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The Timescale and Extent of Thermal Expansion of the Oceans Due to...

By: S. Marčelja

Description: Department of Applied Mathematics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia. With recently improved instrumental accuracy, the change in the heat content of the oceans and the corresponding contribution to the change of the sea level can be determined from in situ measurements of temperature variation with depth. Nevertheless, it would be favourable if the same changes could be evaluated from jus...

Cazenave, A., Dominh, K., Guinehut, S., Berthier, E., Llovel, W., Ramillien, G., Ablain, M., and Larnicol, G.: Sea level budget over 2003–2008: Sea level budget over 2003–2008: A reevaluation from GRACE space gravimetry, satellite altimetry and Argo, Global Planet. Change, 65, 83–88, 2009.; Domingues, C. M., Church, J. A., White, N. J., Gleckler, P. J., Wijffels, S. E., Barker, P. M. and Dunn, J. R.: Improved estimates of upper-ocean warming and multi-decadal sea-level r...

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Measurements of Bubble Size Spectra Within Leads in the Arctic Sum...

By: A. Sirevaag; I. M. Brooks; B. J. Brooks; G. De Leeuw; S. J. Norris; C. Leck; C. E. Birch; M. Tjernström

Description: School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK. The first measurements of bubble size spectra within the near-surface waters of open leads in the central Arctic pack ice were obtained during the Arctic Summer Cloud-Ocean Study (ASCOS) in August 2008 at 87–87.6° N, 1–11° W. A significant number of small bubbles (30–100 μm diameter) were present, with concentration decreasing rapidly with size from 100–560 μm; no bubbles larger than 560 μ...

Andreas, M. O. and Rosenfeld, D.: Aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions, Part 1, The nature and sources of cloud-active aerosols, Earth-Science Rev., 89, 13–41, 2008.; Andreas, E. L., Horst, T. W., Grachev, A. A., Persson, P. O. G., Fairall, C. W., Guest, P. S., and Jordan, R. E: Parametrizing turbulent exchange over summer sea ice and the marginal ice zone, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 136(B), 927–943, doi:10.1002/qj.618, 2010...

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A Method to Generate Fully Multi-scale Optimal Interpolation by Co...

By: A. Alvera-azcárate; I. Tomazic; A. Barth; J.-m. Beckers

Description: GeoHydrodynamics and Environment Research, MARE, University of Liège, Sart-Tilman B5, 4000 Liège, Belgium. We present a method in which the optimal interpolation of multi-scale processes can be expanded into a succession of simpler interpolations. First, we prove how the optimal analysis of a superposition of two processes can be obtained by different mathematical formulations involving iterations and analysis focusing on a single process. From the...

Beckers, J.-M. and Rixen, M.: EOF calculation and data filling from incomplete oceanographic datasets, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 20, 1839–1856, 2003.; Alvera-Azcárate, A., Barth, A., Rixen, M., and Beckers, J.-M.: Reconstruction of incomplete oceanographic data sets using Empirical Orthogonal Functions. Application to the Adriatic Sea Surface Temperature, Ocean Model., 9, 325–346, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2004.08.001, ...

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Observing Using Sound and Light – a Short Review of Underwater Aco...

By: P. Jonsson; J. Heltne; B. Dushaw; J. Nystuen; I. Sillitoe

Description: Lund University, Engineering Geology, Lund, Sweden. This paper is a review which briefly describes a selection of acoustic observation techniques and certain aspects of underwater video technology suitable for observations in an underwater environment. The review is divided into two sections, one for each subject, where each section concludes with a discussion of the current challenges within the respective fields.

The acoustic section of th...

Abileah, R., Martin, D., Lewis, S. D., and Gisiner, B.: Long-range acoustic detection and tracking of the humpback whale Hawaii-Alaska migration, OCEANS '96, MTS/IEEE, Prospects for the 21st Century, Conference Proceedings, 373–377, 1996.; Acar, G. and Adams, A. E.: ACMENet: an underwater acoustic sensor network protocol for real-time environmental monitoring in coastal areas, Radar, Sonar and Navigation, IEE Proceedings, 365–380, 2006.; Akyildiz, I. F., Pompili, D., and...

