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Problems with Estimating Oceanic Heat Transport – Conceptual Remar...

By: U. Schauer; A. Beszczynska-möller

Description: Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany. While the concept of oceanic heat transport – or rather heat transport divergence – is known since long, it is sometimes applied inaccurately. Often temperature transports are computed across sections with unbalanced volume flow which then depend entirely on the choice of the temperature scale. The consequences of such arbitrariness are demonstrated with a simple calculation e...

Cuny, J., Rhines Peter B. , and Kwok, R.: Davis Strait volume, freshwater and heat fluxes, Deep-Sea Res. I, 52(3), 519–542, 2005.; Fahrbach, E., Meincke, J., Østerhus, S., Rohardt, G., Schauer, U., Tverberg, V., and Verduin, J.: Direct measurements of volume transports through Fram Strait, Polar Res., 20(2), 217–224, 2001.; Hall, M. M. and Bryden, H. L.: Direct estimates and mechanisms of ocean heat transport, Deep-Sea Res. I, 29, 339–359, 1982.; Ingvaldsen, R. B., Aspli...

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Eastern Mediterranean Biogeochemical Flux Model – Simulations of t...

By: A. Pollani; G. Petihakis; G. Korres; G. Triantafyllou; I. Hoteit; K. Tsiaras

Description: Institute of Oceanography, Hellenic Center for Marine Research, P.O. BOX 2214, Iraklion-Crete Greece, GR 71003, Greece. During the second phase (2003–2006) of the Mediterranean ocean Forecasting System Project (MFS) named Toward Environmental Predictions (MFSTEP) one of the three major aims was the development of numerical forecasting systems. In this context a generic Biogeochemical Flux Model (BFM) was developed and coupled with hydrodynamic models alr...

Abdel-Hamid, M. I., Shaaban-Dessouki, S. A. and Skulberg, O. M.: Water quality of the River Nile in Egypt. 1. Physical and chemical characteristics, Archiv. Hydrobiol., 90, 283–310, 1992.; Aksnes, D. L. and Egge, J. K.: A theoretical model for nutrient uptake in phytoplankton, Marine Ecology Progress Series, 70, 65–72, 1991.; Allen, J. I., Ekenes, M., and Evensen, G.: An Ensemble Kalman Filter with a complex marine ecosystem model: Hindcasting phytoplankton in the Cretan...

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Unpredictability of Internal M2 : Volume 4, Issue 2 (20/03/2007)

By: H. Van Haren

Description: Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, The Netherlands. Current observations from a shelf sea, continental slopes and the abyssal North-East Atlantic Ocean are all dominated by the semidiurnal lunar (M2) tide. It is shown that motions at M2 vary at usually large barotropic and coherent baroclinic scales, >50 km horizontally and >0.5 H vertically. H represents the waterdepth. Such M2...

Baines, P. G.: On internal tide generation models, Deep-Sea Res., 29, 307–338, 1982.; Briscoe, M. G.: Preliminary results from the trimoored internal wave experiment (IWEX), J. Geophys. Res., 80, 3872–3884, 1975.; Egbert, G. D. and Ray, R. D.: Significant dissipation of tidal energy in the deep ocean inferred from satellite altimeter data, Nature, 405, 775–778, 2000.; Garrett, C. and St. Laurent, L.: Aspects of deep ocean mixing, J. Oceanogr., 58, 11–24, 2002.; Gemmrich,...

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Phytoplankton Distribution and Nitrogen Dynamics in the Southwest ...

By: J. F. Read; E. Pakhomov; M. I. Lucas; H. N. Waldron; S. J. Thomalla; I. J. Ansorge

Description: Department of Oceanography, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch, Cape Town 7701, South Africa. During the 1999 Marion Island Oceanographic Survey (MIOS 4) in late austral summer, a northbound and reciprocal southbound transect were taken along the Southwest Indian and Madagascar Ridge, between the Prince Edward Islands and 31° S. The sections crossed a number of major fronts and smaller mesoscale features and covered a wide productivity spec...

