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The Impacts of Physical Processes on Oxygen Variations in the Nort...

By: J. L. S. Hansen; Z. Wan; J. She; L. Jonasson

Description: Danish Meteorological Institute, Lyngbyvej 100, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. The bottom water of the North Sea–Baltic Sea transition zone suffers from seasonal hypoxia, usually during late summer and autumn. These hypoxic events are critical for the benthic ecosystems and the concentration of dissolved oxygen is an important measure of the water quality. However, to model the subsurface dissolved oxygen is a major challenge, especially in estuaries and coa...

Andersson, L. and Rydberg, L.: Trends in nutrient and oxygen conditions within the Kattegat: Effects of local nutrient supply, Estuar. Coast. Shelf. S., 26, 559–579, 1988.; Andersson, L. and Rydberg, L.: Exchange of water and nutrients between the Skagerrak and the Kattegat, Estuar. Coast. Shelf. S., 36, 159–181, 1993.; Bendtsen, J., Gustavsson, K. E., Söderkvist, J., and Hansen, J. L. S.: Ventilation of bottom water in the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition zone, J. Marine...

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Sensors for Observing Ecosystem Status : Volume 6, Issue 1 (23/04/...

By: N. Greenwood; D. B. Sivyer; J. D. Metcalfe; R. M. Forster; D. J. Pearce; S. Kröger; E. R. Parker

Description: Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk, NR33 0HT, UK. This paper aims to review the availability and application of sensors for observing marine ecosystem status. It gives a broad overview of important ecosystem variables to be investigated, such as biogeochemical cycles, primary and secondary production, species distribution, animal movements, habitats and pollutants. Some relevant legislati...

Gregg, W. W. and Casey, N. W.: Global and regional evaluation of the SeaWiFS chlorophyll data set, Remote Sens. Environ., 93, 463–479, 2004.; Arnold, G. P. and Dewar, H.: Electronic tags in marine fisheries research: a 30 year perspective., in: Electronic Tagging and Tracking In Marine Fisheries, edited by: Nielsen, J. R. S. J. L., Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 7–64, 2001.; Aylott, J. W., Richardson, D. J., and Russell, D. A.: Optical biosensing of n...

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On the Outflow of Dense Water from the Weddell and Ross Seas in Oc...

By: M. M. Mata; C. A. E. Garcia; R. Kerr; K. J. Heywood

Description: Laboratório de Estudos dos Oceanos e Clima, Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Rio Grande, RS, 96203-900, Brazil. We describe the seasonal and interannual variability of volume transports in the Weddell and Ross Seas using the 1/12° 20-yr simulation of the OCCAM global ocean general circulation model. The average simulated full-depth cumulative volume transports were 28.5 ± 2.9 Sv (1 Sv ≡ 106 m3 s

Aksenov, Y.: The sea ice-ocean global coupled ARCICE project report part 1: description of dynamical-thermodynamical sea ice model, SOC research & Consultancy Report, 83 pp., Southampton Oceanography Centre, 2002.; Aoki, S., Rintoul, S. R., Ushio, S., Watanab, S., and Bindoff, N. L.: Freshening of the Adelie Land Bottom Water near 140° E, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L23601, doi:10.1029/2005GL024246, 2005.; Assmann, K. M. an...

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Validation of Foam Near-surface Ocean Current Forecasts Using Lagr...

By: M. J. Martin; E. W. Blockley; P. Hyder

Description: Met Office, FitzRoy Road, Exeter, EX13PB, UK. In this study, the quality of near-surface current forecasts from the FOAM ocean forecasting system is assessed using the trajectories of Lagrangian drifting buoys. A method is presented for deriving pseudo-Eulerian estimates of ocean currents from the positions of Surface Velocity Program drifters and the resulting data are compared to velocities observed by the global tropical moored buoy array. A quantita...

Bonjean, F. and Lagerloef, G. S. E.: Diagnostic model and analysis of the surface currents in the tropical Pacific Ocean, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 2938–2954, 2002.; Brushett, B. A., King, B. A., and Lemckert, C. J.: Evaluation of met-ocean forecast data effectiveness for tracking drifters deployed during operational oil spill response in Australian waters, J. Coastal Res., SI64, 991–994, 2011.; Burchard, H.: Energy-conserving discretisation of turbulent shear and buoyancy...

