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A Comparison Between Vertical Motions Measured by Adcp and Inferre...

By: H. Van Haren

Description: Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, The Netherlands. Combined vertical current (w) and thermistor string data demonstrate that high-, near-buoyancy frequency internal wave trains along a pycnocline in a flat-bottom shelf sea consist for 2 periods of a dominant mode-1 non-linear part, while thereafter mainly of linear [mode-2, quadrupled frequency] waves, to first order. In a simple [linear] heat budget the ...

Amen, R. and Maxworthy, T.: The gravitational collapse of a mixed region into a linearly stratified fluid, J. Fluid Mech., 96, 65–80, 1980.; Davis, R. E. and Acrivos, A.: Solitary internal waves in deep water, J. Fluid Mech., 29, 593–607, 1967.; Hallock, Z. R. and Field, R. L.: Internal-wave energy fluxes on the New Jersey Shelf, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35, 3–12, 2005.; Helfrich, K. R.: Internal solitary wave breaking and run-up on a uniform slope, J. Fluid Mech., 243, 133–1...

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Roles of Initial Ocean Surface and Subsurface States on Successful...

By: J. Zhu; F. Zheng

Description: International Center for Climate and Environment Science (ICCES), Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China. The 2006–2007 El Niño event, an unusually weak event, was predicted by most models only after the warming in the eastern Pacific had commenced. In this study, on the basis of an El Niño prediction system, roles of the initial ocean surface and subsurface states on predicting the 2006–2007 El Niño event ...

Alves, O., Balmaseda, M., Anderson, D., and Stockdale, T.: Sensitivity of dynamical seasonal forecasts to ocean initial conditions, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 130, 647–668, 2004.; Ashok, K. and Yamagata, T.: Climate change: the El Niño with a difference, Nature, 461, 481–484, 2009.; Barnston, A. G., Tippett, M. K., L'Heureux, M. L., Li, S., and DeWitt, D. G.: Skill of real-time seasonal ENSO model predictions during 2002–2011: is our capability increasing?, B. Am. Meteorol...

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Effects of Bottom Topography on Dynamics of River Discharges in Ti...

By: P. O. Zavialov; R.-c. Kao; A. A. Osadchiev; C.-f. Ding; K. A. Korotenko

Description: P. P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia. The Princeton Ocean Model is used to investigate the intratidal variability of currents and turbulent mixing and their impact on the characteristics and evolution of the plumes of two neighboring rivers, the Zhuoshui River and the Wu River, at the central eastern coast of Taiwan Strait. The two estuaries are located close to each other and their conditions are simi...

Blumberg, A. F. and Mellor, G. L.: A description of a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of New York harbor region, J. Hydraul. Eng.-ASCE, 125, 799–816, 1987.; Avicola, G. and Huq, P.: Scaling analysis for the interaction between a buoyant coastal current and the continental shelf: experiments and observations, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 3233–3248, 2002.; Boicourt, W. C.: Circulation in the Chesapeake Bay entrance region: estuary-shelf interaction, in: Chesapeake Bay Plum...

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The Role of Continental Shelves in Nitrogen and Carbon Cycling: No...

By: K. Fennel

Description: Dalhousie University, Department of Oceanography, Halifax, Canada. Continental shelves play a key role in the cycling of nitrogen and carbon. Here the physical transport and biogeochemical transformation processes affecting the fluxes into and out of continental shelf systems are reviewed, and their role in the global cycling of both elements is discussed. Uncertainties in the magnitude of organic and inorganic matter exchange between s...

Bauer, J. E., Druffel, E. R. M., Wolgast, D. M., Griffin. S.: Sources and cycling of dissolved and particulate organic radiocarbon in the northwest Atlantic continental margin, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 15, 615–636, 2001.; Belkin, I. M.: Propagation of the Great Salinity Anomaly of the 1990s around the northern North Atlantic, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L08306, doi:10.1029/2003GL019334, 2004.; Bianchi, T. S., DiMarco, S., Co...

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Analysis of the Circulation and Shelf-slope Exchanges in the Conti...

By: A. Orfila; G. Basterretxea; J. Tintoré; A. Jordi

Description: IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Institut Mediterrani d'Estudis Avançats, Esporles, Illes Balears, Spain. In this paper, we present the results from a high horizontal resolution numerical simulation of the northwestern Mediterranean using a z-level, non-hydrostatic, primitive equation ocean model (DieCAST). The high resolution allows an accurate representation of the submarine canyons that presides in the region. The model is one-way coupled to a large scale model of...