Allanson, B. R., Hart, R. C., and Lutjerharms, J. R. E.: Observations on the nutrients, chlorophyll and primary production of the Southern Ocean south of Africa, South African Journal of Antarctic Research, 10(11), 3–14, 1981.; Ansorge, I. J., Froneman, P. W., Pakhamov, E. A., Lutjerharms, J. R. E., Perissinotto, R., and van Ballegooyen, R. C.: Physical-biological coupling in the waters surrounding the Prince Edward Islands (Southern Ocean), Polar Biol., 21, 135–145, 199...

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Multifractal Analysis of Oceanic Chlorophyll Maps Remotely Sensed ...

By: S. Thiria; M. Jouini; S. Verrier; M. Crepon; L. De Montera

Description: Laboratoire d'Océanographie et du Climat, Expérimentation et Approches Numériques, UMR 7159, Paris, France. Phytoplankton patchiness has been investigated with multifractal analysis techniques. We analyzed oceanic chlorophyll maps, measured by the SeaWiFS orbiting sensor, which are considered to be good proxies for phytoplankton. Multifractal properties are observed, from the sub-mesoscale up to the mesoscale, and are found to be consistent w...

Aristegui, J., Alvarez-Salgado, X. A., Barton, E. D., Figueiras, F. G., Hernandez-Leon, S., Roy, C., and Santos, A. M. P.: Oceanography and Fisheries of the Canary Current/Iberian Region of the Eastern North Atlantic, The Sea, Vol. 14, Chap. 23, edited by: Robinson, A. R. and Brink, K. H., John Wiley and Sons, New York, 877–931, 2004.; Corrsin, S.: On the spectrum of isotropic temperature fluctuations in an isotropic turbulence, J. Appl. Phys., 22, 469–475, 1951.; Currie...

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Springtime Contribution of Dinitrogen Fixation to Primary Producti...

By: A. Levi; M. R. Mulholland; B. Herut; E. Rahav; I. Berman-frank

Description: Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900, Israel. Dinitrogen (N2) fixation rates were measured during early spring across the different provinces of Mediterranean Sea surface waters. N2 fixation rates, measured using 15N2 enriched seawater, were lowest in the eastern basin and increased westward with a maximum at the Strait of Gibraltar (0.10 to 2.35 nmol N L−...

Falkowski, P. G., Barber, R. T., and Smetacek, V.: Biogeochemical controls and feedbacks on ocean primary production, Science, 281, 200–206, 1998.; Bar Zeev, E., Yogev, T., Man-Aharonovich, D., Kress, N., Herut, B., Beja, O., and Berman-Frank, I.: Seasonal dynamics of the endosymbiotic, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Richelia intracellularis in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, ISME J., 2, 911–92. 2008.; Berman, T., Townsend, D. W., Elsayed, S. Z., Trees, C. C., and ...

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The Aegean Sea Marine Security Decision Support System : Volume 7,...

By: K. Nittis; G. Korres; G. Krokos; L. Perivoliotis

Description: Hellenic Center for Marine Research, 46,7 Km Athens-Sounion Road, Anavissos, 19013, Greece. As part of the integrated ECOOP (European Coastal Sea Operational observing and Forecasting System) project, HCMR upgraded the already existing standalone Oil Spill Forecasting System for the Aegean Sea, initially developed for the Greek Operational Oceanography System (POSEIDON), into an active element of the European Decision Support System (EuroDeSS). The syst...

Blumberg, A. F. and Mellor, G. L.: A description of a three- dimensional coastal ocean circulation model, in: Three-Dimensional Coastal Ocean Circulation Models, Coastal Estuarine Sci., Vol. 4, AGU, Washington DC, 1–16, 1987.; Delvigne, G. A. L. and Sweeney, C. E.: Natural dispersion of oil, Oil Chem. Pollut., 44, 281–310, 1988.; Gundlach, E. R.: Oil holding capacities and removal coefficients for different shoreline types to compute simulate spills in coastal waters, Pr...

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The Analysis of Large-scale Turbulence Characteristics in the Indo...