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Numerical Implementation and Oceanographic Application of the Ther...

By: D. R. Jackett; J. H. Reissmann; U. Overhoff; D. G. Wright; C. Guder; R. Feistel; W. Wagner; K. Miyagawa; G. M. Marion; A. Feistel

Description: Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS, B2Y 4A2, Canada. The SCOR/IAPSO1 Working Group 127 on Thermodynamics and Equation of State of Seawater has prepared recommendations for new methods and algorithms for numerical estimation of the thermophysical properties of seawater. As an outcome of this work, a new International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater (TEOS-10) was endorsed by IOC/UNESCO2 in June 2009 as the official r...

Feistel, R.: A new extended Gibbs thermodynamic potential of seawater, Progr. Oceanogr., 58, 43–115, 2003.; Feistel, R.: Numerical implementation and oceanographic application of the Gibbs thermodynamic potential of seawater, Ocean Sci., 1, 9–16, 2005.; Feistel, R.: A Gibbs Function for Seawater Thermodynamics for −6 to 80 °C and Salinity up to 120 g/kg, Deep-Sea Res. I, 55, 1639–1671, 2008.; Feistel, R.: Extended Equation of State for Seawater at Elevated Temperature an...

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Adjustment of the Basin-scale Circulation at 26° N to Variations i...

By: S. A. Cunningham; T. Kanzow; A. Mujahid; H. L. Bryden

Description: National Oceanography Centre, Empress Dock, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK. The Rapid instrument array across the Atlantic Ocean along 26° N provides unprecedented monitoring of the basin-scale circulation. A unique feature of the Rapid array is the combination of full-depth moorings with instruments measuring temperature, salinity, pressure time series at many depths with co-located bottom pressure measurements so that dynamic pressure can be measured from s...

Cunningham, S. A., Rayner, D., and Marotzke, J., et al.: Rapid mooring cruise report April–May 2005, RRS Charles Darwin Cruise CD170 and RV Knorr Cruise KN182-2, National Oceanography Centre Southampton Cruise Report 2, Southampton, UK, 147 pp., 2006.; Johns, W. E., Beal, L. M., Baringer, M. O., Molina, J. R., Cunningham, S. A., Kanzow, T., and Rayner, D.: Variability of shallow and deep western boundary currents off the Bahamas during 2004–05: Results from the 26° N RAP...

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Simulation of the Mantle and Crustal Helium Isotope Signature in t...

By: P. Jean-baptiste; J.-c. Dutay; P. E. Fourré; M. Ayache

Description: Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE), IPSL, CEA/UVSQ/CNRS, Orme des Merisiers, Gif-Sur-Yvette, France. Helium isotopes (3He, 4He) are useful tracers for investigating the deep ocean circulation and for evaluating ocean general circulation models, because helium is a stable and conservative nuclide that does not take part in any chemical or biological process. Helium in the ocean originates from three diffe...

Allard, P.: Global emissions of helium-3 by subaerial volcanism, Geophys. Res. Lett., 19, 1479–1481, doi:10.1029/92GL00974, 1992a.; Allard, P.: Correction to Global emissions of helium-3 by subaerial volcanism, Geophys. Res. Lett., 19, 2103–2103, doi:10.1029/92GL02477, 1992b.; Andrie, C. and Merlivat, L.: Tritium in the western Mediterranean Sea during 1981 Phycemed cruise, De...

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An Ensemble Study of Extreme North Sea Storm Surges in a Changing ...

By: H. De Vries; R. Haarsma; H. Van Den Brink; A. Sterl; E. Van Meijgaard

Description: Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), P.O. Box 201, 3730 AE De Bilt, The Netherlands. The height of storm surges is extremely important for a low-lying country like the Netherlands. By law, part of the coastal defence system has to withstand a water level that on average occurs only once every 10 000 years. The question then arises whether and how climate change affects the heights of extreme storm surges. Published research points to ...

