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Effects of the 2003 European Heatwave on the Central Mediterranean...

By: S. Natale; A. Ribotti; A. Olita; S. Gaberšek; R. Sorgente

Description: IMC – International Marine Centre Loc. Sa Mardini, 09170 Oristano – Italy. The effects of anomalous weather conditions on the sea surface layer over the Central Mediterranean were studied with an eddy resolving regional ocean model by performing a 5-year long simulation from 2000 to 2004. The focus was on surface heat fluxes, temperature and dynamics. The analysis of the time series of the selected variables permitted us to identify and quantify the ano...

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Interannual Variations of Water Mass Properties and Volumes in the...

By: S. Liefrink; M. Tomczak

Description: School of Chemistry, Physics and Earth Sciences, the Flinders University of South Australia, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide SA 5001, Australia. Time-resolving optimum multi-parameter (TROMP) analysis is used to study interannual variability of water mass properties in the Southern Ocean in a section between Antarctica and Tasmania for the period 1991–1996. Water mass properties were stable during 1994–1996 but showed departures from their 1994-1996 values during...

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An Algorithm for Estimating Absolute Salinity in the Global Ocean ...

By: D. R. Jackett; F. J. Millero; T. J. McDougall

Description: Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research: A partnership between CSIRO and the Bureau of Meteorology, Hobart, TAS, Australia. To date, density and other thermodynamic properties of seawater have been calculated from Practical Salinity, S P. It is more accurate however to use Absolute Salinity, S A (the mass fraction of dissolved material in seawater). Absolute Salinity S A can be expressed in ...

Brewer, P. G. and Bradshaw, A.: The effect of non-ideal composition of seawater on salinity and density, J. Mar. Res., 33, 157–175, 1975.; Feistel, R.: A Gibbs function for seawater thermodynamics for −6 to 80 \textdegree C and salinity up to 120 g kg−1, Deep-Sea Res. I, 55, 1639–1671, 2008.; Feistel, R., Wright, D. G., Miyagawa, K., Harvey, A. H., Hruby, J., Jackett, D. R., McDougall, T. J., and Wagner, W.: Mutually consistent thermodynamic potentials for flu...

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Laminar and Weakly Turbulent Oceanic Gravity Currents Performing I...

By: A. Wirth

Description: LEGI/MEIGE/CNRS, UMR5519, France. The small scale dynamics of a weakly turbulent oceanic gravity current is determined. The gravity current considered is initially at rest and adjusts by performing inertial oscillations to a geostrophic mean flow. The dynamics is explored with a hierarchy of mathematical models. The most involved are the fully 3-D Navier-Stokes equations subject to the Boussinesq approximation. A 1-D and 0-D mathematical model of the sa...

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Impact of Currents on Surface Flux Computations and Their Feedback...

By: A. Ribotti; I. Iermano; F. Pessini; L. Fazioli; A. Olita; R. Sorgente; C. Tedesco

Description: Institute for Coastal Marine Environment of the National Research Council, Oristano Section, Torregrande, Italy. A twin numerical experiment was conducted in the seas around the island of Sardinia (Western Mediterranean) to assess the impact, at regional and coastal scales, of the use of relative winds (i.e., taking into account ocean surface currents) in the computation of heat and momentum fluxes through standard (Fairall et al., 2003) bulk formulas. T...

Shchepetkin, A. F. and McWilliams, J. C.: A method for computing horizontal pressure-gradient force in an oceanic model with a nonaligned vertical coordinate, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 108, 3090, doi:10.1029/2001JC001047, 2003.; Shchepetkin, A. F. and McWilliams, J. C.: The regional oceanic modeling system (ROMS): a split-explicit, free-surface, topography-following-coordinate oceanic model, Ocean Model., 9, 347–404, doi:...

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Structure and Forcing of the Overflow at the Storfjorden Sill and ...