By: K. O'Driscoll; V. Kamenkovich

Description: Institute of Oceanography, Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Hamburg, Bundesstrasse 53, 20146 Hamburg, Germany. The analysis is presented of the distribution of deep ocean turbulence characteristics on the horizontal scale of order 100 km in the vicinity of the Lifamatola Sill, from the Southern Maluku Sea (north of the sill) to the Seram Sea (south of the sill). The turbulence characteristics were calculated with ...

van Aken, H. M., Punjanan, J., and Saimima, S.: Physical aspects of the flushing of the East Indonesian basins, Neth. J. Sea Res., 22, 315–339, 1988.; van Aken, H. M., Bennekom, A. J. V., Mook, W. G., and Postma, H.: Application of Munk's abyssal recipes to tracer distributions in the deep waters of the Southern Banda basin, Oceanol. Acta, 14, 151–162, 1991.; van Aken, H. M., Brodjonegoro, I. S., and Jaya, I.: The deep-water motion through the Lifamatola Passage and its ...

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The Influence of the Brazil and Malvinas Currents on the Southwest...

By: A. R. Piola; E. D. Palma; R. P. Matano

Description: College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. The oceanic circulation over the southwestern Atlantic shelf is influenced by large tidal amplitudes, substantial freshwater discharges, high wind speeds and – most importantly – by its proximity to two of the largest western boundary currents of the world ocean: the Brazil and Malvinas currents. This review article aims to discriminate the dynamical processes ...

Campos, E. J., Velhote, D., and da Silveira, I. C.: Shelf break upwelling driven by Brazil Current cyclonic meanders, Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 6, 751–754, 2000.; Acha, E. M., Mianzan, H. W., Guerrero, R. A., Favero, M., and Bava, J.: Marine fronts at the continental shelves of austral South America, physical and ecological processes, J. Mar. Syst., 44, 83–105, 2004.; Bianchi, A. A., Bianucci, L., Piola, A. R., Pino, D. R., Schloss, I., Poisson, A., and Balestrini, C. F.: ...

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Flow Separation of Intermediate Water in the Lees of Sills Off Tai...

By: L. T. Sun; C. S. Liu; J. B. Li; Q. S. Tang

Description: Key Laboratory of Marginal Sea Geology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China. Flow separation can occur when a stratified flow passes over an obstacle. Previous studies concerning flow separation are mostly observed in the shallow water regions, e.g., fjord, driven by tidal flows. In this study, a novel view of flow separations of the intermediate water over the Hengchun Ridge and Ryukyu Arc off Taiwan ...

Armi, L. and Farmer, D.: Stratified flow over topography: bifurcation fronts and transition to the uncontrolled state, P. Roy. Soc. London A Mat., 458, 513–538, doi:10.1098/rspa.2001.0887, 2002.; Baines, P. G.: Topographic Effects in Stratified Flows, Cambridge Monographs on Mechanics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York, 482 pp., 1995.; Belcher, S. E. and Hunt, J. C. R.: Turbulent flow over hills and waves...

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Improvements to the Phytodoas Method for Identification of Major P...

By: T. Dinter; B. Taylor; A. Bracher; M. Vountas; I. Peeken; A. Sadeghi

Description: Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany. The goal of this study was to improve PhytoDOAS, which is a new retrieval method for quantitative identification of major Phytoplankton Functional Types (PFTs) using hyper-spectral satellite data. PhytoDOAS is an extension of the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS, a method for detection of atmospheric trace gases), developed for remote identifi...

Aguirre-Gomez, R., Weeks, A. R., and Boxall, S. R.: The identication of phytoplankton pigments from absorption spectra, Int. J. Remote Sens., 22(2), 315–338, 2001.; Aiken, J., Fishwick, J. R., Lavender, S. J., Barlow, R., Moore, G., and Sessions, H.: Validation of MERIS reflectance and chlorophyll during the BENCAL cruise October 2002: preliminary validation of new products for phytoplankton functional types and photosynthetic parameters, Int. J. Remote Sens., 28, 497–51...

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Retroflection from a Double Slanted Coastline – a Model for the Ag...

By: D. Nof; W. Weijer; V. Zharkov

Description: Geophysical Fluid dynamics Institute, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Fl 32306, USA. The Agulhas leakage to the South Atlantic (SA) exhibits strong anti-correlations with the mass flux of the Agulhas Current. This is accompanied by the migration of the Agulhas retroflection whose normal position (NPR) is near Cape Agulhas, where the slant of the South African coast is very small. During periods of strong incoming flux (SIF), the retroflection shif...