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Comparison of the Fall Rate and Structure of Recent T-7 Xbt Manufa...

By: S. Kizu; C. Sukigara; K. Hanawa

Description: Physical Oceanography Laboratory, Department of Geophysics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aza Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578, Japan. The fall rate of recent T-7 expendable bathythermograph (XBT; 760 m) is evaluated based on a series of concurrent measurement with a calibrated Conductivity Temperature Depth profiler (CTD) in the sea east of Japan. An emphasis is placed on comparing the fall rates of T-7 produced b...

Anderson, E. R.: Expendable bathythermograph (XBT) accuracy studies – final report for period May 1971–December 1979, NOSC-TR-550, Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, CA, USA, 212 pp., 1980.; Biggs, D. C.: Nutrients, plankton, and productivity in a warm-core ring in the western Gulf of Mexico, J. Geophys. Res., 97(C2), 2143–2154, 1992.; Baker, D. J.: Ocean instruments and experiment design, in: Evolution of Physical Oceanography, edited by: Warren, B. A. and Wunsch, C...

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Comparative Heat and Gas Exchange Measurements in the Heidelberg A...

By: K. E. Krall; B. Jähne; L. Nagel

Description: Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. A comparative study of simultaneous heat and gas exchange measurements was performed in the large annular Heidelberg Air–Sea Interaction Facility, the Aeolotron, under homogeneous water surface conditions. The use of two gas tracers, N2O and C2HF5, resulted not only in gas transfer velocities, but also in the...

Asher, W. E., Jessup, A. T., and Atmane, M. A.: Oceanic application of the active controlled flux technique for measuring air–sea transfer velocities of heat and gases, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C08S12, doi:10.1029/2003JC001862, 2004.; Atmane, M. A., Asher, W., and Jessup, A. T.: On the use of the active infrared technique to infer heat and gas transfer velocities at the air–water free surface, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C08S14...

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An Algorithm for Estimating Absolute Salinity in the Global Ocean ...

By: D. R. Jackett; F. J. Millero; T. J. McDougall

Description: Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research: A partnership between CSIRO and the Bureau of Meteorology, Hobart, TAS, Australia. To date, density and other thermodynamic properties of seawater have been calculated from Practical Salinity, S P. It is more accurate however to use Absolute Salinity, S A (the mass fraction of dissolved material in seawater). Absolute Salinity S A can be expressed in ...

Brewer, P. G. and Bradshaw, A.: The effect of non-ideal composition of seawater on salinity and density, J. Mar. Res., 33, 157–175, 1975.; Feistel, R.: A Gibbs function for seawater thermodynamics for −6 to 80 \textdegree C and salinity up to 120 g kg−1, Deep-Sea Res. I, 55, 1639–1671, 2008.; Feistel, R., Wright, D. G., Miyagawa, K., Harvey, A. H., Hruby, J., Jackett, D. R., McDougall, T. J., and Wagner, W.: Mutually consistent thermodynamic potentials for flu...

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An Eddy Resolving Tidal-driven Model of the South China Sea Assimi...

By: J. Zhu; F. Counillon; L. Bertino; J. Xie

Description: ICCES, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qi jia huo zi, De sheng men wai Street, Beijing 100029, China. The upper ocean circulation in the South China Sea (SCS) is driven by the Asian monsoon, the Kuroshio intrusion through the Luzon Strait, strong tidal currents, and a complex topography. Here, we demonstrate the benefit of assimilating along-track altimeter data into a nested configuration of the HYbrid Coordina...

Austin, J. A. and Lentz, S. J.: The inner shelf response to wind-driven upwelling and downwelling, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 2171–2193, 2002.; Antonov, J. I., Locarnini, R. A., Boyer, T. P., Mishonov, A. V., and Garcia, H. E.: World Ocean Atlas 2005, vol. 2: Salinity, edited by: Levitus, S., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 61, US Gov. Print. Off., Washington, D. C., 182 pp., 2006.; Arbic, B. K., Wallcraft, A., and Metzger, E. J.: Concurrent simulation of the eddying general circulation ...

