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Influence of Climate Parameters on Long-term Variations of the Dis...

By: M. Janecki; J. Piskozub; J. Jakacki; A. Nowicki; L. Dzierzbicka-głowacka

Description: Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Powstancow Warszawy 55, 81-712 Sopot, Poland. Influence of long term trends in the climate parameters (average temperature, wind speed and solar irradiance) on phytoplankton and nutrient in the Baltic Sea was studied with an integrated three-dimensional coupled sea-ice ecological model. Simple ecosystem has been added to the sea-ice model and it has been used to estimate variability of the phytoplan...

Andersson, H. C.: Influence of long-term regional and large-scale atmospheric circulation on the Baltic sea level, Tellus, 54A, 76–88, 2002.; Azam, F., Fenchel, T., Field, J., Gray, J. S., Meyer-Reil, L. A., and Thingstad, F.: The Ecological Role of Water-Column Microbes in the Sea, Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 10, 257–263, 1983.; Bärring, L. and von Storch, H.: Scandinavian storminess since about 1800, Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L20202,

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Temperature–salinity Distribution in the Northeastern Atlantic fro...

By: Â. Nascimento; F. Neves; J. Medeiros; J. Dias; I. Ambar; X. Carton; I. Bashmachnikov

Description: MARE – Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre/Centro de Oceanografia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016, Lisbon, Portugal. The present study defines new interpolation functions for hydrological data. These functions are applied to generate climatological maps of temperature–salinity distribution with a 25 m depth interval and a 30 km space interval (MEDTRANS data set). The data undergo rigorous initial data quality c...

Alves, M. L. G. R. and de Verdière, A. C.: Instability dynamics of a subtropical jet and applications to the Azores current system: eddy-driven mean flow, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29, 837–864, 1999.; Alves, M. L. G. R., Gaillard, F., Sparrow, M., Knoll, M., and Giraud, S.: Circulation patterns and transport of the Azores front-current system, Deep-Sea Res. II, 49, 3983–4002, 2002.; Ambar, I.: A shallow core of Mediterranean water off western Portugal, Deep-Sea Res. A, 30, 677...

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A Nested Atlantic-mediterranean Sea General Circulation Model for ...

By: M. Adani; N. Pinardi; D. Pettenuzzo; C. Fratianni; P. Oddo; M. Tonani

Description: Gruppo Nazionale di Oceanografia Operativa, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Via Aldo Moro 44, 40128 Bologna, Italy. A new numerical general circulation ocean model for the Mediterranean Sea has been implemented nested within an Atlantic general circulation model within the framework of the Marine Environment and Security for the European Area project (MERSEA, Desaubies, 2006). A 4-year twin experiment was carried out from Janu...

Béranger, K., Mortier, L., and Crépon, M.: Seasonal variability of water transports through the Straits of Gibraltar, Sicily and Corsica, derived from a high resolution model of the Mediterranean circulation. Prog. Oceanogr., 66(2–4), 341–364, 2005.; Beron-Vera, F. J., Ochoa, J., and Ripa, P.: A note on boundary conditions for salt and freshwater balances, Ocean Model., 1, 111–118, 1999.; Bozec, A., Bouruet-Aubertot, P., Béranger, K., and Crépon, M.: Mediterranean oceani...

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Intrinsic Variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current System:...

By: S. Pierini; H. A. Dijkstra; G. Sgubin

Description: Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL), Paris, France. In this paper, the variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current system produced by purely intrinsic nonlinear oceanic mechanisms is studied through a sigma-coordinate ocean model, implemented in a large portion of the Southern Ocean at an eddy-permitting resolution under steady surface heat and momentum fluxes. The mean transport through the Drake Passage and the structure of the main Antarctic Ci...

Barnier, B., Marchesiello, P., de Miranda, A. P., Molines, J.-M., and Coulibaly, M.: A sigma-coordinate primitive equation model for studying the circulation in the South Atlantic. part I: Model configuration with error estimates, Deep-Sea Res., 45, 543–572, 1998.; Barnier, B., Madec, G., Penduff, T., Molines, J.-M., Treguier, A.-M., Le Sommer, J., Beckmann, A., Biastoch, A., Böning, C., Dengg, J., Derval, C., Durand, E., Gulev, S., Remy, E., Talandier, C., Theetten, S.,...