By: I. Fer; L. H. Smedsrud; F. Geyer

Description: Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Thormølensgate 47, 5006 Bergen, Norway. Storfjorden (Svalbard) is a sill-fjord with an active polynya and exemplifies the dense water formation process over the Arctic shelves. Here we report on our simulations of Storfjorden covering the freezing season of 1999–2000 using an eddy-permitting 3-D ocean circulation model with a fully coupled dynamic and thermodynamic sea-ice model. The model results in the po...

Aagaard, K., Coachman, L. K., and Carmack, E.: On the halocline of the Arctic Ocean, Deep-Sea Res., 28A, 529–545, 1981.; Aagaard, K., Swift, J. H., and Carmack, E.: Thermohaline circulation in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, J. Geophys. Res., 90, 4833–4846, 1985.; Anderson, L. G., Falck, E., Jones, E. P., Jutterstr{ö}m, S., and Swift, J. H.: Enhanced uptake of atmospheric CO2 during freezing of seawater: A field study in Storfjorden, Svalbard, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C0600...

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Impact of Data Assimilation of Physical Variables on the Spring Bl...

By: C. Hansen; L. Bertino; A. Samuelsen

Description: Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen, Norway. A reanalysis of the North Atlantic spring bloom in 2007 was produced using the real-time analysis from the TOPAZ North Atlantic and Arctic forecasting system. The TOPAZ system uses a hybrid coordinate general circulation ocean model and assimilates physical observations: sea surface anomalies, sea surface temperatures, and sea-ice concentrations using the Ensemble Kalman Filter. This ocean ...

Berline, L., Brankart, J.-M., Brasseur, P., Ourmieres, Y., and Verron, J.: Improving the physics of a coupled physical-biogeochemical model of the North Atlantic through data assimilation: Impact on the ecosystem, J. Mar. Syst., 64, 153–172, 2007.; Bleck, R.: An oceanic general circulation model framed in hybrid isopycnic-Cartesian coordinates, Ocean Modell., 4, 55–88, 2002.; % vor jede Referenz Aksnes, D. L. and Egge, J. K.: A theoretical model for nutrient uptake in ph...

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Interannual-to-decadal Variability of North Atlantic Air-sea Co2 F...

By: P. Yiou; K. B. Rodgers; O. Aumont; S. Raynaud; J. C. Orr

Description: Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement, CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette, France. The magnitude of the interannual variability of North Atlantic air-sea CO2 fluxes remains uncertain. Fluxes inferred from atmospheric inversions have large variability, whereas those simulated by ocean models have small variability. Part of the difference is that unlike typical atmospheric inversions, ocean models come with spatial resolution at the sub-bas...

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Comparison of the Fall Rate and Structure of Recent T-7 Xbt Manufa...

By: S. Kizu; C. Sukigara; K. Hanawa

Description: Physical Oceanography Laboratory, Department of Geophysics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aza Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578, Japan. The fall rate of recent T-7 expendable bathythermograph (XBT; 760 m) is evaluated based on a series of concurrent measurement with a calibrated Conductivity Temperature Depth profiler (CTD) in the sea east of Japan. An emphasis is placed on comparing the fall rates of T-7 produced b...

Anderson, E. R.: Expendable bathythermograph (XBT) accuracy studies – final report for period May 1971–December 1979, NOSC-TR-550, Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, CA, USA, 212 pp., 1980.; Biggs, D. C.: Nutrients, plankton, and productivity in a warm-core ring in the western Gulf of Mexico, J. Geophys. Res., 97(C2), 2143–2154, 1992.; Baker, D. J.: Ocean instruments and experiment design, in: Evolution of Physical Oceanography, edited by: Warren, B. A. and Wunsch, C...

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Changes in Extreme Regional Sea Surface Height Due to an Abrupt We...

By: J. Maassen; E. Bal; M. Van Meersbergen; H. A. Dijkstra; M. A. Kliphuis; F. Seinstra; S.-e. Brunnabend; B. Van Werkhoven

Description: Institute of Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht, the Netherlands. As an extreme scenario of dynamical sea level changes, regional sea surface height (SSH) changes that occur in the North Atlantic due to an abrupt weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) are simulated. Two versions of the same ocean-only model are used to study the effect of ocean model resolution...

