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Sediment 231Pa/230Th as a Recorder of the Rate of the Atlantic Mer...

By: R. Francois; S. E. Allen; Y. Luo

Description: Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, 6339 Stores Road, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada. A two dimensional scavenging model is used to investigate the patterns of sediment 231Pa/230Th generated by the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and further advance the application of this proxy for ocean paleocirculation studies. The scavenging parameters and the geometry of the overturning cir...

Anderson, R. F., Bacon, M. P., and Brewer, P. G.: Removal of Th-230 and Pa-231 from the Open Ocean, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 62, 7–23, 1983.; Bacon M. P.: Tracers of chemical scavenging in the ocean – boundary effects and large-scale chemical fractionation, Philos. T. Roy. Soc. London Ser. A, 325, 147–160, 1988.; Bacon M. P. and Anderson R. F.: Distribution of thorium isotopes between dissolved and particulate forms in the deep sea, J. Geophys. Res., 87, 2045–2056, 1982...

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Meridional Transport of Salt in the Global Ocean from an Eddy-reso...

By: J. Deshayes; J. Le Sommer; C. Lique; J.-m. Molines; R. Bourdalle-badie; G. Madec; A. M. Treguier; B. Barnier; C. Talandier; T. Penduff

Description: Laboratoire de Physique de Oceans, CNRS-IFREMER-IRD-UBO, Plouzané, France. The meridional transport of salt is computed in a global eddy-resolving numerical model (1/12° resolution) in order to improve our understanding of the ocean salinity budget. A methodology is proposed that allows a global analysis of the salinity balance in relation to surface water fluxes, without defining a freshwater anomaly based on an arbitrary reference salinity. The method...

Wijffels, S.: Towards a physical understanding of the North Atlantic: a review of model studies, in: Ocean Transport of Fresh Water, Ocean Circulation and Climate, edited by: Siedler, G., Church, J., and Gould, J., 475–488, Academic Press, London, 2001.; Yu, L.: A global relationship between the ocean water cycle and near-surface salinity, J. Geophys. Res., 116, C10025, doi:10.1029/2010JC006937, 2011.; Barnier, B., Madec...

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Thermohaline Properties in the Eastern Mediterranean in the Last T...

By: D. Hainbucher; M. Bensi; G. Civitarese; A. Rubino; V. Cardin

Description: OGS, Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale, Borgo Grotta Gigante 42/c, 34018 Sgonico, Trieste, Italy. We present temperature, salinity and oxygen data collected during the M84/3 and P414 cruises in April and June 2011 on a basin-wide scale to determine the ongoing oceanographic characteristics in the Eastern Mediterranean (EM). The east–west transect through the EM sampled during the M84/3 cruise together with data gained on ...

Bensi, M., Rubino, A., Cardin, V., Hainbucher, D., and Mancero-Mosquera, I.: Structure and variability of the abyssal water masses in the Ionian Sea in the period 2003–2010, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 1–13, doi:10.1029/2012JC008178, 2013.; Borzelli, G. L. E., Gačić, M., Cardin, V., and Civitarese, G.: Eastern Mediterranean transient and reversal of the Ionian Sea circulation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L15108,

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The Co2 System in the Mediterranean Sea: a Basin Wide Perspective ...

By: L. Mintrop; T. Tanhua; C. Cantoni; M. Álvarez; K. Schroeder; A. Luchetta; G. Civitarese; H. Sanleón-bartolomé

Description: IEO – Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Apd. 130, A Coruña, 15001, Spain. This paper provides an extensive vertical and longitudinal description of the CO2 system variables (Total Alkalinity – TA, dissolved inorganic carbon – DIC and pH) along an East-West transect and across the Sardinia–Sicily passage in the Mediterranean Sea (MedSea) from two oceanographic cruises conducted in 2011 measuring CO2 variables in a coordinated fa...

Álvarez M.: The CO2 system observations in the Mediterranean Sea: past, present and future, in: CIESM, Designing Med-SHIP: a Program for Repeated Oceanographic Surveys, edited by: Briand, F., No. 43 in CIESM Workshop monographs, Monaco, 164 pp., 2012.; Astraldi, M., Gasparini, G. P., Sparnocchia, S., Moretti, S., and Sansone, E.: The characteristics of the Mediterranean water masses and the water transport in the Sicily Channel at longtime scales, in: Dynamics...

