters, K. B., and Imberger, J.: Measurements of diapycnal diffusivities in stratified fluids, J. Fluid Mech., 442, 267–291, 2001.; % \textscBatchelor, G.K. 1967 % An introduction to Fluid Dynamics. Cambridge University Press. 615 pp. %; % \textscBejan, A. 1997 % Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., % 850 pp. %; % \textscBejan, A. 2000 % Shape and Structure, from Engineering to Nature. % Cambridge University Press, 324...

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Application of the Gaussian Anamorphosis to Assimilation in a 3-d ...

By: L. Bertino; E. Simon

Description: Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Norway. We consider the application of the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) to a coupled ocean ecosystem model (HYCOM-NORWECOM). Such models, especially the ecosystem models, are characterized by strongly non-linear interactions active in ocean blooms and present important difficulties for the use of data assimilation methods based on linear statistical analysis. Besides the non-linearity of the model, one is...

Aksnes, D., Ulvestad, K., Bali{ñ}o, B., Berntsen, J., and Svendsen, E.: Ecological modelling in coastal waters: towards predictive physical-chemical-biological simulation models, Ophelia, 41, 5–36, 1995.; Allen, J. I., Eknes, M., and Evensen, G.: An Ensemble Kalman Filter with a complex marine ecosystem model: hindcasting phytoplankton in the Cretan Sea, Ann. Geophys., 21, 399–411, 2003.; Allen, J. I., Smyth, T. J., Siddorn, J. R., and Holt, J. T.: How well can we foreca...

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Transit and Residence Times in the Adriatic Sea Surface as Derived...

By: S. Hariri; P.-m. Poulain

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS), Trieste, Italy. Statistics of transit and residence times in the Adriatic Sea surface, a semi-enclosed basin of the Mediterranean, are estimated from drifter data and Lagrangian numerical simulations. The results obtained from the drifters are generally underestimated given their short operating lifetimes (half life of ∼40 days) compared to the transit and residence times. This bias ca...

Buffoni, G., Falco, P., Griffa A., and Zambianchi, E.: Dispersion processes and residence times in a semi-enclosed basin with recirculating gyres: An application to the Tyrrhenian Sea, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 18699–18713, doi:10.1029/96JC03862, 1997.; Castellari, S., Griffa, A., Ozgokmen, T., and Poulain, P.-M.: Prediction of particle trajectories in the Adriatic Sea using Lagrangian data assimilation, J. Mar. Syst., 29, 33–...

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From Satellite Altimetry to Argo and Operational Oceanography: Thr...

By: P. Y. Le Traon

Description: Ifremer and Mercator Ocean, 8–10 rue Hermès – Parc Technologique du Canal, 31520 Ramonville St Agne, France. The launch of the US/French mission Topex/Poseidon (T/P) (CNES/NASA) in August 1992 was the start of a revolution in oceanography. For the first time, a very precise altimeter system optimized for large scale sea level and ocean circulation observations was flying. T/P alone could not observe the mesoscale circulation. In the 1990s, the ESA ...

Ablain, M., Cazenave, A., Valladeau, G., and Guinehut, S.: A new assessment of the error budget of global mean sea level rate estimated by satellite altimetry over 1993–2008, Ocean Sci., 5, 193–201, doi:10.5194/os-5-193-2009, 2009.; Arbic, B. K., Richman, J. G., Shriver, J. F., Timko, P. G., Metzger, E. J., and Wallcraft, A. J.: Global modeling of internal tides within an eddying ocean general circulation model, Oceanog...

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Relating Agulhas Leakage to the Agulhas Current Retroflection Loca...

By: P. J. Van Leeuwen; C. N. Barron; A. Biastoch; W. P. M. De Ruijter; E. Van Sebille; F. C. Vossepoel

Description: Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht, Utrecht University, The Netherlands. The relation between the Agulhas Current retroflection location and the magnitude of Agulhas leakage, the transport of water from the Indian to the Atlantic Ocean, is investigated in a high-resolution numerical ocean model. Sudden eastward retreats of the Agulhas Current retroflection loop are linearly related to the shedding of Agulhas rings, where larger retreat...