Antonov, J. I., Levitus, S., and Boyer, T. P.: Thermosteric sea level rise, 1955–2003, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, l12602, doi:10.1029/2005GL023112, 2005.; Berge-Nguyen, M., Cazenave, A., Lombard, A., Liovel, W., Viarra, J., and Cretaux, J. F.: Reconstruction of past decades sea level using thermosteric sea level, tide gauge, satellite altimetry and ocean reanalysis data, Global Planet. Change, 62, 1–13,

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Deep Western Boundary Current Transport Variability in the South A...

By: S. L. Garzoli; R. C. Perez; A. R. Piola; C. S. Meinen

Description: Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Miami, Florida, USA. The first direct estimates of the temporal variability of the absolute transport of the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) at 34.5° S in the South Atlantic Ocean are obtained using just under one year of data from a line of four pressure-equipped inverted echo sounders. Hydrographic sections collected in 2009 and 2010 confirm the presence of the DWBC, one of the main deep pa...

van Aken, H. M., Ridderinkhof, H., and de Ruister, W. P. M.: North Atlantic deep water in the South-Western Indian Ocean, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 51, 755–776, 2004.; Baringer, M. O. and Garzoli, S. L.: Meridional heat transport determined with expendable bathythermographs, Part I: Error estimates from model and hydrographic data, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 54(8), 1390–1401, 2007.; Dengler, M., Schott, F. A., Eden, C., Brandt, P., Fischer, J., and Zantopp, R.: Break-up of the Atla...

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Consequences of Artificial Deepwater Ventilation in the Bornholm B...

By: R. Rosenberg; L. Råman Vinnå; M. Ödalen; A. Stigebrandt

Description: Dept. of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. We develop and use a circulation model to estimate hydrographical and ecological changes in the isolated basin water of the Bornholm Basin. By pumping well-oxygenated so-called winter water to the greatest depth, where it is forced to mix with the resident water, the rate of deepwater density reduction increases as well as the frequency of intrusions of new oxygen-rich deepwater. We ...

Arneborg, L., Fiekas, V., Umlauf, L., and Burchard, H.: Gravity current dynamics and entrainment – a process study based on observations in the Arkona Basin, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37, 2094–2113, 2007.; Bonsdorff, E. and Pearson, Y. H.: Variation in the sublittoral macrozoobenthos of the Baltic Sea along environmental gradients: A functional-group approach, Aust. J. Ecol., 24, 312–326, 1999.; Bonsdorff, E., Blomqvist, E. M., Mattila, J., and Norkko, A.: Coastal eutrophicati...

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High Resolution Satellite Turbidity and Sea Surface Temperature Ob...

By: C. Giardino; F. Braga; F. M. Falcieri; V. E. Brando; M. Bresciani; D. Bellafiore; S. Carniel; A. Benetazzo; C. Ferrarin; L. Zaggia; A. Russo; D. Bonaldo; F. Maicu; A. Coluccelli

Description: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche – Istituto per il Rilevamento Elettromagnetico Ambientale (CNR-IREA), Via Bassini 13, 20133 Milano, Italy. Sea surface temperature (SST) and turbidity (T) derived from Landsat-8 (L8) imagery were used to characterize river plumes in the Northern Adriatic Sea (NAS) during a significant flood event in November 2014. Sea surface salinity (SSS) from an operational coupled ocean-wave model supported the interpretation o...

Barsi, J. A., Schott, J. R., Palluconi, F. D., and Hook, S. J.: Validation of a Web-Based Atmospheric Correction Tool for Single Thermal Band Instruments, Earth Observing Systems X, San Diego, CA, USA, August 2005.; Barsi, J. A., Schott, J. R., Hook, S. J., Raqueno, N. G., Markham, B. L., and Radocinski, R. G.: Landsat-8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) vicarious radiometric calibration, Remote Sens., 6, 11607–11626, doi:10.3390...

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Validation of the Nemo-ersem Operational Ecosystem Model for the N...