Álvarez, A., Tintoré, J., and Sabatés, A.: Flow modification of shelf-slope exchange induced by a submarine canyon off the northeast Spanish coast, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 12 043–12 055, 1996.; Ardhuin, F., Pinot, J. M., and Tintoré, J.: Numerical study of the circulation in a steep canyon off the Catalan coast, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 11 115–11 135, 1999.; Demirov, E. and Pinardi, N.: Simulation of the Mediterranean Sea circulation from 1979 to 1993: Part I. The interannu...

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An Empirical Stochastic Model of Sea-surface Temperature and Surfa...

By: I. Kamenkovich; D. Kondrashov; M. Ghil; S. Kravtsov

Description: University of Winsconsin-Milwaukee, USA. This study employs NASA's recent satellite measurements of sea-surface temperature (SST) and sea-level wind (SLW) with missing data filled-in by Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA), to construct empirical models that capture both intrinsic and SST-dependent aspects of SLW variability. The model construction methodology uses a number of algorithmic innovations that are essential in providing stable estimates of model...

Abdi, H.: Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression, in: Encyclopedia of Social Sciences Research Methods, edited by: Lewis-Beck, M., Bryman, A., Futing, T., Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2003.; Arya, S. P.: Introduction to Micrometeorology, Academic Press, New York, 307 pp., 1988.; Bretherton, C. S. and Battisti, D. S.: An interpretation of the results from atmospheric general circulation models forced by the time history of the observed sea surface temperature distribution, Ge...

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Variability of Synoptic-scale Quasi-stationary Thermohaline Strati...

By: U. Lips; T. Liblik

Description: Marine Systems Institute, Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia Road 15a, 12618 Tallinn, Estonia. We present and analyze high-resolution observational data of thermohaline structure and currents acquired in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea), using an autonomous buoy profiler and bottom-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler during July–August 2009. Vertical profiles of temperature and salinity were measured in the upper 50-m layer with a 3 h time...

Alenius, P., Myrberg, K., and Nekrasov, A.: The physical oceanography of the Gulf of Finland: a review, Boreal. Env. Res., 3, 97–125, 1998.; Alenius, P., Nekrasov, A., and Myrberg, K.: Variability of the baroclinic Rossby radius in the Gulf of Finland, Cont. Shelf Res., 23, 563–573, 2003.; Chubarenko, I. and Demchenko, N.: On contribution of horizontal and intra-layer convection to the formation of the Baltic Sea cold intermediate layer, Ocean Sci., 6, 285–299,

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Super-ensemble Techniques Applied to Wave Forecast: Performance an...

By: C. Troupin; M. Rixen; L. Vandenbulcke; J.-m. Beckers; F. Lenartz; J. Chiggiato; B. Mourre

Description: NATO Undersea Research Centre (NURC), Viale San Bartolomeo 400, 19126 La Spezia, Italy. Nowadays, several operational ocean wave forecasts are available for a same region. These predictions may considerably differ, and to choose the best one is generally a difficult task. The super-ensemble approach, which consists in merging different forecasts and past observations into a single multi-model prediction system, is evaluated in this study. During the DART...

Cavaleri, L. and Bertotti, L.: In search of the correct wind and wave fields in a minor basin, Mon. Weather Rev., 125, 1964–1975, 1997.; Ardhuin, F., Jenkins, A. D., Hauser, D., Reniers, A., and Chapron, B.: Waves and operational oceanography: toward a coherent description of the upper ocean, Eos Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 86, 37–44, 2005.; Booij, N., Ris, R. C., and Holthuijsen, L. H.: A third-generation wave model for coastal regions{,} P}art1{., {M}odel...

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A High Resolution Free Surface Model of the Mediterranean Sea : Vo...

By: N. Pinardi; S. Dobricic; I. Pujol; M. Tonani; C. Fratianni

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna, Italy. This study describes a new model implementation for the Mediterranean Sea which has the presently highest vertical resolution over the Mediterranean basin. The resolution is of 1/16°×1/16° in horizontal and 71 unevenly spaced vertical levels. This model has been developed in the frame of the EU-MFSTEP project and it is the operational forecast model presently used at the basin scale.
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Castellari, S., Pinardi, N., and Leaman, K.: A model study of air-sea interactions in the Mediterranean Sea, J. Mar. Syst., 18, 89–114, 2000.; Beranger, K., Mortier, L., Gasparini, G. P., Gervasio, L., Astraldi, M., and Crepon, M.: The dynamics of the Sicily Strait: a comprehensive study from observations and model, Deep Sea Research II, 51, 411–440, 2004.; Beranger, K., Mortier, L., and Crepon, M.: Seasonal variability of water transport through the Straits of Gibraltar...

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Microstructure Measurements and Estimates of Entrainment in the De...