Coles, S.: An Introduction to Statistical Modeling of Extreme Values, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, London, Heidelberg, 208 pp., 2001.; Alexandersson, H., Schmith, T., Iden, K., and Tuomenvirta, H.: Long-term variations of the storm climate over NW Europe, Global Atmos. Oc. System, 6, 97–120, 1998.; Alexandersson, H., Tuomenvirta, H., Schmidth, T., and Iden, K.: Trends of storms in NW Europe derived from an updated pressure data set, Climate Res., 14, 71–73, 2000.; Bärring, L...

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Friction and Mixing Effects on Potential Vorticity for Bottom Curr...

By: E. Salusti; F. Falcini

Description: CNR-ISAC, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome, Italy. We discuss here the evolution of vorticity and potential vorticity (PV) for a bottom current crossing a marine channel in shallow-water approximation, focusing on the effect of friction and mixing. The purpose of this research is indeed to investigate the role of friction and vertical entrainment on vorticity and PV spatial evolution in channels or straits when along-channel morphology variat...

Bryden, H. L. and Kinder, T. H.: Steady two-layer exchange through the Strait of Gibraltar, Deep Sea Res. Pt. I, 38, S445–S463, 1991.; Armi, L. and Farmer, D.: The internal hydraulics of the Strait of Gibraltar and associated sills and narrows, Oceanol. Acta, 8, 37–46, 1985.; Astraldi, M., Gasparini, G. P., Gervasio, L., and Salusti, E.: Dense water dynamics along the Strait of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea), J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 3457–3475, 2001.; Baringer, M. O. N. and P...

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Decadal Variability and Trends of the Benguela Upwelling System as...

By: B. Hünicke; E. Zorita; N. Tim

Description: Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Coastal Research, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht, Germany. Detecting the atmospheric drivers of the Benguela upwelling systems is essential to understand its present variability and its past and future changes. We present a statistical analysis of a high-resolution (0.1°) ocean-only simulation driven by observed atmospheric fields over the last 60 years with the aim of identifying the large-scale atmosp...

McCabe, R. M., Hickey, B. M., Dever, E. P., and MacCready, P.: Seasonal cross-shelf flow structure, upwelling relaxation, and the alongshelf pressure gradient in the Northern California current system, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 45, 209–227, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-14-0025.1, 2015.; Narayan, N., Paul, A., Mulitza, S., and Schulz, M.: Trends in coastal upwelling intensity during the late 20th century, Ocean Sci., 6, 815–823, doi:

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Variational Assimilation of Lagrangian Trajectories in the Mediter...

By: S. Dobricic; D. Pettenuzzo; J. A. U. Nilsson; P.-m. Poulain; N. Pinardi

Description: National Institute of Geophysics and Vulcanology (INGV), Via Donato Creti 12, 40128 Bologna, Italy. A novel method for three-dimensional variational assimilation of Lagrangian data with a primitive-equation ocean model is proposed. The assimilation scheme was implemented in the Mediterranean ocean Forecasting System and evaluated for a 4-month period. Four experiments were designed to assess the impact of trajectory assimilation on the model output, i....

Coppini, G., De Dominicis, M., Zodiatis, G., Lardner, R., Pinardi, N., Santoleri, R., Colella, S., Bignami, F., Hayes, D. R., Soloviev, D., Georgiou, G., and Kallos, G.: Hindcast of oil-spill pollution during the Lebanon crisis in the {E}astern {M}editerranean, {J}uly–{A}ugust 2006, Mar. Pollut. Bul., 62, 140–153, doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2010.08.021, 2011.; Dobricic, S. and Pinardi, N.: An oceanographic three-...

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The Cora Dataset: Validation and Diagnostics of In-situ Ocean Temp...

By: C. Cabanes; S. Pouliquen; N. Ferry; F. Paris; V. Turpin; S. Guinehut; A. Grouazel; P.-y. Le Traon; G. Reverdin; M. Hamon; K. Von Schuckmann; C. Coatanoan; C. Boone; C. De Boyer Montégut; T. Carval

Description: Division Technique de l'INSU, UPS855, CNRS, Plouzané, France. The French program Coriolis, as part of the French operational oceanographic system, produces the COriolis dataset for Re-Analysis (CORA) on a yearly basis. This dataset contains in-situ temperature and salinity profiles from different data types. The latest release CORA3 covers the period 1990 to 2010. Several tests have been developed to ensure a homogeneous quality control of the dataset a...