By: R. Barciela; M. Butenschön; K. P. Edwards

Description: Met Office, Exeter, UK. This paper details updates to the Met Office's operational coupled hydrodynamic-ecosystem model from the 7 km Medium-Resolution Continental Shelf – POLCOMS-ERSEM (MRCS-PE) system (Siddorn et al., 2007) to the 7 km Atlantic Margin Model NEMO-ERSEM (AMM7-NE) system. We also provide a validation of the ecosystem component of the new operational system. Comparisons have been made between the model variables and available in situ, sa...

Allen, J. I., Holt, J. T., Blackford, J., and Proctor, R.: Error quantification of a high-resolution coupled hydrodynamic-ecosystem coastal-ocean model: Part 2. Chlorophyll-a, nutrients and SPM, J. Mar. Syst., 68, 381–404, doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2007.01.005, 2007.; Barciela, R., Mahdon, R., Edwards, K., Miller, P., Shutler, J., Jonas, P., Murdoch, N., Whither, A., and Roast, S.: Operational monitoring and forecas...

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Atmospheric Forcing by Aladin/Mfstep and Mfstep Oriented Tunings :...

By: M. Belluš; M. Derková; A. Farda; R. Brožková

Description: Czech Hydrometeorological Institute, Prague, Czech Republic. ALADIN/MFSTEP is a configuration of the numerical weather prediction (NWP) model ALADIN run in a dedicated real-time mode for the purposes of the MFSTEP Project. A special attention was paid to the quality of atmospheric fluxes used for the forcing of fine-scale oceanographic models. This paper describes the novelties applied in ALADIN/MFSTEP initiated by the MFSTEP demands, leading also to im...

Green, J. S. A.: Division of radiative streams into internal transfer and cooling to space, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 93, 371–372, 1967.; Berre, L.: Estimation of synoptic and mesoscale forecast error covariances in a limited area model, Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 644–667, 2000.; Boer, G. J., Mc Farlane, N. A., Laprise, R., Henderson, J. D., and Blanchet, J.-P.: The Canadian Climate Centre spectral atmospheric general circulation model, Atmos.-Ocean, 22, 397–429, 1984.; Bougeau...

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A Nested Circulation Model for the North Aegean Sea : Volume 3, Is...

By: K. Tsiaras; V. Kourafalou

Description: Hellenic Center for Marine Research, Anavyssos, Greece. A multi-nested approach has been employed for numerical simulations in the northern part of the Aegean Sea in the framework of the MFSTEP (Mediterranean Forecast System: Toward Environmental Predictions) project. The high resolution (~1.6 km) hydrodynamic model of the North Aegean Sea (NAS) has been nested within a coarser model of the Eastern Mediterranean (resolution ~3.6 km) which is also nested...

Smagorinsky, J.: General circulation experiments with the primitive equations, I. The basic experiment, Mon. Wea. Rev., 91, 99–164, 1963.; Atlas, R.: Atmospheric observations and experiments to assess their usefulness in data assimilation, Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, 75(1B), 111–130, 1997.; Balopoulos, E. T., Collins, M. B., and James, A. E.: Residual circulation in a coastal embayment of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Thermaikos Bay, N.W. Aegean), Th...

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Operational Evaluation of the Mediterranean Monitoring and Forecas...

By: A. Grandi; D. Hayes; V. Lyubartsev; J. A. U. Nilsson; I. Gertman; P. Lorente; J. Gatti; L. Renault; J. Azzopardi; G. Korres; L. Perivoliotis; A. Teruzzi; A. Aydogdu; G. Bolzon; V. Malacic; G. Nardone; M. Tonani; A. Bruschi; S. Pensieri; A. Olita; M. Ravaioli; M. G. Sotillo; R. Goldman; T. Garau; I. Pairaud; A. Drago; G. Zodiatis; S. Sofianos; E. Ozsoy; B. Petelin; A. Mantziafou

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna, Italy. A web-based validation platform has been developed at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) for the Near Real Time validation of the MyOcean-Mediterranean Monitoring and Forecasting Centre products (Med-MFC).