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Propagation and Dissipation of Internal Tides in the Oslofjord : V...

By: B. Liljebladh; E. Aas; A. Staalstrøm

Description: Section for Oceanography, Remote Sensing and Marine Modelling, Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo, Norway. Observations of velocity, pressure, temperature and salinity in the inner Oslofjord have been analysed to provide new information about the relationships between internal tides generated by tidal currents across the Drøbak Sill and dissipation and diffusivity in the fjord.

The most energetic vertical displacement of density surfa...

Aas, E. and Endresen, Ø.: Accuracy of simplified transport estimations in narrow sea straits, Ocean Dynam., 51, 441-451, 1999.; Afanasyev, Y. D. and Peltier, W. R.: On breaking internal waves over the sill in Knight Inlet, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lnd. A, 457, 2700–2825, 2001.; Armi, L. and Farmer, D.: Stratified flow over topography: bifurcation fronts and transition to the uncontrolled state, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lnd. A, 458, 513–538, 2002.; Arneborg, L., Janzen, C., Liljebladh, B.,...

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M3A System (2000–2005) – Operation and Maintenance : Volume 3, Iss...

By: V. Zervakis; G. Petihakis; C. Christodoulou; C. Nittis; P. Drakopoulos; C. Tziavos

Description: Institute of Oceanography, Hellenic Center for Marine Research, P.O. BOX 2214, 71003 Iraklion, Crete, Greece. During the Pilot Phase of the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFSPP) (1998–2001) a prototype observing system (Mediterranean Moored Multi-sensor Array – M3A) was designed, developed and operated in the Cretan Sea for continuous oceanographic measurements in real time. The main problems encountered were associated with biofouling, underwater and...

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On the Shelf Resonances of the English Channel and Irish Sea : Vol...

By: D. J. Webb

Description: National Oceanography Centre, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK. The resonances of the English Channel and Irish Sea are investigated using the methods of Webb (2012a) together with an Arakawa C-grid model of the region under study. In the semi-diurnal tidal band, the high tides of the Bristol Channel and Gulf of St. Malo are shown to be due to two shelf resonances which strongly couple the two regions. In the diurnal band, the response is complicated by the pre...

Arakawa, A.: Computational design for long-term numerical integration of the equations of fluid motion: Two-dimensional incompressible flow, J. Computat. Phys., 1, 119–143, 1966.; Arakawa, A. and Lamb, V. R.: A Potential Enstrophy and Energy Conserving Scheme for the Shallow Water Equations, Monthly Weather Rev., 109, 19–36, 1981.; Arbic, B. K., St-Laurent, P., Sutherland, G., and Garrett, C.: On the resonance and influence of the tides in Ungava Bay and Hudson Strait, G...

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Eddy Characteristics in the South Indian Ocean as Inferred from Su...

By: Xuhua Cheng; Yan Du; Jiaxun Li; Shaojun Zheng

Description: State Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China. Using a geometric eddy identification method, cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies from submesoscale to mesoscale in the South Indian Ocean (SIO) have been statistically investigated based on 2082 surface drifters from 1979 to 2013. 19252 eddies are identified with 60% anticyclonic eddies. For the submesoscale eddi...

Abraham, E. R.: The generation of plankton patchiness by turbulent stirring, Nature, 391, 577–580, doi:10.1038/35361, 1998.; Abraham, E. R., Law, C. S., Boyd, P. W., Lavender, S. J., Maldonado, M. T., and Bowie, A. R.: Importance of stirring in the development of an iron-fertilized phytoplankton bloom, Nature, 407, 727–730, doi:10.1038/35037555, 2000.; Aristegui, J., Tett, P., Hern...

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Arctic Surface Temperatures from Metop Avhrr Compared to in Situ O...

By: R. Tonboe; J. L. Høyer; G. Dybkjær

Description: Center for Ocean and Ice, Danish Meteorological Institute, Lyngbyvej 100, 2100 København, Denmark. The ice surface temperature (IST) is an important boundary condition for both atmospheric and ocean and sea ice models and for coupled systems. An operational ice surface temperature product using satellite Metop AVHRR infra-red data was developed for MyOcean. The IST can be mapped in clear sky regions using a split window algorithm specially tuned for sea ...