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A New Method for Continuous Measurements of Oceanic and Atmospheri...

By: D. L. Arévalo-martínez; A. Kock; A. Körtzinger; I. Piller; H. W. Bange; T. Steinhoff; M. Beyer; M. Krumbholz

Description: Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel (GEOMAR), Düsternbrooker Weg 20 24105 Kiel, Germany. A new system for continuous, highly resolved oceanic and atmospheric measurements of N2O, CO and CO2 is described. The system is based upon off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) and a non-dispersive infrared analyzer (NDIR), both coupled to a Weiss-type equilibrator. Performance of the combined setup was evaluated by test...

Allan, D. W.: Statistics of atomic frequency standards, Proc. IEEE, 54, 221–230, 1966.; Andrié, C., Oudot, C., Genthon, C, and Merlivat, L.: CO2 fluxes in the tropical Atlantic during FOCAL cruises, J. Geophys. Res., 21, 11741–11755, 1986.; Baer, D. S., Paul, J. B., Gupta, M., and O'keefe, A.: Sensitive absorption measurements in the near-infrared region using off-axis integrated-cavity output spectroscopy, Appl. Phys. B., 75, 261–265, 2002.; Bakker, D. C. E.,...

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Changes in Extreme Regional Sea Surface Height Due to an Abrupt We...

By: J. Maassen; E. Bal; M. Van Meersbergen; H. A. Dijkstra; M. A. Kliphuis; F. Seinstra; S.-e. Brunnabend; B. Van Werkhoven

Description: Institute of Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht, the Netherlands. As an extreme scenario of dynamical sea level changes, regional sea surface height (SSH) changes that occur in the North Atlantic due to an abrupt weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) are simulated. Two versions of the same ocean-only model are used to study the effect of ocean model resolution...

Antonov, J. I., Levitus, S., and Boyer, T. P.: Thermosteric sea level rise, 1955–2003, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, l12602, doi:10.1029/2005GL023112, 2005.; Berge-Nguyen, M., Cazenave, A., Lombard, A., Liovel, W., Viarra, J., and Cretaux, J. F.: Reconstruction of past decades sea level using thermosteric sea level, tide gauge, satellite altimetry and ocean reanalysis data, Global Planet. Change, 62, 1–13,

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The Mediterranean Sea System: a Review and an Introduction to the ...

By: D. Hainbucher; G. Civitarese; K. Schröder; V. Cardin; T. Tanhua; M. Álvarez

Description: GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Department of Chemical Oceanography, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany. The Mediterranean is a semi-enclosed sea characterized by high salinities, temperatures and densities. The net evaporation exceeds the precipitation, driving an anti-estuarine circulation through the Strait of Gibraltar, contributing to very low nutrient concentrations. The Mediterranean Sea has an active overturning cir...

Astraldi, M., Balopoulos, S., Candela, J., Font, J., Gacic, M., Gasparini, G. P., Manca, B., Theocharis, A., and Tintore, J.: The role of straits and channels in understanding the characteristics of Mediterranean circulation, Prog. Oceanogr., 44, 65–108, doi:10.1016/S0079-6611(99)00021-X, 1999.; Baschek, B., Send, U., Lafuente, J. G., and Candela, J.: Transport estimates in the Strait of Gibraltar with a tidal i...

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Sea Level Trend and Variability Around the Peninsular Malaysia : V...

By: T. W. Tay; P. Tkalich; Q. H. Luu

Description: Tropical Marine Science Institute, National University of Singapore, Singapore. Peninsular Malaysia is bounded from the west by Malacca Strait and the Andaman Sea both connected to the Indian Ocean, and from the east by South China Sea being largest marginal sea in the Pacific Basin. Resulting sea level along Peninsular Malaysia coast is assumed to be governed by various regional phenomena associated with the adjacent parts of the Indian and Pacific Oc...

