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On the Glacial and Inter-glacial Thermohaline Circulation and the ...

By: L. Brodeau; K. Döös; S. Falahat; M. Ballarotta

Description: Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. The change of the thermohaline circulation (THC) between the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ≈ 21 kyr ago) and the present day climate are explored using an Ocean General Circulation Model and stream functions projected in various coordinates. Compared to the present day period, the LGM circulation is reorganis...

Adkins, J. F. and Schrag, D. P.: Pore fluid constraints on deep ocean temperature and salinity during the Last Glacial Maximum, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 771–774, doi:10.1029/2000GL011597, 2001.; Adkins, J. F., Mcintyre, K., and Schrag, D. P.: The Salinity, Temperature, and δ18O of the Glacial Deep Ocean, Science, 298, 1769–1773, doi:10.1126/science.1076252,...

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High Resolution Satellite Turbidity and Sea Surface Temperature Ob...

By: C. Giardino; F. Braga; F. M. Falcieri; V. E. Brando; M. Bresciani; D. Bellafiore; S. Carniel; A. Benetazzo; C. Ferrarin; L. Zaggia; A. Russo; D. Bonaldo; F. Maicu; A. Coluccelli

Description: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche – Istituto per il Rilevamento Elettromagnetico Ambientale (CNR-IREA), Via Bassini 13, 20133 Milano, Italy. Sea surface temperature (SST) and turbidity (T) derived from Landsat-8 (L8) imagery were used to characterize river plumes in the Northern Adriatic Sea (NAS) during a significant flood event in November 2014. Sea surface salinity (SSS) from an operational coupled ocean-wave model supported the interpretation o...

Barsi, J. A., Schott, J. R., Palluconi, F. D., and Hook, S. J.: Validation of a Web-Based Atmospheric Correction Tool for Single Thermal Band Instruments, Earth Observing Systems X, San Diego, CA, USA, August 2005.; Barsi, J. A., Schott, J. R., Hook, S. J., Raqueno, N. G., Markham, B. L., and Radocinski, R. G.: Landsat-8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) vicarious radiometric calibration, Remote Sens., 6, 11607–11626, doi:10.3390...

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The Mediterranean Sea System: a Review and an Introduction to the ...

By: D. Hainbucher; G. Civitarese; K. Schröder; V. Cardin; T. Tanhua; M. Álvarez

Description: GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Department of Chemical Oceanography, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany. The Mediterranean is a semi-enclosed sea characterized by high salinities, temperatures and densities. The net evaporation exceeds the precipitation, driving an anti-estuarine circulation through the Strait of Gibraltar, contributing to very low nutrient concentrations. The Mediterranean Sea has an active overturning cir...

Astraldi, M., Balopoulos, S., Candela, J., Font, J., Gacic, M., Gasparini, G. P., Manca, B., Theocharis, A., and Tintore, J.: The role of straits and channels in understanding the characteristics of Mediterranean circulation, Prog. Oceanogr., 44, 65–108, doi:10.1016/S0079-6611(99)00021-X, 1999.; Baschek, B., Send, U., Lafuente, J. G., and Candela, J.: Transport estimates in the Strait of Gibraltar with a tidal i...

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In Situ Determination of the Remote Sensing Reflectance: an Inter-...

By: K. Ruddick; I. Ansko; G. Moore; J. Icely; G. Zibordi; S. Kratzer; A. Reinart

Description: Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy. Inter-comparison of data products from simultaneous measurements performed with independent systems and methods is a viable approach to assess the consistency of data and additionally to investigate uncertainties. Within such a context the inter-comparison called Assessment of In Situ Radiometric Capabilities for Coastal Water Remote Sensing Applications (ARC) was c...

Achard, F., Eva, H. D., Stibig, H. J., Mayaux, P., Gallego, J., Richards, T., and Malingreau, J.P.: Determination of deforestation rates of the world's humid tropical forests, Science, 297, 999–1002, 2002.; Austin, R. W.: The remote sensing of spectral radiance from below the ocean surface, in: Optical Aspects of Oceanography, Academic Press, 1974.; Barton, I. J., Minnet, P. J., Maillet, K. A., Donlon, C. J., Hook, S. J., Jessup, A. T., and Nightingale, T. J.: The Miami2...