Biastoch, A., Böning, C. W., and Lutjeharms, J. R. E.: Agulhas leakage dynamics affects decadal variability in A}tlantic overturning circulation, Nature, 456, 489–492, 2008{a.; Biastoch, A., Lutjeharms, J. R. E., Böning, C. W., and Scheinert, M.: Mesoscale perturbations control inter-ocean exchange south of A}frica, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L20602, doi:10.1029/2008GL035132, 2008{b.; Blanke, B. and Raynaud, S.: Kinematics of the P}acific {E}quatorial {U}ndercurrent: An {E...

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Temperature–salinity Distribution in the Northeastern Atlantic fro...

By: Â. Nascimento; F. Neves; J. Medeiros; J. Dias; I. Ambar; X. Carton; I. Bashmachnikov

Description: MARE – Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre/Centro de Oceanografia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016, Lisbon, Portugal. The present study defines new interpolation functions for hydrological data. These functions are applied to generate climatological maps of temperature–salinity distribution with a 25 m depth interval and a 30 km space interval (MEDTRANS data set). The data undergo rigorous initial data quality c...

Alves, M. L. G. R. and de Verdière, A. C.: Instability dynamics of a subtropical jet and applications to the Azores current system: eddy-driven mean flow, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29, 837–864, 1999.; Alves, M. L. G. R., Gaillard, F., Sparrow, M., Knoll, M., and Giraud, S.: Circulation patterns and transport of the Azores front-current system, Deep-Sea Res. II, 49, 3983–4002, 2002.; Ambar, I.: A shallow core of Mediterranean water off western Portugal, Deep-Sea Res. A, 30, 677...

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Central Mediterranean Sea Forecast: Effects of High-resolution Atm...

By: A. Ribotti; R. Sorgente; S. Gaberšek; A. Olita; S. Natale

Description: iMC – International Marine Centre, Loc. Sa Mardini, 09170 Oristano, Italy. Ocean forecasts over the Central Mediterranean, produced by a near real time regional scale system, have been evaluated in order to assess their predictability. The ocean circulation model has been forced at the surface by a medium, high or very high resolution atmospheric forcing. The simulated ocean parameters have been compared with satellite data and they were found to be gen...

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Medargo: a Drifting Profiler Program in the Mediterranean Sea : Vo...

By: C. Millot; S. Le Bras; A. Cruzado; I. Gertman; L. Petit De La Villeon; V. Rupolo; R. Barbanti; P.-m. Poulain; J. Font; A. Griffa; A. Molcard

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS), Trieste, Italy. In the framework of the EU-funded MFSTEP project, autonomous drifting profilers were deployed throughout the Mediterranean Sea to collect temperature and salinity profile data and to measure subsurface currents. The realization of this profiler program in the Mediterranean, referred to as MedArgo, is described and assessed using data collected between June 2004 and Dec...

Poulain, P.-M. and Zambianchi, E.: Near-surface circulation in the central Mediterranean Sea as deduced from Lagrangian drifters in the 1990's, Cont. Shelf Res., 27(7), 981–1001, 2007.; Rupolo, W.: Task 4120: Intermediate currents. MFSTEP deliverable WP4D2 (http://poseidon.ogs.trieste.it/WP4/pdf/TASK4120.pdf), 2003a.; Rupolo, W.: Task 4130: Temperature and salinity. MFSTEP deliverable WP4D6 (http://poseidon.ogs.trieste.it/WP4/pdf/TASK4130.pdf), 2003b.; Salas, J., Garcia-...

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A Study of the Hydrographic Conditions in the Adriatic Sea from Nu...

By: P. Oddo; A. Guarnieri

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Viale Aldo Moro 44, Bologna, Italy. The inter-annual variability of Adriatic Sea hydrographic characteristics is investigated by means of numerical simulation and direct observation. The period investigated runs from the beginning of 2000 to the end of 2008. The model used to carry out the simulation is derived from the primitive equation component of the Adriatic Forecasting System (AFS). The model is bas...