Aparna, S. G., McCreary, J. P., Shankar, D., and Vinayachandran, P. N.: Signatures of Indian Ocean dipole and El Niño–Southern Oscillation events in sea level variations in the Bay of Bengal, J. Geophys. Res., 117, C10012, doi:10.1029/2012JC008055, 2012.; AVISO: Altimetric data, available at: http://www.aviso.oceanobs.com/en/data.html (last access: 25 January 2013), ...

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Multi-year Satellite Observations of Instability Waves in the Trop...

By: L. P. Pezzi; I. S. Robinson; A. C. V. Caltabiano

Description: International CLIVAR Project Office, National Oceanography Centre, European Way, Southampton, SO14 3ZH, UK. Instability waves in the tropical Atlantic Ocean are analysed by microwave satellite-based data spanning from 1998 to 2001. This is the first multi-year observational study of the sea surface temperature (SST) signature of the Tropical Instability Waves (TIW) in the region. SST data were used to show that the waves spectral characteristics vary fr...

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Impact of Sla Assimilation in the Sicily Channel Regional Model: M...

By: L. Fazioli; C. Dufau; A. Ribotti; S. Dobricic; A. Cucco; R. Sorgente; A. Olita

Description: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche – Istituto per l'Ambiente Marino Costiero, Loc. Sa Mardini, 09170 Oristano, Italy. The impact of the assimilation of MyOcean sea level anomalies along-track data on the analyses of the Sicily Channel Regional Model was studied. The numerical model has a resolution of 1/32° degrees and is capable to reproduce mesoscale and sub-mesoscale features. The impact of the SLA assimilation is studied by comparing a simulation (SI...

Astraldi, M., Gasparini, G. P., Sparnocchia, S., Moretti, M., and Sansone, E.: The characteristics of the water masses and the water transport in the Sicily Strait at long time scales, Dynamics of Mediterranean straits and channels, Bulletin de lInstitut Ocanographique, Monaco, CIESM Science Series n 2, 17, 95–115, 1996.; Astraldi, M., Balopoulos, S., Candela, J., Font, J., Gacic, M., Gasparini, G. P., Manca, B., Theocharis, A., and Tintor, J.: The role of straits and ch...

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A Century of Sea Level Data and the Uk's 2013/14 Storm Surges: an ...

By: J. M. Brown; I. D. Haigh; M. P. Wadey

Description: Ocean and Earth Sciences, University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre, UK. For the UK's longest and most complete sea level record (Newlyn), we assess extreme high water events and their temporal clustering; prompted by the 2013/2014 winter of flooding and storms. These are set into context against this almost 100 yr record. We define annual periods for which storm activity, tides and sea levels can be compared on a year-by-year basis. ...

Baxter, P. J.: The east coast Big Flood, 31 January–1 February 1953: a summary of the human disaster, Philos. T. R. Soc. A, 363, 1293–1312, 2005.; Araújo, I. B. and Pugh, D. T.: Sea levels at Newlyn 1915–2005: analysis of trends for future flooding risks, J. Coastal Res., 24, 203–212, 2008.; Batstone, C., Lawless, M., Tawn, J., Horsburgh, K., Blackman, D., McMillan, A., Worth, D., Laeger, S., and Hunt, T.: A UK best-practice approach for extreme sea-level analysis along ...

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Variability in the Subtropical-tropical Cells and Its Effect on Ne...

By: C. W. Böning; A. Biastoch; J. F. Lübbecke

Description: Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences at the University of Kiel, Germany (IfM-GEOMAR). A set of experiments utilising different implementations of the global ORCA-LIM model with horizontal resolutions of 2°, 0.5° and 0.25° is used to investigate tropical and extra-tropical influences on equatorial Pacific SST variability at interannual to decadal time scales. The model experiments use a bulk forcing methodology building on the global forcing data set for...