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An Operational Implementation of the Gher Model for the Black Sea,...

By: A. Capet; M. Grégoire; J. M. Beckers; L. Vandenbulcke; S. Besiktepe

Description: GeoHydrodynamics and Environment Research, Université de Liège, Belgium. In this article, we describe the first operational implementation of the GHER hydrodynamic model. This happened onboard the research vessel Alliance, in the context of the Turkish Straits System 2008 campaign, which aimed at the real-time characterization of the Marmara Sea and (south-western) Black Sea. The model performed badly at first, mainly because of poor initial conditions....

Aubrey, D. G., Oguz, T., Demirev, E., Ivanov, V., McSherry, T., Diaconu, V., and Nikolaenko, E.: Hydroblack '91 CTD Intercalibration Workshop, in: IOC Workshop Report No.91, 1992.; Barth, A., Alvera-Azcárate, A., Rixen, M., and Beckers, J. M.: Two-way nested model of mesoscale circulation features in the {L}igurian {S}ea, Progress In Oceanography, 66, 171–189, doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2004.07.017, 2005.; Beckers, J. M.: Application of a 3 D model to the {W}estern {M}editerra...

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Assessment of the Importance of the Current-wave Coupling in the S...

By: R. Bolaños; M. Espino; A. Sánchez-arcilla; G. Jordà

Description: Institut Mediterrani d’Estudis Avanats (IMEDEA), c./Miquel Marqués 21, 07190 Esporles, Illes Balears, Spain. The effects of wave-current interactions on shelf ocean forecasts is investigated in the framework of the MFSTEP (Mediterranean Forecasting System Project Towards Enviromental Predictions) project. A one way sequential coupling approach is adopted to link the wave model (WAM) to the circulation model (SYMPHONIE). The coupling of waves and currents...

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Measurement of Turbulence in the Oceanic Mixed Layer Using Synthet...

By: A. R. L. Tatnall; S. G. George

Description: Astronautics Research Group, Faculty of Engineering & the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK. Turbulence in the surface layer of the ocean contributes to the transfer of heat, gas and momentum across the air-sea boundary. As such, study of turbulence in the ocean surface layer is becoming increasingly important for understanding its effects on climate change. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) techniques were implemented to examine th...

Alpers, W. R., Campbell, G., Wensink, H., and Zhang, Q.: Underwater topography, in: SAR Marine User's Manual, edited by: Jackson, C. R. and Apel, J. R., National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington DC, USA, 245–262, 2004, available at: http://www.sarusersmanual.com/, last access: 15 May 2012.; Archer, P. J.: A Numerical Study of Laminar to Turbulent Evolution and Free-Surface Interaction of a Vortex Ring, Ph. D. t...

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Detecting Marine Hazardous Substances and Organisms: Sensors for P...

By: K. L. Daly; O. Zielinski; J. A. Busch; H. Schmidt; J. Engelbrektsson; A. D. Cembella; A. K. Hannides

Description: Institute for Marine Resources, Bremerhaven, Germany. Marine environments are influenced by a wide diversity of anthropogenic and natural substances and organisms that may have adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. Real-time measurements of pollutants, toxins, and pathogens across a range of spatial scales are required to adequately monitor these hazards, manage the consequences, and to understand the processes governing their ...

Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for community action in the field of water policy, 2000.; Directive 2006/7/EC EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 February 2006 concerning the management of bathing water quality and repealing Directive 76/160/EEC, 2006.; Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June 2008, establishing a framework for community ...

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A Semi-analytical Model for Diffuse Reflectance in Marine and Inla...