Mellor, G. L. and Blumberg, A. F.: Modeling vertical and horizontal diffusivities with the sigma coordinate ocean models, Mon. Weather Rev., 113, 1379–1383, 1985.; Artegiani, A. and Salusti, E.: Field observation of the flow of dense water on the bottom of the Adriatic Sea during the winter of 1981, Oceanol. Acta., 10, 387–391, 1987.; Artegiani, A., Azzolini, R., and Salusti, E.: On the dense water in the Adriatic Sea. Oceanol. Acta., 12, 151–160, 1989.; Artegiani, A., B...

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Variability in the Subtropical-tropical Cells and Its Effect on Ne...

By: C. W. Böning; A. Biastoch; J. F. Lübbecke

Description: Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences at the University of Kiel, (IfM-GEOMAR), Kiel, Germany. A set of experiments utilizing different implementations of the global ORCA-LIM model with horizontal resolutions of 2°, 0.5° and 0.25° is used to investigate tropical and extra-tropical influences on equatorial Pacific SST variability at interannual to decadal time scales. The model experiments use a bulk forcing methodology building on the global forcing data ...

Adcroft, A., Hill, C., and Marshall, J.: Representation of topography by shaved cells in a height coordinate ocean model, Mon. Weather Rev., 125, 2293–2315, 1997.; Alory, G., Cravatte, S., Izumo, T., and Rodgers, K B.: Validation of a decadal OGCM simulation for the tropical pacific, Ocean Model., 10, 272–282, 2005.; Barnier, B., Siefridt, L., and Marchesiello, P.: Thermal forcing for a global ocean circulation model using a three-year climatology of ECMWF analyses, J Ma...

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Seasonal Variability of Phytoplankton Fluorescence in Relation to ...

By: E. Crisafi; F. Raffa; F. Decembrini; F. Azzaro

Description: Institute for Coastal Marine Environment, CNR, Sp. S. Raineri, 86 – 98122 Messina, Italy. In the Straits of Messina, large gradients of tidal displacements, as well as the topographic constrictions, determine the upwelling of deeper waters in the surface layer. This work describes the seasonal variability in the surface distribution of phytoplankton biomass depending on the upwelling phenomena. Temperature, salinity, nitrates and phytoplankton fluorescen...

Alpers, W., Brandt, P., Rubino, A., and Backhaus, J. O.: Recent contributions of remote sensing to the study of internal waves in the Straits of Gibraltar and Messina. In: Briand, F. (Eds.), Dynamics of Mediterranean straits and channels. CIESM Science Series 2, Bull. Inst. oceanogr., Monaco, 17, 21–40, 1996.; Alpers, N. and Salusti, E.: Scylla and Charybdis observed from space, J. Geophys. Res., 88(3), 1800–1808, 1983.; Androsov, A. A., Voltzinger, N. E., Kagan, B. A., ...

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Exchange Across the Shelf Break at High Southern Latitudes : Volum...

By: M. S. Dinniman; J. M. Klinck

Description: Center for Coastal Physical Oceanography, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, USA. Exchange of water across the Antarctic shelf break has considerable scientific and societal importance due to its effects on circulation and biology of the region, conversion of water masses as part of the global overturning circulation and basal melt of glacial ice and the consequent effect on sea level rise. The focus in this paper is the onshore transport of wa...

Meredith, M. P., Woodworth, P. L., Hughes, C. W., and Stepanov, V.: Changes in the ocean transport through Drake Passage during the 1980s and 1990s, forced by changes in the Southern Annular Mode, Geophys. Res. Lett, 31, L21305, doi:10.1029/2004GL021169, 2004.; Meredith, M. P. and Hughes, C. W.: On the sampling timescale required to reliably monitor interannual variability in the Antarctic circumpolar transport, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L03609, doi:10.1029/2004GL022086, ...

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Preface Operational Oceanography in the Mediterranean Sea: the Sec...