By: D. Quadfasel; V. Zhurbas; V. Paka; A. Korzh; D. Delisi; B. Rudels

Description: Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Atlantic Branch, Prospect Mira 1, 236000 Kaliningrad, Russia. To examine processes controlling the entrainment of ambient water into the Denmark Strait overflow (DSO) plume/gravity current, measurements of turbulent dissipation rate were carried out by a quasi-free-falling (tethered) microstructure profiler (MSP). The MSP was specifically designed to collect data on dissipation-scale turbulence and fine thermohaline str...

Arneborg, L., Fiekas, V., Umlauf, L., and Burchard, H.: Gravity Current Dynamics and Entrainment - A Process Study Based on Observations in the Arkona Basin, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37, 2094–2113, 2007.; Baringer, M. O. and Price, J. F.: Mixing and spreading of the Mediterranean Outflow. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 1654–1677, 1997.; Bruce, J. G.: Eddies southwest of the Denmark Strait, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 42, 13–29, 1995.; Cenedese, C. and Adduce, C.: Mixing in a density-driven...

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A Clustering Analysis of Eddies' Spatial Distribution in the South...

By: Z. He; Y. Du; C. Zhou; X. Wang; J. Yi

Description: State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Science and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. Spatial variation is important for studying the mesoscale eddies in the South China Sea (SCS). To investigate such spatial variations, this study made a clustering analysis on eddies' distribution using the K-means approach. Results showed that clustering tendency of ant...

Banerjee, A. and Dave, R. N.: Validating clusters using the hopkins statistic, IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE 2004), Budapest (Hungary), 149–153, 2004.; Brown, M. B. and Forsythe, A. B.: Robust Tests for the Equality of Variances, J. Am. Stat. Assoc., 69, 364–367, doi:10.1080/01621459.1974.10482955, 1974.; Cai, S., Su, J., Gan, Z., and Liu, Q.: The numerical study of the South China S...

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Molecular Biology Techniques and Applications for Ocean Sensing : ...

By: I. Hewson; P. H. Moisander; J. P. Zehr

Description: Department of Ocean Sciences, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street E&MS D446, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA. The study of marine microorganisms using molecular biological techniques is now widespread in the ocean sciences. These techniques target nucleic acids which record the evolutionary history of microbes, and encode for processes which are active in the ocean today. Here we review some of the most commonly used molecular biological tech...

% vor jede Referenz Ronaghi, M., Karamohamed, S., Pettersson, B., Uhlen, M., and Nyren, P.: Real-time DNA sequencing using detection of pyrophosphate release, Anal. Biochem., 242, 84–89, 1996.; % vor jede Referenz Rusch, D. B., Halpern, A. L., Sutton, G., Heidelberg, K. B., Williamson, S., et al.: The Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling Expedition: Northwest Atlantic through Eastern Tropical Pacific, PLoS. Biol., 5, 398–431, 2007.; % vor jede Referenz Schmidt, T. M., DeLon...

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On the Influence of Wind and Waves on the Underwater Light Field :...

By: A. MacKe; M. Hieronymi

Description: Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (IFT), Leipzig, Germany. We present a detailed study of the influence of various wind and wave conditions on the distribution of downwelling irradiance within the upper ocean mixed layer down to 100 m water depth. The work is based on a two-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer model with high spatial resolution. We treat conditions that are favorable for the development of extreme ligh...

Darecki, M., Stramski, D., and Sokolski, M.: Measurements of high-frequency light fluctuations induced by ocean surface waves with an underwater porcupine radiometer system, J. Geophys. Res., 116, C00H09, doi:10.1029/2011JC007338, 2011.; Deckert, R. and Michael, K. J.: Lensing effect on underwater levels of UV radiation, J. Geophys. Res., 111, C05014, doi:10.1029/2005JC00333...

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Comparison of Seawifs and Modis Time Series of Inherent Optical Pr...

By: F. Mélin

Description: European Commission – Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, TP272, via Fermi, 2749, 21027, ISPRA, Italy. Time series of inherent optical properties (IOPs) derived from SeaWiFS and MODIS are compared for the Adriatic Sea. The IOPs are outputs of the Quasi-Analytical Algorithm and include total absorption a, phytoplankton absorption aph, absorption associated with colored detrital material (CD...

Ahmad, Z., Franz, B. A., McClain, C. R., Kwiatkowska, E. J., Werdell, J., Shettle, E. P., and Holben, B. N.: New aerosol models for the retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and normalized water-leaving radiances from the SeaWiFS and MODIS sensors over coastal regions and open oceans, Appl. Optics, 49, 5545–5560, 2010.; Artegiani, A., Bregant, D., Paschini, E., Pinardi, N., Raicich, F., and Russo, A.: The Adriatic Sea general circulation. Part II: Baroclinic circulation...

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Laminae Type and Possible Mechanisms for the Formation of Laminate...