By: Y.-h. Ahn; P. Shanmugam; J. D. Pravin

Description: Ocean Optics and Imaging Laboratory, Department of Ocean Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, 600036, India. A semi-analytical model for predicting diffuse reflectance of coastal and oceanic waters is developed based on the water-column optical properties and illumination conditions. Diffuse reflectance (R) is an apparent optical property that is related to the Gordon's parameter (bb/(a+bb)) thr...

Ahn, Y.-H. and Shanmugam, P.: Derivation and analysis of the fluorescence algorithms to estimate phytoplankton pigment concentrations in optically complex coastal waters, J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Op., 9, 352–362, doi:10.1088/1464-4258/9/4/008, 2007.; Albert, A. and Mobley, C. D.: An analytical model for subsurface irradiance and remote sensing reflectance in deep and shallow case-2 waters, Opt. Express, 11, 2873–2890, <...

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The Circulation of Icelandic Waters – a Modelling Study : Volume 9...

By: J. Ólafsson; H. Valdimarsson; Á. Snorrason; K. Logemann; G. Marteinsdóttir

Description: School of Engineering and Natural Sciences – University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland. The three-dimensional flow, temperature and salinity fields of the North Atlantic, including the Arctic Ocean, covering the time period 1992 to 2006 are simulated with the numerical ocean model CODE. The simulation reveals several new insights and previously unknown structures which help us to clarify open questions on the regional oceanography of Icelandic waters. Th...

Apel, J. R.: Principles of Ocean Physics, Academic Press Limited, London, 209–219, 1987.; Ast\thórsson, O. S., Gislason, A., and Jónsson, S.: Climate variability and the Icelandic marine ecosystem, Deep-Sea Res. II, 54, 2456–2477, 2007.; Bjerknes, V.: On the dynamics of the circular vortex with application to the atmosphere and atmospheric vortex and wave motions, Geofysiske Publikationer, Kristiania, 2, 90 pp., 1921.; Bloom, S. C., Takacs, L. L., da Silva, A. M., and Le...

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Numerical Tools to Estimate the Flux of a Gas Across the Air–water...

By: V. M. N. C. S. Vieira; J. Silva; R. Santos; F. Martins

Description: MARETEC, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisbon, Portugal. A numerical tool was developed for the estimation of gas fluxes across the air–water interface. The primary objective is to use it to estimate CO2 fluxes. Nevertheless application to other gases is easily accomplished by changing the values of the parameters related to the physical properties of the gases. A user-friendly software...

Borges, A. V.: Do we have enough pieces of the jigsaw to integrate CO2 fluxes in the coastal ocean?, Estuaries, 28, 3–27, 2005.; Borges, A. V., Delille, B., Schiettecatte, L. S., Gazeau, F., Abril, G., and Frankignoulle, M.: Gas transfer velocities of CO2 in three European estuaries (Randers Fjord, Scheldt, and Thames), Limnol. Oceanogr., 49, 1630–1641, 2004a.; Borges, A. V., Vanderborght, J. P., Schiettecatte, L. S., Gazeau, F., Ferron-Smith, S., D...

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Automated Gas Bubble Imaging at Sea Floor – a New Method of in Sit...

By: O. Zielinski; H. Sahling; K. Thomanek; G. Bohrmann

Description: University of Applied Sciences Bremerhaven, An der Karlstadt 8, 27568 Germany. Photo-optical systems are common in marine sciences and have been extensively used in coastal and deep-sea research. However, due to technical limitations in the past photo images had to be processed manually or semi-automatically. Recent advances in technology have rapidly improved image recording, storage and processing capabilities which are used in a new concept of automa...

Agrawal, Y. C. and Pottsmith, H. C.: Autonomous Long-Term in situ Particle Sizing Using A New Laser Diffraction Instrument, OCEANS, 5, 1575–1580, 1989.; Belcher, E. O.: Quantification of Bubbles Formed in Animals and Man During Decompression, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 27, 330–338, 1980.; Brauer, H.: Grundlagen der Einphasen- und Mehrphasenströmungen, Verlag Sauerländer, Aarau und Frankfurt am Main, 1971.; Brauer, H.: Turbulenzen in mehrphasigen Strömungen, Chem.-Ing.-Tech...

