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Indian Ocean Subtropical Mode Water: Its Water Characteristics and...

By: T. Suga; K. Hanawa; T. Tsubouchi

Description: Department of Geophysics, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan. We have improved a basic description (water characteristics and spatial distribution) of the Indian Ocean Subtropical Mode Water (IOSTMW) using an isopycnally averaged three-dimensional hydrographic dataset. Two mode waters and corresponding wintertime mixed layer depth maxima were observed north of the subtropical front (STF) in the South Indian Ocean: IOSTMW (within 25.8–26.2 ΣΘ) ...

Akima, H.: A new method of interpolation and smooth curve fitting based on local procedures, J. Assoc. Comput. Math., 17, 589–602, 1970.; Aoki, S., Hariyama, M., Mitsudera, H., Sasaki, H., and Sasai, Y.: Formation regions of Subantarctic Mode Water detected by OFES and Argo profiling floats, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L10606, doi:10.1029/2007GL029828, 2007.; Boyer, T. P., Stephens, C., Antonov, J. I., Conkright, M. E., Locarnini, R. A., O'Brien, T. D., and Garcia, H. E.: W...

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Comparison of N. Atlantic Heat Storage Estimates During the Argo P...

By: V. O. Ivchenko; M. Couldrey; N. C. Wells

Description: University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK. Ocean heat storage is an essential component of the climate system and there is considerable interest in its accurate evaluation. There are a number of heat storage products produced by many different groups. These products are derived from Argo as well as other platforms, for example XBT and CTD, in the last decade. Here we compare two heat storage estimates for the North At...

Ingleby, B. and Huddleston, M.: Quality control of ocean temperature and salinity profiles – historical and real-time data, J. Marine Syst., 65, 158–175 doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2005.11.019, 2007.; Ivchenko, V. O., Wells, N. C., and Aleynik, D. L.: Anomaly of heat content in the northern Atlantic in the last 7 years: is the ocean warming or cooling?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L22606,

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Mixing, Heat Fluxes and Heat Content Evolution of the Arctic Ocean...

By: A. Sirevaag; M. Tjernström; M. G. McPhee; I. Fer; M. Nicolaus; S. De La Rosa

Description: Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway. A comprehensive measurement program was conducted during 16 days of a 3 week long ice pack drift, from 15 August to 1 September 2008 in the Central Amundsen Basin, Arctic Ocean. The data, sampled as part of the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS), included upper ocean stratification, mixing and heat transfer as well as transmittance o...

Aagaard, K., Coachman, L. K., and Carmack, E.: On the halocline of the Arctic Ocean, Deep-Sea Res Pt. I, 28, 529, 1981.; Comiso, J. C.: Warming trends in the Arctic from clear sky satellite observations, J. Climate, 16, 3498–3510, 2003.; Alkire, M. B., Falkner, K. K., Rigor, I., Steele, M., and Morison, J.: The return of Pacific waters to the upper layers of the Central Arctic Ocean, Deep-Sea Res Pt. I, 54, 1509–1529, doi: 10.1016/j.dsr.2007.06.004, 2007.; Comiso, J. C.,...

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Enso Components of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and Their...

By: G. Dusek; J. Park

Description: NOAA Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services 1305 East West Highway, Silver Spring, MD, USA. The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) are known to influence coastal water levels along the East Coast of the United States. By identifying empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs), which coherently contribute from the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI) to the AMO index (AMOI), we characterize both the ...

Arguez, A., O'Brien, J. J., and Smith, S. R.: Air temperature impacts over Eastern North America and Europe associated with low-frequency North Atlantic SST variability, Int. J. Climatol., 29, 1–10, 2009.; Dong, B., Sutton, R. T., and Scaife, A. A.: Multidecadal modulation of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variance by Atlantic Ocean sea surface temperatures, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L08705, doi:10.1029/2006GL025766,...

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Mixing, Heat Fluxes and Heat Content Evolution of the Arctic Ocean...