Antonov, J. I., Locarnini, R. A., Boyer, T. P., Mishonov, A. V., and Garcia, H. E.: World Ocean Atlas 2005, Volume 2, Salinity, edited by: Levitus, S., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 62, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 182 pp., 2006.; Antonov, J. I., Seidov, D., Boyer, T. P., Locarnini, R. A., Mishonov, A. V., Garcia, H. E., Baranova, O. K., Zweng, M. M., and Johnson, D. R.: World Ocean Atlas 2009, Volume 2: Salinity, edited by: Levitus, S., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 69, US Go...

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A Simple and Self-consistent Geostrophic-force-balance Model of th...

By: J. Marotzke; J. Callies

Description: Ozean im Erdsystem, Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Bundesstraße 53, 20146 Hamburg, Germany. A simple model of the thermohaline circulation (THC) is formulated, with the objective to represent explicitly the geostrophic force balance of the basinwide THC. The model comprises advective-diffusive density balances in two meridional-vertical planes located at the eastern and the western walls of a hemispheric sector basin. Boundary mixi...

Adcroft, A., Scott, J. R., and Marotzke, J.: Impact of geothermal heating on the global ocean circulation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 1735–1738, doi:10.1029/2000GL012182, 2001.; Armi, L.: Some evidence for boundary mixing in the deep ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 83, 1971–1979, doi:10.1029/JC083iC04p01971, 1978.; Bryan, F.: High-latitude salinity effects and interhemispheric...

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A Fishery Observing System for the Collection of Fishery and Ocean...

By: N. Cingolani; E. Arneri; A. Belardinelli; A. Santojanni; P. Falco; A. Russo

Description: Istituto di Scienze Marine – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Sezione di Ancona, Largo Fiera della Pesca 60125, Ancona, Italy. Fishery Observing System (FOS) was developed as a first and basic step towards fish stock abundance nowcasting/forecasting within the framework of the EU research program Mediterranean Forecasting System: Toward an Environmental Prediction (MFSTEP). The study of the relationship between abundance and environmental parameters a...

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The Instability of Diffusive Convection and Its Implication for th...

By: S.-q. Zhou; X.-l. Song; L. Qu; Y.-z. Lu

Description: State Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, 164 West Xingang Road, Haizhu District, Guangzhou 510301, China. In the present study, the classical description of diffusive convection is updated to interpret the instability of diffusive interfaces and the dynamical evolution of the bottom layer in the deep Arctic Ocean. In the new consideration of convective instability, both the background salinity stratification...

Anschutz, P. and Blanc, G.: Heat and salt fluxes in the Atlantis II Deep (Red Sea), Earth Planet. Sc. Lett, 142, 147–159, doi:10.1016/0012-821X(96)00098-2, 1996.; BGOS: The hydrographic data measured by the Ice-Tethered Profiler 2 (ITP2) in Beaufort Gyre Observing System (BGOS) were used in the present work, available at: http://www.whoi.edu/itp (last access: 20 February 2014),...

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Arctic Rapid Sea Ice Loss Events in Regional Coupled Climate Scena...

By: T. Koenigk; R. Döscher

Description: SMHI/Rossby Centre Folkborgsvägen 1, 60176 Norrköping, Sweden. Rapid sea ice loss events (RILEs) in a mini-ensemble of regional Arctic coupled climate model scenario experiments are analyzed. Mechanisms of sudden ice loss are strongly related to atmospheric circulation conditions and preconditioning by sea ice thinning during the seasons and years before the event. Clustering of events in time suggests a strong control by large scale atmospheric circula...

Alexander, M., Bhatt, U., Walsh, J., Timlin, M., Miller, J., and Scott, J.: The atmospheric response to realistic Arctic sea ice anomalies in an AGCM during winter, J. Climate, 17, 890–905, 2.0.CO;2>doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<0890:TARTRA>2.0.CO;2, 2004.; Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, E., Armour, K. C., Bitz, C. M., and DeWeaver, E.: Persistence and Inherent Predictability of Arctic Sea Ice in a GCM Ensem...

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Internal Tides and Energy Fluxes Over Great Meteor Seamount : Volu...