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Frontal Structures in the West Spitsbergen Current Margins : Volum...

By: W. Walczowski

Description: Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences, Powstancow Warszawy 55, 81-712 Sopot, Poland. The structures of the hydrographic fronts separating the Atlantic-origin waters from ambient waters in the northern Nordic Seas are discussed. Flows of the western and eastern branches of the West Spitsbergen Current create the Atlantic domain borders and maintain these fronts. This work is based on previous research and on investigations carried out in the ...

Aagaard K. and Carmack, E.: The role of sea ice and other fresh water in the arctic circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 14485–14498, 1989.; Aagaard, K. and Greisman, P.: Toward new mass and heat budgets for the Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 80, 3821–3827, 1975.; Allen, J. T., Smeed, D. A., and Chadwick, A. L.: Eddies and mixing in the Iceland-Faeroes Front, Deep-Sea Res., 41, 51–79, 1994.; Beszczynska- Möller, A., Fahrbach, E., Schauer, U., and Hansen, E.: Variability i...

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Enso Components of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and Their...

By: G. Dusek; J. Park

Description: NOAA Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services 1305 East West Highway, Silver Spring, MD, USA. The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) are known to influence coastal water levels along the East Coast of the United States. By identifying empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs), which coherently contribute from the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI) to the AMO index (AMOI), we characterize both the ...

Arguez, A., O'Brien, J. J., and Smith, S. R.: Air temperature impacts over Eastern North America and Europe associated with low-frequency North Atlantic SST variability, Int. J. Climatol., 29, 1–10, 2009.; Dong, B., Sutton, R. T., and Scaife, A. A.: Multidecadal modulation of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variance by Atlantic Ocean sea surface temperatures, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L08705, doi:10.1029/2006GL025766,...

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A Comparison Between Vertical Motions Measured by Adcp and Inferre...

By: H. Van Haren

Description: Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, The Netherlands. Combined vertical current (w) and thermistor string data demonstrate that high-frequency internal wave trains along a pycnocline in a flat-bottom shelf sea consist for 2 periods of a dominant mode-1 non-linear part, while thereafter mainly of linear [mode-2, quadrupled frequency] waves, to first order. In a simple [linear] heat budget, the use of u...

Amen, R. and Maxworthy, T.: The gravitational collapse of a mixed region into a linearly stratified fluid, J. Fluid Mech., 96, 65–80, 1980.; Davis, R. E. and Acrivos, A.: Solitary internal waves in deep water, J. Fluid Mech., 29, 593–607, 1967.; Hallock, Z. R. and Field, R. L.: Internal-wave energy fluxes on the New Jersey Shelf, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35, 3–12, 2005.; Helfrich, K. R.: Internal solitary wave breaking and run-up on a uniform slope, J. Fluid Mech., 243, 133–1...

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Mapping Flow Distortion on Oceanographic Platforms Using Computati...

By: B. Ward; N. O'Sullivan

Description: School of Physics and Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland. Ocean-Atmosphere Fluxes Eddy correlation (EC) is the most direct method to measure fluxes of trace gases over the Earth's surface. In its simplest form, an EC setup consists of a gas sensor and a sonic anemometer. EC is commonly used on land, but its adaptation at sea has proven difficult because of the marine environment, the motion of the research platform (ship or ...

Gagnon, L. and Richard, J. M.: Parallel CFD of a prototype car with OpenFOAM, Tech. rep., Dept of Mech. Eng., Laval University, Québec, Canada, 2010.; Castro, I. P. and Robins, A. G.: the flow around a surface mounted cube in uniform and turbulent streams, J. Fluids. Mech., 79, 307–335, 1977.; Broecker, W. S., Ledwell, J. R., Takahashi, T., Weiss, L. M. R., Memery, L., Peng, T. H., ihne, B. J., and Jnnich, K. O. M.: Isotopic versus micrometeorologic ocean {CO}2

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Assessment of the Structure and Variability of Weddell Sea Water M...