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Black Sea Coastal Forecasting System : Volume 8, Issue 2 (14/03/2012)

By: V. L. Dorofeev; N. Valchev; Y. B. Ratner; A. Palazov; V. Malciu; A. I. Kubryakov; T. Oguz; G. K. Korotaev; R. Mateescu

Description: Marine Hydrophysical Institute (MHI), 2, Kapitanskaya Street, 99011, Sevastopol, Crimea, Ukraine. The Black Sea coastal nowcasting and forecasting system was built within the framework of EU FP6 ECOOP (European COastalshelf sea OPerational observing and forecasting system) project for five regions: the south-western basin along the coasts of Bulgaria and Turkey, the north-western shelf along the Romanian and Ukrainian coasts, coastal zone around of the ...

Blatov, A. S., Bulgakov, N. P., Ivanov, A. N., Kosarev, A. N., and Tujilkin, V.: Variability of the hydrodynamical fields in the Black Sea, Gidrometeoizdat, St. Petersburg, 240 pp., 1984 (in Russion).; Blumberg, A. F. and Mellor, G. L.: A description of a three-dimensional coastal ocean circulation model, in: Three Dimensional Coastal Ocean Models, edited by: Heaps, N. S., American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1–16, 1987.; Hunter, J. R.: OzPOM: A Version of the P...

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Carbon Export and Sequestration in the Southern Benguela Upwelling...

By: P. M. S. Monteiro; N. C. Swart; H. N. Waldron

Description: Department of Oceanography, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700, South Africa. Three independent studies of carbon export and sequestration in the southern Benguela upwelling system are presented. They were undertaken by Waldron (upwelling index), Monteiro (discrete upwelling centres – gate hypothesis model) and Swart (cross-shelf advection in bottom nelpheloid layers). The annual estimates were, 3.9×1013, 0.72×1013 and 8.6×10<...

Biscaye, P. E., Flagg, C. N., and Falkowski, P. G.: The Shelf Edge Exchange Processes experiment, SEEP-II an introduction to hypotheses, results and conclusions, Deep-Sea Res. II, 41(2/3), 231–252, 1994.; Brown, P. C., Painting, S. J., and Cochrane, K. L.: Estimates of phytoplankton and bacterial biomass and production in the northern and southern Benguela ecosystems, S. Afr. J. Marine Sci., 11, 537–564, 1991.; Chavez, F. P. and Toggweiler, J. R.: Physical Estimates of G...

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Detecting Changes in Labrador Sea Water Through a Water Mass Analy...

By: M. Tomczak; A. Henry-edwards

Description: School of Chemistry Physics and Earth Sciences, Flinders University of South Australia, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide SA 5001, Australia. A new water mass analysis technique is used to analyse the BATS oceanographic data set in the Sargasso Sea of 1988-1998 for changes in Labrador Sea Water (LSW) properties. The technique is based on a sequential quadratic programming method and requires careful definition of constraints to produce reliable results. Variations ...

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Atmospheric Forcing by Aladin/Mfstep and Mfstep Oriented Tunings :...

By: M. Belluš; M. Derková; A. Farda; R. Brožková

Description: Czech Hydrometeorological Institute, Prague, Czech Republic. ALADIN/MFSTEP is a configuration of the numerical weather prediction (NWP) model ALADIN run in a dedicated real-time mode for the purposes of the MFSTEP Project. A special attention was paid to the quality of atmospheric fluxes used for the forcing of fine-scale oceanographic models. This paper describes the novelties applied in ALADIN/MFSTEP initiated by the MFSTEP demands, leading also to im...

Green, J. S. A.: Division of radiative streams into internal transfer and cooling to space, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 93, 371–372, 1967.; Berre, L.: Estimation of synoptic and mesoscale forecast error covariances in a limited area model, Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 644–667, 2000.; Boer, G. J., Mc Farlane, N. A., Laprise, R., Henderson, J. D., and Blanchet, J.-P.: The Canadian Climate Centre spectral atmospheric general circulation model, Atmos.-Ocean, 22, 397–429, 1984.; Bougeau...

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Modelling the Cohesive Sediment Transport in the Marine Environmen...