Arruda, W. Z., Nof, D., and O'Brien, J. J.: Does the Ulleung eddy owe its existence to β and nonlinearities?, Deep-Sea Res., 51, 2073–2090, 2004.; Biastoch, A., Böning, C. W., and Lutjeharms, J. R. E.: Agulhas leakage dynamics affects decadal variability in Atlantic overturning circulation, Nature, 456, 489–492, 2008.; Bleck, R. and Boudra, D.: Wind-driven spin-up in eddy resolving ocean models formulated in isopycnic and isobaric coordinates, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 7611–...

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The Shallow Meridional Overturning Circulation of the South China ...

By: F. Cui; N. Zhang; J. Lan

Description: Physical Oceanography Laboratory, and College of Physical and Environmental Oceanography, Ocean University of China, Qing dao, China. In this paper, the structure and formation mechanism of the annual-mean shallow meridional overturning circulation of the South China Sea (SCS) are investigated. A distinct clockwise overturning circulation is present above 400 m in the SCS on the climatological annual mean scale. The shallow meridional overturning circu...

Huang, Q., Wang, W., Li, Y., and Li, C.: Current characteristics of the South China Sea, Oceanology of China Sea, 1, 39–47, 1994.; Cabanes, C., Lee, T., and Fu, L.: Mechanisms of interannual variations of the meridional overturning circulation of the north Atlantic Ocean, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38, 467–480, 2008.; Carton, J. A., Chepurin, G., and Cao, X.: A simple ocean data assimilation analysis of the global upper ocean 1950–1995. Part I: Methodology, J. Phys. Oceanogr., ...

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Sensitivity of Oxygen Dynamics in the Water Column of the Baltic S...

By: A. Stips; S. Miladinova

Description: CEC Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Ispra (VA), Italy. A 1-D biogeochemical/physical model of marine systems has been applied to study the oxygen cycle in four stations of different sub-basins of the Baltic Sea, namely, in the Gotland Deep, Bornholm, Arkona and Fladen. The model consists of the biogeochemical model of Neumann et al. (2002) coupled with the 1-D General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM). The model has been ...

Axell, L. B.: On the variability of Baltic Sea deep-water mixing, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 667–682, 1998.; Blackford, J. C, Allen, J. I., and Gilbert, F. J.: Ecosystem dynamics at six contrasting sites: a generic modelling study, J. Marine Syst. 52, 191–215, 2004.; Bonsdorff, E., Rönnberg, C., and Aarnio, R.: Some ecological properties in relation to eutrophication in the Baltic Sea, Hydrobiologia, 475/476, 371–377, 2002.; Lass, H. U. and Mohrholz, V.: On dynamics and mixi...

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Ventilation of the Mediterranean Sea Constrained by Multiple Trans...

By: T. Tanhua; T. Stöven

Description: Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, GEOMAR, Kiel, Germany. Ventilation is the primary pathway for atmosphere–ocean boundary perturbations, such as temperature anomalies, to be relayed to the ocean interior. It is also a conduit for gas exchange between the interface of atmosphere and ocean. Thus it is a mechanism whereby, for instance, the ocean interior is oxygenated and enriched in anthropogenic carbon. The ventilation of the Mediterranean Sea i...

Artegiani, A., Bregant, D., Paschini, E., Pinardi, N., Raicich, F., and Russo, A.: The Adriatic Sea General Circulation. Part I: Air-Sea Interactions and Water Mass Structure, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 1492–1514, 1996a.; Artegiani, A., Bregant, D., Paschini, E., Pinardi, N., Raicich, F., and Russo, A.: The Adriatic Sea General Circulation. Part II: Baroclinic Circulation Structure, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 1515–1532, 1996b.; Bullister, J., Wisegarver, D., and Menzia, F.: Th...

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Spectrophotometric High-precision Seawater Ph Determination for Us...

By: S. Aßmann; C. Frank; A. Kötzinger

Description: Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Coastal Research, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht, Germany. Autonomous sensors are required for a comprehensive documentation of the changes in the marine carbon system and thus to differentiate between its natural variability and anthropogenic impacts. Spectrophotometric determination of pH – a key variable of the seawater carbon system – is particularly suited to achieve precise and drift-f...