By: C. B. Lange; J. Pätzold; G. Kuhn; I. A. Seeberg-elverfeldt

Description: Research Center Ocean Margins, University of Bremen, P.O. Box 330440, 28334 Bremen, Germany. Laminated sediments in the Shaban Deep, a brine-filled basin in the northern Red Sea, were analyzed with backscattered electron imagery. Here we present possible mechanisms involved in the formation of laminae of various types and homogenous intervals arising from the detailed investigation of multicore GeoB 7805-1 (26 13.9' N and 35 22.6' E; water depth 1447 m) ...

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Detecting Marine Hazardous Substances and Organisms: Sensors for P...

By: K. L. Daly; O. Zielinski; J. A. Busch; H. Schmidt; J. Engelbrektsson; A. D. Cembella; A. K. Hannides

Description: Institute for Marine Resources, Bremerhaven, Germany. Marine environments are influenced by a wide diversity of anthropogenic and natural substances and organisms that may have adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. Real-time measurements of pollutants, toxins, and pathogens across a range of spatial scales are required to adequately monitor these hazards, manage the consequences, and to understand the processes governing their ...

Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for community action in the field of water policy, 2000.; Directive 2006/7/EC EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 February 2006 concerning the management of bathing water quality and repealing Directive 76/160/EEC, 2006.; Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June 2008, establishing a framework for community ...

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Upper Ocean Response to Two Collocated Typhoons : Volume 10, Issue...

By: D. B. Baranowski; P. J. Flatau; S. Chen; P. G. Black

Description: Institute of Geophysics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland. The atmospheric wind stress forcing and the oceanic response are examined for the period between 15 September 2008 and 6 October 2008, during which two typhoons, Hagupit and Jangmi passed through the same region of the Western Pacific at Saffir–Simpson intensity categories one and three, respectively. A three-dimensional oceanic mixed layer model is compared agains...

Black, P. G., D'Asaro, E. A., Drennan, W. M., French, J. R., Niiler, P. P., Sanford, T. B., Terrill, E. J., Walsh, E. J., and Zhang, J. A.: Air–sea exchange in hurricanes – synthesis of observations from the coupled boundary layer air–sea transfer experiment, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 88, 357–374, doi:10.1175/Bams-88-3-357, 2007.; Cione, J. J. and Uhlhorn, E. W.: Sea surface temperature variability in hurricanes: implicati...

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Results from the Implementation of the Elastic Viscous Plastic Sea...

By: A. Keen; A. McLaren; W. Connolley

Description: British Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0ET, UK. We present results of an implementation of the Elastic Viscous Plastic (EVP) sea ice dynamics scheme into the Hadley Centre coupled ocean-atmosphere climate model HadCM3. Although the large-scale simulation of sea ice in HadCM3 is quite good with this model, the lack of a full dynamical model leads to errors in the detailed representation of sea ice and limits our confidence i...

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Computation of a New Mean Dynamic Topography for the Mediterranean...

By: M. Menna; J. Tintoré; M.-h. Rio; B. Barceló; P.-m. Poulain; A. Pascual

Description: CLS Space Oceanography Division, Ramonville-Ste Agne, France. The accurate knowledge of the ocean Mean Dynamic Topography (MDT) is a crucial issue for a number of oceanographic applications and in some areas of the Mediterranean Sea, important limitations have been found pointing to the need of an upgrade. We present a new Mean Dynamic Topography (MDT) that was computed for the Mediterranean Sea. It takes profit of improvements made possible by the...

Adani, M., Srdjan, D., and Pinardi, N.: Quality assessment of a 1985–2007 Mediterranean Sea reanalysis, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 28, 569–589, 2011.; Alemany, F., Quintanilla, L., Velez-Belchí, P., García, A., Cortés, D., Rodríguez, J. M., Fernández de Puelles, M. L., González-Pola, C., and López-Jurado, J. L.: Characterization of the spawning habitat of Atlantic bluefin tuna and related species in the Balearic Sea (western Mediterranean), Prog. Oceanogr., 86, 21–38, 2010....

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Coupling of Eastern and Western Subpolar North Atlantic: Salt Tran...

By: T. F. Stocker; A. B. Sandø; A. Born

Description: Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. Salt transport in the Irminger Current and thus the coupling between eastern and western subpolar North Atlantic plays an important role for climate variability across a wide range of time scales. High-resolution ocean modeling and observations indicate that salinities in the eastern subpolar North Atlantic decrease with enhanced circulation of the North At...

Bentsen, M. and Drange, H.: Parameterizing surface fluxes in ocean models using the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, in: RegClim General Technical Report No. 4, 149–158, Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Kjeller, 2000.; Bentsen, M., Drange, H., Furevik, T., and Zhou, T.: Simulated variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, Clim. Dynam., 22, 701–720, doi:10.1007/s00382-004-0397-x, 2004.; Born, A. a...

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