Gent, P R. and McWilliams, J.: Isopycnal mixing in ocean circulation models, J Phys Oceanogr., 20, 150–156, 1990.; Adcroft, A., Hill, C., and Marshall, J.: Representation of topography by shaved cells in a height coordinate ocean model, Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 2293–2315, 1997.; Alory, G., Cravatte, S., Izumo, T., and Rodgers, K B.: Validation of a decadal OGCM simulation for the tropical pacific, Ocean Modelling, 10, 272–282, 2005.; Barnier, B., Siefridt, L., and P., M.: Th...

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An Oceanographer’s Guide to Goce and the Geoid : Volume 3, Issue 5...

By: C. W. Hughes; R. J. Bingham

Description: Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory, 6 Brownlow St., Liverpool L3 5DA, UK. A review is given of the geodetic concepts necessary for oceanographers to make use of satellite gravity data to define the geoid, and to interpret the resulting product. The geoid is defined, with particular attention to subtleties related to the representation of the permanent tide, and the way in which the geoid is represented in ocean models. The usual spherical harmonic descrip...

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The Circulation of the Persian Gulf: a Numerical Study : Volume 2,...

By: M. Sadrinasab; J. Kämpf

Description: School of Chemistry, Physics and Earth Sciences, Flinders Research Centre for Coast and Catchment Environments, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia. We employ a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model (COHERENS) in a fully prognostic mode to study the circulation and water mass properties of the Persian Gulf – a large inverse estuary. Our findings, which are in good agreement with observational evidence, suggest that the Persian Gulf experiences a dist...

Arakawa, A. and Suarez, M. J.: Vertical differencing of the primitive equations in sigma coordinates, Mon. Wea. Rev., 111, 34–45, 1983.; Ahmad, F. and Sultan, S. A. R.: Annual mean surface heat fluxes in the Arabian Gulf and the net heat transport through the Strait of Hormuz, Atmos. Ocean., 29, 54–61, 1991.; Alessi, C. A., Hunt, H. D., and Bower, A. S.: Hydrographic data from the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office: Persian Gulf, Southern Red Sea, and Arabian Sea 1923–1996,...

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Southern Ocean Overturning Across Streamlines in an Eddying Simula...

By: S. R. Rintoul; J. Le Sommer; G. Madec; M. England; A. M. Treguier; J.-m. Molines

Description: Laboratoire de Physique de Oceans, CNRS-IFREMER-UBO, Plouzané, France. An eddying global model is used to study the characteristics of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) in a streamline-following framework. In the upper layers, the meridional circulation across streamlines agrees with the theoretical view: an equatorward mean flow partially cancelled by a poleward eddy mass flux. The same calculation in a zonal average gives a completely different ...

Andrews, D. G. and McIntyre, M. E.: Planetary waves in horizontal and vertical shear: the generalized eliassen-Palm relations and the mean zonal acceleration, J. Atmos. Sci., 33, 2031–2048, 1976.; Barnier, B., Madec, G., Penduff, T., Molines, J. M., Treguier, A. M., Le Sommer, J., Beckmann, A., Biastoch, A., Böning, C., Dengg, J., Derval, C., Durand, E., Gulev, S., Remy, E., Talandier, C., Theetten, S., Maltrud, M., McClean, J., and De Cuevas, B.: Impact of partial steps...

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Importance of the Variability of Hydrographic Preconditioning for ...

By: K. Schroeder; H. L. Bryden; D. A. Smeed; L. Grignon

Description: National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK. We study the variability of hydrographic preconditioning defined as the heat and salt contents in the Ligurian Sea before convection. The stratification is found to reach a maximum in the intermediate layer in December, whose causes and consequences for the interannual variability of convection are investigated. Further study of the interannual variability and correlation tests between the properties of the...

Alverson, K.: Mechanisms for lateral exchange with oceanic convection sites, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 1436–1446, 1997.; Artale, V., Iudicone, D., Santoleri, R., Rupolo, V., Marullo, S., and D'Ortenzio, F.: Role of surface fluxes in ocean general circulation models using satellite sea surface temperature: Validation of and sensitivity to the forcing frequency of the {M}editerranean thermohaline circulation, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 107, 3120,

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Hydrodynamic Variability Based on the Multi-parametric Poseidon Py...