By: M. Nicolaus; I. Fer; S. De La Rosa; M. G. McPhee; M. Tjernström; A. Sirevaag

Description: Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Norway. A comprehensive measurement program was conducted during 16 days of a 3 week long ice pack drift, from 15 August to 1 September 2008 in the central Amundsen Basin, Arctic Ocean. The data, sampled as part of the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS), included upper ocean stratification, mixing and heat transfer as well as transmittance solar radiation through t...

Sirevaag, A. and Fer, I.: Early Spring Oceanic Heat Fluxes and Mixing Observed from Drift Stations North of Svalbard, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39, 3049–3069, doi:10.1175/2009jpo4172.1, 2009.; Smedsrud, L. H., Sorteberg, A., and Kloster, K.: Recent and future changes of the Arctic sea-ice cover, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, doi:10.1029/2008gl034813, 2008.; Aagaard, K., Coachman, ...

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An Automated Gas Exchange Tank for Determining Gas Transfer Veloci...

By: M. E. Salter; R. C. Upstill-goddard; K. Schneider-zapp

Description: Ocean Research Group, School of Marine Science and Technology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. In order to advance understanding of the role of seawater surfactants in the air–sea exchange of climatically active trace gases via suppression of the gas transfer velocity (kw), we constructed a fully automated, closed air-water gas exchange tank and coupled analytical system. The system allows water-side turbulence in t...

Asher, W. E.: The effects of experimental uncertainty in parameterizing air-sea gas exchange using tracer experiment data, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 131–139, doi:10.5194/acp-9-131-2009, 2009.; Bock, E. J., Hara, T., Frew, N. M., and McGillis, W. R.: Relationship between air–sea gas transfer and short wind waves, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 25821–25831, doi:10.1029/1999JC900200...

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Structure and Forcing of the Overflow at the Storfjorden Sill and ...

By: I. Fer; L. H. Smedsrud; F. Geyer

Description: Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Thormølensgate 47, 5006 Bergen, Norway. Storfjorden (Svalbard) is a sill-fjord with an active polynya and exemplifies the dense water formation process over the Arctic shelves. Here we report on our simulations of Storfjorden covering the freezing season of 1999–2000 using an eddy-permitting 3-D ocean circulation model with a fully coupled dynamic and thermodynamic sea-ice model. The model results in the po...

Aagaard, K., Coachman, L. K., and Carmack, E.: On the halocline of the Arctic Ocean, Deep-Sea Res., 28A, 529–545, 1981.; Aagaard, K., Swift, J. H., and Carmack, E.: Thermohaline circulation in the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, J. Geophys. Res., 90, 4833–4846, 1985.; Anderson, L. G., Falck, E., Jones, E. P., Jutterstr{ö}m, S., and Swift, J. H.: Enhanced uptake of atmospheric CO2 during freezing of seawater: A field study in Storfjorden, Svalbard, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C0600...

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Modelling the Cohesive Sediment Transport in the Marine Environmen...

By: Y. G. Savvidis; K. D. Kombiadou; Y. N. Krestenitis

Description: Laboratory of Maritime Engineering and Maritime Works, Division of Hydraulics and Environmental Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124, Thessaloniki, Greece. The transport of fine-grained sediments in the marine environment entails risks of pollutant intrusions from substances absorbed onto the cohesive flocks' surface, gradually released to the aquatic field. These substances include nutrients such as ni...

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Technical Note: a Fully Automated Purge and Trap-gc-ms System for ...

By: S. C. Hackenberg; L. J. Carpenter; S. J. Andrews

Description: The University of York, York, YO10 5DD, UK. The oceans are a key source of a number of atmospherically important volatile gases. The accurate and robust determination of trace gases in seawater is a significant analytical challenge, requiring reproducible and ideally automated sample handling, a high efficiency of seawater–air transfer, removal of water vapour from the sample stream, and high sensitivity and selectivity of the analysis. H...