Dickson, A. G.: pH scales and proton-transfer reactions in saline media such as sea water, Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac., 48, 2299–2308, doi:10.1016/0016-7037(84)90225-4, 1984.; Dickson, A. G.: The measurement of sea water pH, Mar. Chem., 44, 131–142, doi:10.1016/0304-4203(93)90198-W, 1993.; Bellerby, R. G. J., Olsen, A., Johannessen, T., and Croot, P.: A high ...

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Regional Impacts of Ocean Color on Tropical Pacific Variability : ...

By: A. Wittenberg; A. Gnanadesikan; W. Anderson

Description: NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton NJ, USA. The role of the penetration length scale of shortwave radiation into the surface ocean and its impact on tropical Pacific variability is investigated with a fully coupled ocean, atmosphere, land and ice model. Previous work has shown that removal of all ocean color results in a system that tends strongly towards an El Niño state. Results from a suite of surface chlorophyll perturbation exper...

Gnanadesikan, A. and Anderson, W. G.: Ocean water clarity and the ocean general circulation in a coupled climate model, J Phys. Oceanogr., 39(2), 314–332., 2009.; Anderson, W. G., Gnanadesikan, A., Hallberg, R., Dunne, J., and Samuels, B L.: Impact of ocean color on the maintenance of the Pacific Cold Tongue, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34(11), L11609, doi:10.1029/2007GL030100, 2007.; Ballabrera-Poy, J., Murtugudde, R., Zhang, R. H., and Busalacchi, A. J.: Coupled ocean-atmosph...

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Development of a New Expendable Probe for the Study of Pelagic Eco...

By: U. Mainardi; A. Di Maio; M. Marcelli; G. M. R. Manzella; D. Donis

Description: Department DECOS, Tuscia University, Via S. Giovanni Decollato n.1, 01100 Viterbo, Italy. Physical and biological processes of the marine ecosystem have a high spatial and temporal variability, whose study is possible only through high resolution and synoptic observations. The T-FLAP (Temperature and Fluorescence LAunchable Probe) was charted in order to answer to the claim of a cost effective temperature and fluorescence expendable profiler, to be used...

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Short-term Impacts of Enhanced Greenland Freshwater Fluxes in an E...

By: J. L. Bamber; B. A. De Cuevas; Y. Aksenov; D. Desbruyères; R. Marsh; A. C. Coward

Description: School of Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, European Way, Southampton, Hampshire SO14 3ZH, UK. In a sensitivity experiment, an eddy-permitting ocean general circulation model is forced with realistic freshwater fluxes from the Greenland Ice Sheet, averaged for the period 1991–2000. The fluxes are obtained with a mass balance model for the ice sheet, forced with the ERA-40 reanalysis dataset. The freshwater flux is distributed around Gre...

Bacon, S., Reverdin, G., Rigor, I. G., and Snaith, H. M.: A freshwater jet on the east Greenland Shelf, J. Geophys. Res., 107(C7), 1–5, doi:10.1029/2001JC000935, 2002.; Bigg, G. R., Wadley, M. R., Stevens, D. P., and Johnson, J. A.: Modelling the dynamics and thermodynamics of icebergs, Cold Regions Sci. Technol., 26, 113–135, 1997.; Bougamont, M., Bamber J. L., and Greuell, W.: A surface mass balance model for the Greenland Ice Sheet, J. Geophys. Res., 110, F04018, doi:...

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Technical Note: a Fully Automated Purge and Trap Gc-ms System for ...

By: S. C. Hackenberg; L. J. Carpenter; S. J. Andrews

Description: Wolfson Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratories, Department of Chemistry, The University of York, York, YO105DD, UK. The oceans are a key source of a number of atmospherically important volatile gases. The accurate and robust determination of trace gases in seawater is a significant analytical challenge, requiring reproducible and ideally automated sample handling, a high efficiency of seawater–air transfer, removal of water vapour from the sample...

Asare, N. K., Turley, C. M., Nightingale, P. D., and Nimmo, M.: Microbially-mediated methyl iodide production in water samples from an estuarine system, J. Environ., 1, 75–83, 2012.; Beale, R., Liss, P. S., Dixon, J. L., and Nightingale, P. D.: Quantification of oxygenated volatile organic compounds in seawater by membrane inlet-proton transfer reaction/mass spectrometry, Anal. Chim. Acta, 706, 128–134, doi:10.1016/j.ac...

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