By: L. Perivoliotis; K. Nittis; D. Kassis

Description: Institute of Oceanography, Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, P.O. Box 712, 19013 Anavissos, Greece. The multi-platform POSEIDON-Pylos observatory of the south-east Ionian Sea operates since 2007 delivering near real time data for a variety of meteorological, water column and near seabed oceanographic parameters. It has been designed to contribute to long term monitoring of air–sea interaction and thermohaline processes of this key area of the E...

Ovchinnikov, I. M.: Formation of Intermediate Waters in the Mediterranean Sea, Oceanology, 24, 217–255, 1984.; Amitai, E. and Nystuen, J.: Underwater acoustic measurements of rainfall, in: Precipitation: Advances in Measurement, Estimation and Prediction, edited by: Michaelides, S., Springer, 343–363, 2008.; Astraldi, M., Balopoulos, S., Candela, J., Font, J., Gacic, M., Gasparini, G. P., Manca, B., Theocharis, A., and Tintoré, J.: The role of straits and channels in und...

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Phytoplankton Blooms on the Western Shelf of Tasmania: Evidence of...

By: J. Kämpf

Description: School of the Environment, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia. Analyses of >10 years of satellite-derived ocean-color data reveal the existence of a highly productive ecosystem on the west Tasmanian shelf. A closer event-based analysis indicates that the nutrient supply for this system has two different dynamical origins: (a) wind-driven coastal upwelling and (b) river plumes. During austral summer months, the west Tasmanian shelf forms a p...

Conolly, J. R. and Von der Borch, C. C.: Sedimentation and physiography of the sea floor south of Australia, Sediment. Geol., 1, 181–220, doi:10.1016/0037-0738(67)90059-0, 1967.; Cresswell, G.: Currents of the continental shelf and upper slope of Tasmania, Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania, 133, 21–30, 2000.; Gibbs, C. F., Tomczak, M., and Longmore, A. R.: The nutrient regime of Bass Strait,...

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The Density of Seawater as a Function of Salinity (5 to 70 G Kg

By: F. Huang; F. J. Millero

Description: Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33149, USA. New seawater density measurements were made as a function of temperature (0 to 90°C) and salinity (5 to 70). The measurements (N=230) from 0 to 40°C and Practical Salinity from 0 to 40 were found to be in good agreement (Σ=0.0036) with the equation of state of seawater (Millero and Poisson, 1981) made on samp...

Millero,~F J., Chetirkin,~P V., and Culkin,~F.: The relative conductivity and density of standard seawaters, Deep-Sea Res. 24, 315–321, 1976a.; Millero,~F J. and Kremling,~K.: The densities of Baltic Sea waters. Deep-Sea Res., 23, 1129–1138, 1976.; Bigg,~P H.: Density of water in SI units over the range 0–40\unit\degree C, Brit. J. Appl. Phys., 18, 521–524, 1967.; Brewer,~P G. and Bradshaw,~A.: The effect of non-ideal composition of seawater on salinity and density, J. M...

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Tidally-induced Lateral Dispersion of the Storfjorden Overflow Plu...

By: Y. Aksenov; F. Wobus; G. I. Shapiro; J. M. Huthnance; M. A. M. Maqueda

Description: School of Marine Science and Engineering, University of Plymouth, PL4 8AA, UK. We investigate the flow of brine-enriched shelf water from Storfjorden (Svalbard) into Fram Strait and onto the Western Svalbard Shelf using a regional setup of NEMO-SHELF, a 3-D numerical ocean circulation model. The model is set up with realistic bathymetry, atmospheric forcing, open boundary conditions and tides. The model has 3 km horizontal resolution and 50 vertical ...

Skogseth, R., Nilsen, F., and Smedsrud, L. H.: Supercooled water in an Arctic polynya: observations and modeling, J. Glaciol., 55, 43–52, doi:10.3189/002214309788608840, 2009.; Taylor, G. I.: Dispersion of soluble matter in solvent flowing slowly through a tube, P. Roy. Soc. Lond. A Mat., 219, 186–203, doi:10.1098/rspa.1953.0139, 1953.; Umlauf, L. and Burchard, H...

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