By: K. D. Kombiadou; Y. G. Savvidis; Y. N. Krestenitis

Description: Laboratory of Maritime Engineering and Maritime Works, Division of Hydraulics and Environmental Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24, Thessaloniki, Greece. The transport of fine-grained sediments in the marine environment entails risks of pollutant intrusions from substances absorbed onto the cohesive flocks' surface, gradually released to the aquatic field. These substances include nutrients such as n...

Amos, C. L., Daborn, G. R., and Christian, H. A.: In situ erosion measurements on fine-grained sediments from the Bay of Fundy, Mar. Geology, 108, 175–196, 1992.; Amos, C. L., Feeney, T., Sutherland, T. F., and Luternauer, J. L.: The stability of fine-grained sediments from the Fraser River Delta, Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci., 45, 507–524, 1997.; Lykousis, V., Collins, M. B., and Ferentinos, G.: Modern sedimentation in the N.N. Aegean Sea, Mar. Geology, 43, 111–130, 1981.; ...

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Tidal Variability of the Motion in the Strait of Otranto : Volume ...

By: V. Kovačević; M. Gačić; L. Ursella

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS), B.go Grotta Gigante 42/c, 34010 Sgonico (TS), Italy. Various current data, collected in the Strait of Otranto during the period 1994–2007, have been analysed with the aim of describing the characteristics of the tidal motions and their contribution to the total flow variance. The principal tidal constituents in the area were the semi-diurnal (M2) and the diurnal (K1), with the latter o...

Torrence, C. and Webster, P. J.: Interdecadal changes in the ENSO-monsoon System, J. Climate, 12, 2679–2690, 1999.; Baines, P. G.: Internal tides, internal waves and near-inertial motions, in: Baroclinic Processes on Continental Shelves, edited by: Mooers, C. N. K., AGU, Washington, D.C., 19–31, 1986.; Beckenbach, E. and Terrill, E.: Internal tides over abrupt topography in the Southern California Bight: observations of diurnal waves poleward of the critical latitude, J....

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Laminae Type and Possible Mechanisms for the Formation of Laminate...

By: C. B. Lange; G. Kuhn; J. Pätzold; I. A. Seeberg-elverfeldt

Description: Research Center Ocean Margins, University of Bremen, P.O. Box 330440, 28334 Bremen, Germany. Laminated sediments in the Shaban Deep, a brine-filled basin in the northern Red Sea, were analyzed with backscattered electron imagery. Here we present possible mechanisms involved in the formation of laminae of various types and homogenous intervals arising from the detailed investigation of multicore GeoB 7805-1 (26°13.9' N and 35°22.6' E; water depth 1447 m) ...

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Application of a Hybrid Enkf-oi to Ocean Forecasting : Volume 6, I...

By: L. Bertino; P. Sakov; F. Counillon

Description: Mohn Sverdrup Center/Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center Thormøhlensgate 47, Bergen, Norway. Data assimilation methods often use an ensemble to represent the background error covariance. Two approaches are commonly used; a simple one with a static ensemble, or a more advanced one with a dynamic ensemble. The latter is often non-practical due to its high computational requirements. Some recent studies suggested using a hybrid co...

Bentsen, M., Evensen, G., Drange, H., and Jenkins, A. D.: Coordinate transformation on a sphere using conformal mapping, Mon. Weather Rev., 127, 2733–2740, 1999.; Bishop, C. H., Etherton, B. J., and Majumdar, S. J.: Adaptive sampling with the ensemble transform Kalman filter. Part I: Theoretical aspects, Mon. Weather Rev., 129, 420–436, 2001.; Browning, G. L. and Kreiss, H. O.: Initialization of the shallow water equations with open boundaries by the bounded derivative m...

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Thermophysical Property Anomalies of Baltic Seawater : Volume 6, I...

By: R. Pawlowicz; D. G. Wright; G. M. Marion; R. Feistel

Description: Leibniz-Institut für Ostseeforschung, Seestraße 15, 18119 Warnemünde, Germany. While the thermodynamic properties of Standard Seawater are very well known, the quantitative effect of sea salt composition anomalies on various properties is difficult to estimate since comprehensive lab experiments with the various natural waters are scarce. Coastal and estuarine waters exhibit significant anomalies which also influence to an unknown amount the routine sal...