Parrett, C.: Drifter and Ship blacklist, UK meteorological Office, personal communication, Oktober 2011.; Andersen, S., Tonboe, R., Kern, S., and Schyberg, H.: Improved retrieval of sea ice total concentration from spaceborne passive microwave observations using numerical weather prediction model fields: An intercomparison of nine algorithms, Remote Sens. Environ., 104, 4, 374–392, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2006.05.013, 200...

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Frequency- or Amplitude-dependent Effects of the Atlantic Meridion...

By: S. Y. Philip; L. A. Te Raa; H. A. Dijkstra; G. J. Van Oldenborgh

Description: Royal Netherlands Institute of Meteorology, De Bilt, The Netherlands. Using the ECHAM5/MPI-OM model, we study the relation between the variations in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and both the Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) amplitude. In a 17-member 20C3M/SRES-A1b ensemble for 1950–2100 the Pacific response to AMOC variations on different time scales and amplitudes is considered....

Biasutti, M., Held, I. M., Sobel, A. H., and Giannini, A.: SST Forcings and Sahel Rainfall Variability in Simulations of the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries, J. Climate, 21, 3471–3486, doi:10.1175/2007JCLI1896.1, 2006.; Br{ö}nnimann, S.: Impact of El Niño-Southern Oscillation on European climate, Rev. Geophys., 45, RG3003, doi:10.1029/2006RG000199, 2007.; Chang, P., Zhang, R., Hazeleger, W., Wen, C., Wan, X., Ji, L., Haarsma, R., Breugem, W.-P., and Seidel, H.: An O...

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Increasing Transports of Volume, Heat, and Salt Towards the Arctic...

By: S. Østerhus; R. Kristiansen; H. Hátún; K. M. H. Larsen; B. Hansen; E. Mortensen

Description: Faroe Marine Research Institute, Tórshavn, Faroe Islands. The flow of warm and saline water from the Atlantic Ocean, across the Greenland–Scotland Ridge, into the Nordic Seas – the Atlantic inflow – is split into three separate branches. The most intensive of these branches is the inflow between Iceland and the Faroe Islands (Faroes), which is focused into the Faroe Current, north of the Faroes. The Atlantic inflow is an integral part of the North ...

Østerhus, S., Turrell, W. R., Jónsson, S., and Hansen, B.: Measured volume, heat, and salt fluxes from the Atlantic to the Arctic Mediterranean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L07603, doi:10.1029/2004GL022188, 2005.; Prandle, D., Ballard, G., Flatt, D., Harrison, A. J., Jones, S. E., Knight, P. J., Loch, S., McManus, J., Player, R., and Tappin, A.: Combining modelling and monitoring to determine fluxes of water, dissolved and ...

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Intercomparison of the Charnock and Coare Bulk Wind Stress Formula...

By: F. M. Mercier; A. J. Souza; J. M. Brown; L. O. Amoudry

Description: National Oceanography Centre, Joseph Proudman Building, 6 Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L3 5DA, UK. The accurate parameterisation of momentum and heat transfer across the air–sea interface is vital for realistic simulation of the atmosphere–ocean system. In most modelling applications accurate representation of the wind stress is required to numerically reproduce surge, coastal ocean circulation, surface waves, turbulence and mixing. Different formulations...

Bell, M. J., Forbes, R. M., and Hines, A.: Assessment of the FOAM global data assimilation system for real-time operational ocean forecasting, J. Mar. Syst., 25, 1–25, 2000.; Bolaños, R. and Souza, A. J.: Measuring hydrodynamics and sediment transport processes in the Dee Estuary, Earth Sys. Sci. Data, 2, 157–165, 2010.; Brown, J. M. and Wolf, J.: Coupled wave and surge modelling for the eastern Irish Sea and implications for model wind-stress, Cont. Shelf Res., 29, 1329...

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Controllability of Mixing Errors in a Coupled Physical Biogeochemi...

By: J.-m. Brankart; Y. Ourmières; J. Verron; D. Béal; P. Brasseur

Description: LEGI/CNRS, Université de Grenoble, CNRS, BP 53X, 38041 Grenoble, France. In biogeochemical models coupled to ocean circulation models, vertical mixing is an important physical process which governs the nutrient supply and the plankton residence in the euphotic layer. However, mixing is often poorly represented in numerical simulations because of approximate parameterizations of sub-grid scale turbulence, wind forcing errors and other mis-represented pro...