Asare, N. K., Turley, C. M., Nightingale, P. D., and Nimmo, M.: Microbially-mediated methyl iodide production in water samples from an estuarine system, J. Environ., 1, 75–83, 2012.; Beale, R., Liss, P. S., Dixon, J. L., and Nightingale, P. D.: Quantification of oxygenated volatile organic compounds in seawater by membrane inlet-proton transfer reaction/mass spectrometry, Anal. Chim. Acta, 706, 128–134, doi:10.1016/j.ac...

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The Impacts of Physical Processes on Oxygen Variations in the Nort...

By: J. L. S. Hansen; Z. Wan; J. She; L. Jonasson

Description: Danish Meteorological Institute, Lyngbyvej 100, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. The bottom water of the North Sea–Baltic Sea transition zone suffers from seasonal hypoxia, usually during late summer and autumn. These hypoxic events are critical for the benthic ecosystems and the concentration of dissolved oxygen is an important measure of the water quality. However, to model the subsurface dissolved oxygen is a major challenge, especially in estuaries and coa...

Andersson, L. and Rydberg, L.: Trends in nutrient and oxygen conditions within the Kattegat: Effects of local nutrient supply, Estuar. Coast. Shelf. S., 26, 559–579, 1988.; Andersson, L. and Rydberg, L.: Exchange of water and nutrients between the Skagerrak and the Kattegat, Estuar. Coast. Shelf. S., 36, 159–181, 1993.; Bendtsen, J., Gustavsson, K. E., Söderkvist, J., and Hansen, J. L. S.: Ventilation of bottom water in the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition zone, J. Marine...

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The Backward Îto Method for the Lagrangian Simulation of Transport...

By: D. Spivakovskaya; E. Deleersnijder; A. W. Heemink

Description: Department of Mathematical Physics, Delft Institute of Applied Mathematics (DIAM), Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft, The Netherlands. Random walk models are a powerful tool for the investigation of transport processes in turbulent flows. However, standard random walk methods are applicable only when the flow velocities and diffusivity are sufficiently smooth functions. In practice there are some regions where the rapid but contin...

Bj\oork, T.: Arbitrage Theory in Continuous Time. Oxford University Press, 1998.; Bolin, B. and Rodhe, H.: A note on concepts of age distribution and transit time in natural reservoirs, Tellus, 25, 58–62, 1973.; Braunschweig, F., Martins, F., Chambel, P., and Neves, R.: A methodology to estimate renewal time scales in estuaries: the Tagus Estuary case, Ocean Dynam., 53, 137–145, 2003.; Celia, M A., Russell, T F., Herrera, I., and Ewing, R E.: An Eulerian-Lagrangian local...

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On the Tides and Resonances of Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait : Volu...

By: D. J. Webb

Description: National Oceanography Centre, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK. The resonances of Hudson Bay, Foxe Basin and Hudson Strait are investigated using a~linear shallow water numerical model. The region is of particular interest because it is the most important region of the world ocean for dissipating tidal energy.

The model shows that the semi-diurnal tides of the region are dominated by four nearby overlapping resonances. It shows that these not o...

Arbic, B. K., St-Laurent, P., Sutherland, G., and Garrett, C.: On the resonance and influence of the tides in Ungava Bay and Hudson Strait, Geophys. Res. Lett, 34, L17606, doi:10.1029/2007/GL030845, 2007.; Egbert, G. D. and Erofeeva, S. Y.: Efficient inverse modeling of barotropic ocean tides, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 183–204, 2002.; Egbert, G. and Ray, R.: Estimates of $M_2$ tidal energy dissipation from TOPEX/Poseidon ...

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Silicon Pool Dynamics and Biogenic Silica Export in the Southern O...