A network for the collection of the in-situ observations, the nested sub-basin forecasting systems model data (provided by the partners of the Mediterrane...

Dobricic. S. and Pinardi, N.: An oceanographic three-dimensional variational data assimilation scheme, Ocean Modell., 22, 89–105, 2008.; Desaubies, Y.: Mersea, Development of a European Ocean Monitoring and Forecasting System – Ocean and Marine applications for Gmes, Ocean Weather Forecasting: An Integrated View of Oceanography, Chapter 19, 449-453, Springer, 2006.; Drevillon, M., Bourdalle-Badie, R., Derval, C., Drillet, Y., Lellouche, J. M., Remy, E., Tranchant, B., Be...

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Measuring Air–sea Gas-exchange Velocities in a Large-scale Annular...

By: M. Bopp; J. Williams; K. E. Krall; F. Helleis; B. Jähne; E. Mesarchaki; C. Kräuter

Description: Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie (Otto-Hahn-Institut) Hahn-Meitner-Weg 1, 55128 Mainz, Germany. In this study we present gas-exchange measurements conducted in a large-scale wind–wave tank. Fourteen chemical species spanning a wide range of solubility (dimensionless solubility, Α = 0.4 to 5470) and diffusivity (Schmidt number in water, Scw = 594 to 1194) were examined under various turbulent (u10 = 0.73 to 13.2 m s−...

Benkelberg, H. J., Hamm, S., and Warneck, P.: Henry's law coefficients for aqueous solutions of acetone, acetaldehyde and acetonitrile, and equilibrium constants for the addition compounds of acetone and acetaldehyde with bisulfite, J. Atmos. Chem., 20, 17–34, doi:10.1007/Bf01099916, 1995.; Betterton, E. A. and Hoffmann, R. M.: Henry's law constants of some environmentally important aldehydes., Environ. Sci. Technol., 22, ...

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Operational Sar-based Sea Ice Drift Monitoring Over the Baltic Sea...

By: J. Karvonen

Description: Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Helsinki, Finland. An algorithm for computing ice drift from pairs of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images covering a common area has been developed at FMI. The algorithm has been developed based on the C-band SAR data over the Baltic Sea. It is based on phase correlation in two scales (coarse and fine) with some additional constraints. The algorithm has been running operationally in the Baltic Sea from the beginn...

Thomas, M., Geiger, C. A., and Kambhamettu, C.: High resolution (400 m) motion characterization of sea ice using ERS-1 SAR imagery, Cold Regions Science and Technology, 52, 207–223, 2008.; Karvonen, J.: Tracking of the Motion of Recognizable Sea Ice Objects from Coastal Radar Image Sequences, Annals of Glaciology, in review, 2012.; Astola, J., Haavisto, P., and Neuvo, Y.: Vector Median Filters, Proc. of the IEEE, 78, 678–689, 1990.; Berg, A. and Eriksson, L. E. B.: Evalu...

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Sensors for Observing Ecosystem Status : Volume 5, Issue 4 (04/11/...

By: E. R. Parker; D. B. Sivyer; J. D. Metcalfe; R. M. Forster; S. Kröger; D. J. Pearce; N. Greenwood

Description: Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Pakefield Rd, Lowestoft, Suffolk NR33 0HT, UK. This paper aims to review the availability and application of sensors for observing marine ecosystem status. It gives a broad overview of important ecosystem variables to be investigated, such as biogeochemical cycles, primary and secondary production, species distribution, animal movements, habitats and pollutants. Some relevant legislative ...

Arnold, G. P. and Dewar, H.: Electronic tags in marine fisheries research: A 30 year perspective., in: Electronic tagging and tracking in marine fisheries, edited by: Nielsen, J. R. S. J. L., Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht, The Netherland, 7–64, 2001.; Aylott, J. W., Richardson, D. J., and Russell, D. A.: Optical biosensing of nitrate ions uisng a sol-gel immobilized nitrate reductase, Analyst, 122, 77–80, 1997.; Campas, M. and Katakis, I.: DNA biochip arraying, detect...

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