Barnier, B., Madec, G., Penduff, T., Molines, J. M., Tréguier, A. M., Beckmann, A., Biastoch, A., Boning, C., Dengg, J., Gulev, S., Le Sommer, J., Rémy, E., Talandier, C., Theetten, S., Maltrud, M., and Mc Lean, J.: Impact of partial steps and momentum advection schemes in a global ocean circulation model at eddy permitting resolution, Ocean Dynam., 56(5–6), 543–567, 2006.; Berline, L., Brankart, J.-M., Brasseur, P., Ourmières, Y., and Verron, J.: Improving the physics o...

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Biofouling Protection for Marine Environmental Sensors : Volume 6,...

By: C. Compère; M. Lehaitre; L. Delauney

Description: In-Situ Measurement and Electronics Group, Ifremer, B.P. 70, 29280, Plouzané, France. These days, many marine autonomous environment monitoring networks are set up in the world. These systems take advantage of existing superstructures such as offshore platforms, lightships, piers, breakwaters or are placed on specially designed buoys or underwater oceanographic structures. These systems commonly use various sensors to measure parameters such as dissolved...

Delauney, L. and Cowie, P.: Biofouling Resistant Infrastructure for Measuring, Observing and Monitoring, BRIMOM Report, Project number EVR1-CT-2002-40023, 2002.; Abou-Ghazala, A. and Schoenbach, K. H.: Biofouling Prevention with Pulsed Electric Fields, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 28, 115–121, 2000.; Bearinger, J. P., Terrettaz, S., Michel, R., et al.: Sulfamer Block Copolymers Protection of Gold Surfaces, Nat. Mater., 2, 257–264, 2003.; Blain, S., Guillou, J., Tréguer, P., ...

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High Resolution 3-d Temperature and Salinity Fields Derived from i...

By: A.-l. Dhomps; P.-y. Le Traon; G. Larnicol; S. Guinehut

Description: CLS-Space Oceanography Division, Ramonville Saint-Agne, France. This paper describes an observation-based approach that efficiently combines the main components of the global ocean observing system using statistical methods. Accurate but sparse in situ temperature and salinity profiles (mainly from Argo for the last 10 yr) are merged with the lower accuracy but high-resolution synthetic data derived from satellite altimeter and sea surface temperature o...

AVISO: SSALTO/DUACS User Handbook: (M)SLA and (M)ADT near-real time and delayed time products, SALP-MU-P-EA-21065-CLS Edn. 2.9, 73 pp., 2012.; Buongiorno Nardelli, B., Guinehut, S., Pascual, A., Drillet, Y., Ruiz, S., and Mulet, S.: Towards high resolution mapping of 3-D mesoscale dynamics from observations: preliminary comparison of retrieval techniques and models within MESCLA project, Ocean Sci. Discuss., 9, 1045–1083,

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Deep Drivers of Mesoscale Circulation in the Central Rockall Troug...

By: E. Dumont; M. Inall; D. Alyenik; T. J. Sherwin

Description: Scottish Association for Marine Science, Scottish Marine Institute, Oban, Argyll, PA37 1QA, UK

This paper is dedicated to the memory of Tim Boyd, former friend, colleague and office mate, who was tragically killed in a freak accident in January 2013. Tim was fascinated by the display of Rockall Trough glider data that evolved in real time on my monitor and was poised to lead glider research at SAMS after I retired (TJS).. Mesoscale vari...

Ellett, D. J. and Martin, J. H. A.: The physical and chemical oceanography of the Rockall Channel, Deep-Sea Res., 20, 585–625, 1973.; Dickson, R. R., Gould, W. J., Griffiths, C., Medler, K. J., and Gmitrowicz, E. M.: Seasonality in currents of the Rockall Channel, P. Roy. Soc. Edinb. B, 88, 103–125, 1986.; Ellett, D. J., Edwards, A., and Bowers, R.: The hydrography of the Rockall Channel – an overview, P. Roy. Soc. Edinb. B, 88, 61–81, 1986.; Ellett, D. J., Kruseman, P.,...

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Formulation of an Ocean Model for Global Climate Simulations : Vol...