By: L. André; F. Fripiat; F. Dehairs; D. Cardinal; A.-j. Cavagna; S. Speich

Description: Section of Mineralogy and Petrography, Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Belgium. Water column silicon isotopic signatures (Δ30Si) of silicic acid (Si(OH)4) in the Southern Ocean were measured along a meridional transect from South Africa (Subtropical Zone) down to 57° S (northern Weddell Gyre). These data are the first reported for a summer transect across the whole Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Δ30Si va...

Altabet, M. A. and Francois, R.: Nitrogen isotope biogeochemistry of the Antarctic Polar Frontal Zone at 170° W, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 48, 4247–4273, 2001.; Abraham, K., Opfergelt, S., Fripiat, F., Cavagna, A.-J., de Jong, J. T. M., Foley, S. F., André, L., and Cardinal, D.: $\delta ^{30}$Si and $\delta ^{29}$Si determinations on USGS BHVO-1 and BHVO-2 reference materials with a new configuration on a Nu Plasma Multi-Collector ICP-MS, Geostand. Geoanal. Res., 32(2), 193–...

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Mapping Flow Distortion on Oceanographic Platforms Using Computati...

By: B. Ward; N. O'Sullivan

Description: School of Physics and Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland. Ocean-Atmosphere Fluxes Eddy correlation (EC) is the most direct method to measure fluxes of trace gases over the Earth's surface. In its simplest form, an EC setup consists of a gas sensor and a sonic anemometer. EC is commonly used on land, but its adaptation at sea has proven difficult because of the marine environment, the motion of the research platform (ship or ...

Gagnon, L. and Richard, J. M.: Parallel CFD of a prototype car with OpenFOAM, Tech. rep., Dept of Mech. Eng., Laval University, Québec, Canada, 2010.; Castro, I. P. and Robins, A. G.: the flow around a surface mounted cube in uniform and turbulent streams, J. Fluids. Mech., 79, 307–335, 1977.; Broecker, W. S., Ledwell, J. R., Takahashi, T., Weiss, L. M. R., Memery, L., Peng, T. H., ihne, B. J., and Jnnich, K. O. M.: Isotopic versus micrometeorologic ocean {CO}2

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Distribution of Overwintering Calanus in the North Norwegian Sea :...

By: J. M. Pedersen; T. Semenova; D. Slagstad; A. Timonin; A. Edvardsen

Description: Department of Aquatic BioSciences, Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of Tromsø, 9037 Tromsø, Norway. During winter 2003 and 2004, zooplankton and hydrographic data were collected in the northern parts of the Norwegian Sea (68–72° N, 8–17° E) west of the Norwegian shelf break at depths down to 1800 m. The results cover both inter and intra annual changes of hydrography and distribution of Calanus spp. For the whole survey area, ave...

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Mixed Layer Sub-mesoscale Parameterization – Part 1: Derivation an...

By: M. S. Dubovikov; V. M. Canuto

Description: NASA, Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY, 10025, USA. Several studies have shown that sub-mesoscales (SM ~1 km horizontal scale) play an important role in mixed layer dynamics. In particular, high resolution simulations have shown that in the case of strong down-front wind, the re-stratification induced by the SM is of the same order of the de-stratification induced by small scale turbulence, as well as of that induced by the Ekman veloci...

Batchelor, G. K.: The theory of homogeneous turbulence, Cambridge Univ. Press, 195 pp., 1970.; Boccaletti, G., Ferrari, R., and Fox-Kemper, B.: Mixed layer instabilities and restratification, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37, 2228–2250, 2007.; Canuto, V. M. and Dubovikov, M. S.: A new approach to turbulence, Int. J. Mod. Phys., 12(18), 3121–3152, 1997.; Canuto, V. M., Dubovikov, M. S., and Yu, G.: A dynamical model for turbulence, IX. Reynolds stress spectra for shear-driven flows...

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Numerical Modelling of Physical Processes Governing Larval Transpo...