By: H. Van Haren; T. Gerkema

Description: Royal NIOZ, P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands. Internal-tide energy fluxes are determined halfway over the southern slope of Great Meteor Seamount (Canary Basin), using data from combined CTD/LADCP yoyoing, covering the whole water column. The strongest signal is semi-diurnal and is concentrated in the upper few hundred meters of the water column. An indeterminacy in energy flux profiles is discussed; it is argued that a commonly app...

Hibiya, T., Nagasawa, M., and Niwa, Y.: Nonlinear energy transfer within the oceanic internal wave spectrum at mid and high latitudes, J. Geophys. Res., 107(C11), 3207, doi:10.1029/2001JC001210, 2002.; Dietrich, G.: Ozeanographie – physische Geographie des Weltmeeres, Georg Westermann Verlag, Braunschweig, 1970.; Egbert, G D. and Ray, R D.: Semi-diurnal and diurnal tidal dissipation from TOPEX/Poseidon altimetry, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1907, doi:10.1029/2003GL017676, 2...

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Seasonal Variability of Subsurface High Salinity Water in the Nort...

By: W. Zhuang; Y. Du; Y. Qi; A. Wang

Description: State Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography (LTO), South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 164 West Xingang Road, Guangzhou 510301, China. The North Pacific Tropical Water (NPTW), characterized by the subsurface high salinity (> 34.68 PSU), is observed in the South China Sea (SCS) and often used as an indicator of the water intrusion from the northwestern Pacific into the SCS. Based on the assimilation product from a g...

Chao, S.-Y., Shaw, P. T., and Wu, S. Y.: Deep sea ventilation in the South China Sea, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 43, 445–466, 1996.; Chen, Z. H.: Study on the multi time scale variability and dynamics of the North Equatorial Current Bifurcation in the Pacific, Ph.D. thesis, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, 114 pp., 2012 (in Chinese).; Centurioni, L. R., Niiter, P. P., and Lee, D. K.: Observations of inflow of Philippine Sea surface water into the South China Sea through the...

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Time and Space Variability of Freshwater Content, Heat Content and...

By: M. Marnela; A. Wisotzki; M. Korhonen; J. Zhao; B. Rudels

Description: Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland. The Arctic Ocean gains freshwater mainly through river discharge, precipitation and the inflowing low salinity waters from the Pacific Ocean. In addition the recent reduction in sea ice volume is likely to influence the surface salinity and thus contribute to the freshwater content in the upper ocean. The present day freshwater storage in the Arctic Ocean appears to be sufficient to maintain the upper...

Aagaard, K. and Carmack, E. C.: The role of sea ice and other fresh water in the Arctic circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 14 485–14 498, 1989.; Aagaard, K., Coachman, L. K., and Carmack, E. C.: On the halocline of the Arctic Ocean, Deep-Sea Res., 28, 529–545, 1981.; Anderson, L. G., Björk, G., Holby, O., Jones, E. P., Kattner, G., Koltermann, K.-P., Liljeblad, B., Lindegren, R., Rudels, B., and Swift, J. H.: Water masses and circulation in the Eurasian Basin: results fr...

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Assessment of the Importance of the Current-wave Coupling in the S...

By: M. Espino; R. Bolaños; A. Sánchez-arcilla; G. Jordà

Description: Institut Mediterrani d'Estudis Avançats (IMEDEA), c./Miquel Marqués 21, 07190 Esporles, Illes Balears, Spain. The effects of wave-current interactions on shelf ocean forecasts is investigated in the framework of the MFSTEP (Mediterranean Forecasting System Project Towards Enviromental Predictions) project. A one way sequential coupling approach is adopted to link the wave model (WAM) to the circulation model (SYMPHONIE). The coupling of waves and current...

Ardhuin, F. and Jenkins, A. D.: On the interaction of surface waves and the upper ocean turbulence, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 36, 551–557, 2006.; Auclair, F., Marsaleix, P., and Estournel, C.: The penetration of the northern current over the Gulf of Lion (western Mediterranean Sea) as a downscaling problem, Oceanol. Acta, 24, 529–544, doi:10.1016/S0399-1784(01)01166-5, 2001.; Baumert H., Chapalain, G., Smaoui, H., McManus, J. P., Yagi, H., Regener, M., Sundermann, J., and Szil...

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