By: A. Rosati; M. J. Spelman; J. L. Russell; R. Gerdes; B. L. Samuels; S. M. Griffies; A. Gnanadesikan; K. W. Dixon; J. P. Dunne; M. J. Harrison; R. Zhang; M. Winton

Description: NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, USA. This paper summarizes the formulation of the ocean component to the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's (GFDL) climate model used for the 4th IPCC Assessment (AR4) of global climate change. In particular, it reviews the numerical schemes and physical parameterizations that make up an ocean climate model and how these schemes are pieced together for use in a state-of-the-art climate model. ...

Adcroft, A. and Campin, J.-M.: Rescaled height coordinates for accurate representation of free-surface flows in ocean circulation models, Ocean Modelling, 7, 269-284, 2004.; Adcroft, A., Hill, C., and Marshall, J.: Representation of topography by shaved cells in a height coordinate ocean model, Monthly Weather Review, 125, 2293-2315, 1997.; Anderson, J L., Balaji, V., Broccoli, A J., Cooke, W F., Delworth, T L., Dixon, K W., Donnor, L J., Dunne, K A., Freidenreich, S M.,...

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The Link Between the Barents Sea and Enso Events Simulated by Nemo...

By: V. N. Stepanov; K. Haines; H. Zuo

Description: Dept. of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, UK. An analysis of observational data in the Barents Sea along a meridian at 33°30' E between 70°30' and 72°30' N has reported a negative correlation between El Niño/La Niña Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events and water temperature in the top 200 m: the temperature drops about 0.5 °C during warm ENSO events while during cold ENSO events the top 200 m layer of the Barents Sea is warmer.

Resu...

Adcroft, A., Hill, C., and Marshall, J.: Representation of topography by shaved cells in a height coordinate ocean model, Mon. Weather Rev., 125, 2293–2315, 1997.; Balmaseda, M. A., Vidard, A., and Anderson, D. L. T.: The ECMWF ocean analysis system: ORAS3, Mon. Weather Rev., 136, 3018–3034. doi:10.1175/2008MWR2433.1, 2008.; Barnier, B. and the DRAKKAR Group: Eddy-permitting ocean circulation hindcasts of past decades, ...

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On the Freshening of the Northwestern Weddell Sea Continental Shel...

By: D. Gomis; O. Huhn; H. H. Hellmer; R. Timmermann

Description: Alfred Wegener Institut für Polar und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven, Germany. We analyzed hydrographic data from the northwestern Weddell Sea continental shelf of the three austral winters 1989, 1997, and 2006 and two summers following the last winter cruise. During summer a thermal front exists at ~64° S separating cold southern waters from warm northern waters that have similar characteristics as the deep waters of the central basin of the Bransfield S...

Absy, J. M., Schröder, M., Muench, R., and Hellmer, H. H.: Early summer thermohaline characteristics and mixing in the western Weddell Sea, \dsrII 55(8–9) 1117–1131 2008; Augstein, E., Bagriantsev, N. V., and Schenke, H.-W.: The expedition ANTARKTIS VIII/1-2, 1989 with the Winter Weddel Gyre study of the research vessels Polarstern and Akademik Fedorov, Reports on Polar Research, 84, 134 pp., 1991.; Braun, M. and Humbert, A.: Recent retreat of Wilkins Ice Shelf reveals n...

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Assessment of the Structure and Variability of Weddell Sea Water M...

By: M. Azaneu; M. M. Mata; I. Wainer; T. S. Dotto; R. Kerr

Description: Laboratório de Estudos dos Oceanos e Clima, Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande – FURG, Rio Grande, RS, 96203-900, Brazil. We assessed and evaluated the performance of five ocean reanalysis in reproducing essential hydrographic properties and their associated temporal variability for the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. The products used in this assessment were ECMWF ORAS4, CFSR, MyOcean UR025.4, ECCO2 and SODA. The present study f...

Azaneu, M.: Assessment of the ECCO2 reanalysis product on the representation of Antarctic Bottom Water properties, M.S. Thesis, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, 103 pp., 2013.; Azaneu, M., Kerr, R., Mata, M. M., and Garcia, C. A. E.: Trends in the deep Southern Ocean (1958–2010): implications for Antarctic bottom water properties and volume export, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 4213–4227, doi:10.1002/jgrc.20303, 2013.; Balmase...

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