By: H. W. Van Der Veer; J. Van Der Molen; T. Gerkema; M. C. H. Tiessen; L. Fernard; P. Ruardij

Description: Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, the Netherlands. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model (GETM) was coupled with a particle tracking routine (GITM) to study the inter-annual variability in transport paths of particles in the North Sea and English Channel. For validation, a comparison with observed drifter trajectories was made. The aim was to investigate to what extent variability in the hydrodynamic con...

Aldridge, J., van der Molen, J., and Forster, R.: Wider ecological implications of Macroalgae cultivation, The Crown Estate, 2012.; Bergman, M. J. N., Veer, H. W., and Zulstra, J. J.: Plaice nurseries: effects on recruitment, J. Fish Biol., 33, 201–218, 1988.; Boero, F., Bouillon, J., and Gravili, C.: The life cycle of Hydrichthys mirus (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Anthomedusae: Pandeidae), Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 101, 189–199, 1991.; Bolle, L. J., Dickey-Collas, M., van Beek, J. K...

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Coastal Upwelling Along the Southwest Coast of India – Enso Modula...

By: V. Kovačević; M. Gačić; K. Muni Krishna

Description: Dept. of Meteorology and Oceanography, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam – 530 003, India. An index of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the Pacific during pre monsoon is shown to account for a significant part of the variability of coastal Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies measured a few months later within the wind driven southwest coast of India coastal upwelling region 7° N–14° N. This teleconnection is thought to result from an atmospheri...

Banse, K.: On upwelling and bottom-trawling off the southwest coast of India, J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. India, 1, 33–49, 1959.; Banse, K.: Hydrography of the Arabian Sea shelf of India and Pakistan and effects on dimersal fishes, Deep Sea Res., 15, 45–79, 1968.; Bohua Huang and Shukla, J.: Mechanisms for the Interannual Variability in the Tropical Indian Ocean. Part II: Regional Processes, J. Climate, 17, 2937–2960, 2007; Darbyshire, M.: The surface waters off the coast of Ke...

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Comparing Historical and Modern Methods of Sea Surface Temperature...

By: J. B. R. Matthews

Description: School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada. Sea surface temperature (SST) has been obtained from a variety of different platforms, instruments and depths over the past 150 yr. Modern-day platforms include ships, moored and drifting buoys and satellites. Shipboard methods include temperature measurement of seawater sampled by bucket and flowing through engine cooling water intakes. Here I review SST measurement met...

Collins, C. A., Giovando, L. F., and Abbott-Smith, K. B.: Comparison of Canadian and Japanese Merchant-Ship Observations of Sea-Surface Temperature in the Vicinity of Present Ocean Weather Station P, 1927–1933, J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can., 32, 253–258, doi:10.1139/f75-023, 1975.; Fedorov, K. N. and Ginsburg, A. I.: The Near-surface Layer of the Ocean, VSP, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 1992.; Ashford, O. M.: A new bucket for measureme...

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The Role of Atmosphere and Ocean Physical Processes in Enso : Volu...

By: G. J. Van Oldenborgh; M. Collins; B. J. J. M. Van Den Hurk; S. Y. Philip

Description: Royal Netherlands Institute of Meteorology, De Bilt, The Netherlands. We examine the behaviour of the El Niño – Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in an ensemble of global climate model simulations with perturbations to parameters in the atmosphere and ocean components respectively. The influence of the uncertainty in these parametrisations on ENSO are investigated systematically. The ensemble exhibits a range of different ENSO behaviour in terms of the...

AchutaRao, K. and Sperber, K. R.: ENSO simulation in coupled ocean-atmosphere models: are the current models better?, Climate Dyn., 27, 1–15, 2006.; AchutaRao, K. and Sperber, K. R.: Simulation of the El Niõ Southern Oscillation: Results from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Climate Dyn., 19, 191–209, 2002.; Annan, J. D., Hargreaves, J. C., Ohgaito, R., Abe-Ouchi, A., and Emori, S.: Efficiently constraining climate sensitivity with ensembles of paleoclimate sim...

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