Alberty, R. A.: Use of Legendre transforms in chemical thermodynamics, Pure Appl. Chem., 73, 1349–1380, 2001.; Brewer, P. G. and Bradshaw, A.: The effects of the non-ideal composition of seawater on salinity and density, J. Mar. Res., 33, 157–175, 1975.; Chen, C. T. and Millero, F. J.: Precise thermodynamical properties for natural waters covering only the limnological range, Limnol. Oceanogr., 31, 657–662, 1986.; Cockell, C. (Ed.): An Introduction to the Earth-Life Syst...

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The Multifractal Structure of Satellite Sea Surface Temperature Ma...

By: G. Larnicol; V. Nieves; E. Garcia-ladona; J. Font; M.-h. Rio; A. Turiel

Description: Institut de Ciències del Mar, CSIC, Barcelona, Spain. Nowadays Earth observation satellites provide information about many relevant variables of the ocean-climate system, such as temperature, moisture, aerosols, etc. However, to retrieve the velocity field, which is the most relevant dynamical variable, is still a technological challenge, specially in the case of oceans. New processing techniques, emerged from the theory of turbulent flows, have come t...

Arneodo, A., Argoul, F., Bacry, E., Elezgaray, J., and Muzy, J F.: Ondelettes, multifractales et turbulence, Diderot Editeur, Paris, France, 169 pp., 1995.; Bowen, M., Emery, W., Wilkin, J., Tildesley, P., Barton, I., and Knewtson, R.: Extracting multiyear surface currents from sequential thermal imagery using the Maximum Cross-correlation Technique, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 19, 1665–1676, 2002.; Chapron, B., Collard, F., and Ardhuin, F.: Direct measurement of ocean s...

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Sequential Assimilation of Multi-mission Dynamical Topography Into...

By: R. Savcenko; T. Janjić; S. Danilov; S. Skachko; W. Bosch; J. Schröter; D. Sidorenko

Description: Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bussestrasse 24, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany. This study focuses on an accurate estimation of ocean circulation via assimilation of satellite measurements of ocean dynamical topography into the global finite-element ocean model (FEOM). The dynamical topography data are derived from a complex analysis of multi-mission altimetry data combined with a referenced earth geoid. The assimilation is split int...

Albertella, A., Savcenko, R., Bosch, W., and Rummel, R.: Dynamic ocean topography – the geodetic approach, IAPG/FESG-Schriftenreihe, Nr. 27, Institut für Astronomische und Physikalische Geodäsie, Forschungseinrichtung Satellitengeodäsie, 64 pp., ISBN (Print) 978-3-934205-26-0, ISSN 1437-8280, 2008.; Bell, M., Martin, M., and Nichols, N.: Assimilation of data into an ocean model with systematic errors near the equator, Q. J. Roy Meteor. Soc., 130, 873–893, 2004.; Bosch, W...

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Transports and Budgets in a 1/4 ° Global Ocean Reanalysis 1989–201...

By: K. Haines; V. N. Stepanov; H. Zuo; M. Valdivieso

Description: ESSC and Dept. of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, RG6 6AL, UK. Large-scale ocean transports of heat and freshwater have not been well monitored, and yet the regional budgets of these quantities are important to understanding the role of the oceans in climate and climate change. In contrast, atmospheric heat and freshwater transports are commonly assessed from atmospheric reanalysis products, despite the presence of non-conserving data assim...

Adcroft A., Hill C., and Marshall, J.: Representation of topography by shaved cells in a height coordinate ocean model, Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 2293–2315, 1997.; Balmaseda, M. A., Vidard, A., and Anderson, D. L. T.: The ECMWF ORA-S3 ocean analysis system, Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 3018–3034, 2008a.; Barnier, B. and the DRAKKAR Group: Eddy-permitting ocean circulation hindcasts of past decades, Clivar Exchanges, 12, 8–10, 2007.; Barnier, B., Madec, G., Penduff, T., Molines, J. M....

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