By: M. Azaneu; M. M. Mata; I. Wainer; T. S. Dotto; R. Kerr

Description: Laboratório de Estudos dos Oceanos e Clima, Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande – FURG, Rio Grande, RS, 96203-900, Brazil. We assessed and evaluated the performance of five ocean reanalysis in reproducing essential hydrographic properties and their associated temporal variability for the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. The products used in this assessment were ECMWF ORAS4, CFSR, MyOcean UR025.4, ECCO2 and SODA. The present study f...

Azaneu, M.: Assessment of the ECCO2 reanalysis product on the representation of Antarctic Bottom Water properties, M.S. Thesis, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, 103 pp., 2013.; Azaneu, M., Kerr, R., Mata, M. M., and Garcia, C. A. E.: Trends in the deep Southern Ocean (1958–2010): implications for Antarctic bottom water properties and volume export, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 4213–4227, doi:10.1002/jgrc.20303, 2013.; Balmase...

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Mapping Flow Distortion on Oceanographic Platforms Using Computati...

By: S. Landwehr; B. Ward; N. O'Sullivan

Description: School of Physics and Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland. Wind speed measurements over the ocean on ships or buoys are affected by flow distortion from the platform and by the anemometer itself. This can lead to errors in direct measurements and the derived parametrisations. Here we computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to simulate the errors in wind speed measurements caused by flow distortion on the RV Celtic Explorer....

Blender: 3D modeling software, version 2.60, 2011.; Brut, A., Butet, A., Planton, S., Durand, P., and Caniaux, G.: Influence of the airflow distortion on air–sea flux measurements aboard research vessels: Results of physical simulations applied to the EQUALANT99 experiment, J. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 15, 147–150, 2002.; Castro, I. P. and Robins, A. G.: the flow around a surface mounted cube in uniform and turbulent streams, J. Fluid. Mech., 79, 307–335, 1977.; Gagnon, L. and...

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Problems with Estimation and Interpretation of Oceanic Heat Transp...

By: A. Beszczynska-möller; U. Schauer

Description: Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany. While the concept of oceanic heat transport – or rather heat transport divergence – is well known, it is sometimes applied inaccurately. Often so-called heat transports are computed across a partial section which means that the volume flow through such a section is not zero. In this case the heat transports depend entirely on the choice of the temperature scale. The consequenc...

Cuny, J., Rhines Peter B. , and Kwok, R.: Davis Strait volume, freshwater and heat fluxes, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 52(3), 519–542, 2005.; Fahrbach, E., Meincke, J., Østerhus, S., Rohardt, G., Schauer, U., Tverberg, V., and Verduin, J.: Direct measurements of volume transports through Fram Strait, Polar Res., 20(2), 217–224, 2001.; Hall, M. M. and Bryden, H. L.: Direct estimates and mechanisms of ocean heat transport, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 29, 339–359, 1982.; Ingvaldsen, R. B...

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Sensors for Observing Ecosystem Status : Volume 5, Issue 4 (04/11/...

By: E. R. Parker; D. B. Sivyer; J. D. Metcalfe; R. M. Forster; S. Kröger; D. J. Pearce; N. Greenwood

Description: Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Pakefield Rd, Lowestoft, Suffolk NR33 0HT, UK. This paper aims to review the availability and application of sensors for observing marine ecosystem status. It gives a broad overview of important ecosystem variables to be investigated, such as biogeochemical cycles, primary and secondary production, species distribution, animal movements, habitats and pollutants. Some relevant legislative ...

Arnold, G. P. and Dewar, H.: Electronic tags in marine fisheries research: A 30 year perspective., in: Electronic tagging and tracking in marine fisheries, edited by: Nielsen, J. R. S. J. L., Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht, The Netherland, 7–64, 2001.; Aylott, J. W., Richardson, D. J., and Russell, D. A.: Optical biosensing of nitrate ions uisng a sol-gel immobilized nitrate reductase, Analyst, 122, 77–80, 1997.; Campas, M. and Katakis, I.: DNA biochip arraying, detect...

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