By: G. Coppini; N. Pinardi

Description: Corso di Scienze Ambientali, University of Bologna, Ravenna, Italy. No abstract available.

Ahumada, M. A. and Cruzado, A.: Modeling of the circulation in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea with the Princeton Ocean Model, Ocean Sci., 3, 77–89, 2007.; Bentamy, A., Ayina, H.-L., Queffeulou, P., Croize-Fillon, D., and Kerbaol, V.: Improved near real time surface wind resolution over the Mediterranean Sea, Ocean Sci., 3, 259–271, 2007.; Brožková, R., Derková, M., Belluš, M., and Farda, A.: Atmospheric forcing by ALADIN/MFSTEP and MFSTEP oriented tunings, Ocean Sci....

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Tracers Confirm Downward Mixing of Tyrrhenian Sea Upper Waters Ass...

By: J. E. Lupton; W. Roether

Description: Institut für Umweltphysik, Universität Bremen, Bremen, Germany. Observations of tritium and 3He in the Tyrrhenian Sea, 1987–2009, confirm the enhanced convective mixing of intermediate waters into the deep waters that has been noted and associated with the Eastern Mediterranean Transient in previous studies. Our evidence for the mixing rests on increasing tracer concentrations in the Tyrrhenian deep waters, accompanied by decreases in the upp...

Béthoux, J.-P., Gentili, B., and Tailliez, D.: Warming and freshwater budget change in the Mediterranean since the 1940s, their possible relation to the greenhouse effect, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25(7), 1023–1026, 1998.; Cortecci, G., Molcard, R., and Noto, P.: Isotopic analysis of the deep structure in the Tyrrhenian Sea, Nature, 250, 134–136, 1974.; Andrie, C. and Merlivat, L.: Tritium in the western Mediterranean during the 1981 Phycemed cruise, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 35(2...

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Numerical Implementation and Oceanographic Application of the Ther...

By: D. R. Jackett; A. Feistel; U. Overhoff; G. M. Marion; W. Wagner; R. Feistel; J. H. Reissmann; K. Miyagawa; C. Guder; D. G. Wright

Description: Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS, B2Y 4A2, Canada. The SCOR/IAPSO1 Working Group 127 on Thermodynamics and Equation of State of Seawater has prepared recommendations for new methods and algorithms for numerical estimation of the the thermophysical properties of seawater. As an outcome of this work, a new International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater (TEOS–10) was endorsed by IOC/UNESCO2 in June 2009 as the offici...

Dauphinee, T. M.: Introduction to the special issue on the Practical salinity Scale 1978, IEEE J. Oceanic Eng., OE-5, 1–2, 1980.; Feistel, R.: A new extended Gibbs thermodynamic potential of seawater, Progr. Oceanogr., 58, 43–115, 2003.; Feistel, R.: Numerical implementation and oceanographic application of the Gibbs thermodynamic potential of seawater, Ocean Sci., 1, 9–16, doi:10.5194/os-1-9-2005, 2005.; Feistel, R.: A Gibbs Function for Seawater Thermodynamics for −6 t...

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Transient Residence and Exposure Times : Volume 2, Issue 1 (09/01/...

By: E. J. M. Delhez

Description: University of Liège, Mathematical Methods and Modelling, Belgium. The residence time measures the time spent by a water parcel or a pollutant in a given water body and is therefore widely used in environmental studies. The adjoint method introduced by Delhez et al. (2004) to compute this diagnostic is revised here to take into account the effect of the initialization and of the boundary conditions.

In addition to the equation for the mean...

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Topaz4: an Ocean-sea Ice Data Assimilation System for the North At...

By: L. Bertino; K. A. Lisæter; A. Korablev; P. R. Oke; P. Sakov; F. Counillon

Description: Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen, Norway. We present a detailed description of TOPAZ4, the latest version of TOPAZ – a coupled ocean-sea ice data assimilation system for the North Atlantic Ocean and Arctic. It is the only operational, large-scale ocean data assimilation system that uses the ensemble Kalman filter. This means that TOPAZ features a time-evolving, state-dependent estimate of the state error covariance. Based on result...

Antonov, J., Locarnini, R., Boyer, T., Mishonov, A., and Garcia, H.: World Ocean Atlas 2005 Volume 2: Salinity, NOAA Atlas NESDIS, 62, 182 pp, 2006.; Bentsen, M., Evensen, G., Drange, H., and Jenkins, A. D.: Coordinate transformation on a sphere using conformal mapping, Mon. Weather Rev., 127, 2733–2740, 1999.; Bertino, L. and Lisæter, K. A.: The TOPAZ monitoring and prediction system for the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans, Journal of Operational Oceanography, 2008, 15–18, 2...

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Comparative Heat and Gas Exchange Measurements in the Heidelberg A...

By: K. E. Krall; B. Jähne; L. Nagel

Description: Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. A comparative study of simultaneous heat and gas exchange measurements was performed in the large annular Heidelberg Air–Sea Interaction Facility, the Aeolotron, under homogeneous water surface conditions. The use of two gas tracers, N2O and C2HF5, resulted not only in gas transfer velocities, but also in the...

Asher, W. E., Jessup, A. T., and Atmane, M. A.: Oceanic application of the active controlled flux technique for measuring air–sea transfer velocities of heat and gases, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C08S12, doi:10.1029/2003JC001862, 2004.; Atmane, M. A., Asher, W., and Jessup, A. T.: On the use of the active infrared technique to infer heat and gas transfer velocities at the air–water free surface, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C08S14...

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The Co2 System in the Mediterranean Sea: a Basin Wide Perspective ...

By: L. Mintrop; C. Cantoni; H. Sanleón-bartolomé; T. Tanhua; K. Schroeder; M. Álvarez; A. Luchetta; G. Civitarese

Description: IEO – Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Apd. 130, A Coruña, 15001, Spain. The Mediterranean Sea (MedSea) is considered a laboratory basin being an ocean in miniature, suffering dramatic changes in its oceanographic and biogeochemical conditions derived from natural and anthropogenic forces. Moreover, the MedSea is prone to absorb and store anthropogenic carbon due to the particular CO2 chemistry and the active overturning circulation. Despit...

Álvarez, M.: The CO2 system observations in the Mediterranean Sea: past, present and future, in: CIESM, Designing Med-SHIP: a Program for repeated oceanographic surveys, N° 43 in CIESM Workshop monographs, edited by: Briand, F., 164 pp., Monaco, 2012.; Astraldi, M., Gasparini, G. P., Sparnocchia, S., Moretti, S., and Sansone, E.: The characteristics of the Mediterranean water masses and the water transport in the Sicily Channel at longtime scales, in: Dynamics...

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Transformation of Levantine Intermediate Water Tracked by Medargo ...

By: A. Turiel; J. Font; C. Millot; P.-m. Poulain; J. Solé; A. Julià; M. Emelianov; M.-r. Vitrià

Description: Institut de Ciències del Mar – CSIC, Passeig Marítim de la Barceloneta, 37–49, 08003 Barcelona, Spain. A clustering methodology is applied to investigate the thermohaline structure of Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) in the western Mediterranean basin. Sixteen free-drifting hydrographic profilers were deployed in the framework of the MFSTEP project (MEDARGO component) from September 2003. A total of 925 CTD profiles collected up to the beginning of Feb...

Astraldi, M., Balopoulos, S., Candela, J., Font, J., Gacic, M., Gasparini, G. P., Manca, B., Theocaris, A., and Tintoré, J.: The role of straits and channels in understanding the characteristics of Mediterranean circulation, Progress in Oceanography, 44, 65–108, 1999.; Bubnov, V. A.: Vertical turbulent exchange and transformation of Mediterranean waters in the Atlantic Ocean, Oceanology, 7(4), 586–592, 1967.; Davis, R. E., Webb, D. C., Regier, L. A., and Dufour, J.: The ...

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