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Characterisation and Quantification of Regional Diurnal Sst Cycles...

By: J. L. Høyer; I. Karagali

Description: DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Risø Campus, Building 125, Roskilde, 4000, Denmark. Hourly SST (sea surface temperature) fields from the geostationary Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) offer a unique opportunity for the characterisation and quantification of the diurnal cycle of SST in the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea and the northern European shelf seas. Six years of SST fields from SEVIRI are valida...

Bellenger, H. and Duvel, J. P.: An analysis of ocean diurnal warm layers over tropical oceans, J. Climate, 22, 3629–3646, 2009.; Bellenger, H., Takayabu, Y. N., Ushiyama, T., and Yoneyama, K.: Role of diurnal warm layers in the diurnal cycle of convection over the tropical Indian Ocean during MISMO, Mon. Weather Rev., 138, 2426–2433, 2010.; Castro, S., Wick, G., and Buck, J. J. H.: Comparison of diurnal warming estimates from unpumped ARGO data and SEVIRI satellite obser...

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Super-ensemble Techniques Applied to Wave Forecast: Performance an...

By: J. Chiggiato; C. Troupin; M. Rixen; J.-m. Beckers; F. Lenartz; L. Vandenbulcke

Description: NATO Undersea Research Centre (NURC), Viale San Bartolomeo 400, 19126 La Spezia, Italy. Nowadays, several operational forecasts of surface gravity waves are available for a same region through different forecasting systems. However, their results may considerably diverge, and choosing one single forecasting system among them is not an easy task. A recently developed approach consists in merging different forecasts and past observations into a single mul...

Cavaleri, L. and Bertotti, L.: In search of the correct wind and wave fields in a minor basin, Mon. Weather Rev., 125, 1964–1975, 1997.; Ardhuin, F., Jenkins, A. D., Hauser, D., Reniers, A., and Chapron, B.: Waves and operational oceanography: toward a coherent description of the upper ocean, Eos Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 86, 37–44, 2005.; Booij, N., Ris, R. C., and Holthuijsen, L. H.: A third-generation wave model for coastal regions{.} P}art1{. {M}odel ...

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Recirculation in the Fram Strait and Transports of Water in and No...

By: M. Marnela; M.-n. Houssais; P. B. Eriksson; B. Rudels; A. Beszczynska-möller

Description: Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland. The volume, heat and freshwater transports in the Fram Strait are estimated from geostrophic computations based on summer hydrographical data from 1984, 1997, 2002 and 2004. In these years, in addition to the usually sampled section along 79° N, a section between Greenland and Svalbard was sampled further north. Quasi-closed boxes bounded by the two sections and Greenland and Svalbard can then be form...

Aagaard, K. and Carmack, E. C.: The role of sea ice and other fresh water in the Arctic circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 14485–14498, 1989.; Aagaard, K. and Greisman, P.: Toward new mass and heat budgets for the Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 80, 3821–3827, 1975.; Aagaard, K., Darnall, C., and Greisman, P.: Year-long current measurements in the Greenland-Spitsbergen Passage, Deep Sea Res., 20, 743–746, 1973.; Beszczynska-Möller, A., Fahrbach, E., Schauer, U., and Hans...

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Adding Nitrate and Phosphate Separately or Together in the Central...

By: Z. J. Wu; L. Jiang; S. Tang

Description: Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China. Nutrient enrichment experiments were carried out in the Central Indian Ocean during the Chinese First Around-the world Research Cruise, adding nitrate, phosphate, or a mixture of both of them to surface seawater. The concentration of nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and phosphate were analyzed spectrophotometrically, the chlorophyll-a concentration with f...

Chen, Y. L. L., Chen, H. Y., Karl, D. M., and Takahashi, M.: Nitrogen modulates phytoplankton growth in spring in the South China Sea, Cont. Shelf Res., 24, 527–541, 2004.; Dufour, P. and Berland, B.: Nutrient control of phytoplanktonic biomass in atoll lagoons and Pacific Ocean waters: Studies with factorial enrichment bioassays, J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 234, 147–166, 1999.; Eppley, R. W.: Temperature and phytoplankton growth in the sea, Fish. B., 70, 1063–1085, 1972.;...

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Computation of a New Mean Dynamic Topography for the Mediterranean...

By: A. Pascual; P.-m. Poulain; M. Menna; B. Barceló; M.-h. Rio; J. Tintoré

Description: CLS Space Oceanography Division, Ramonville-Ste Agne, France. The accurate knowledge of the ocean's mean dynamic topography (MDT) is a crucial issue for a number of oceanographic applications and, in some areas of the Mediterranean Sea, important limitations have been found pointing to the need of an upgrade. We present a new MDT that was computed for the Mediterranean Sea. It profits from improvements made possible by the use of extended data sets and ...

Adani, M., Dobricic, S., and Pinardi, N.: Quality Assessment of a 1985–2007 Mediterranean Sea Reanalysis, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 28, 569–589, 2011.; Alemany, F., Quintanilla, L., Velez-Belchí, P., García, A., Cortés, D., Rodríguez, J. M., Fernández de Puelles, M. L., González-Pola, C., and López-Jurado, J. L.: Characterization of the spawning habitat of Atlantic bluefin tuna and related species in the Balearic Sea (western Mediterranean), Prog. Oceanogr., 86, 21–38, 201...

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Assessment of Sensor Performance : Volume 6, Issue 1 (17/02/2010)

By: R. D. Prien; P. Fietzek; M. Tamburri; C. Waldmann

Description: Bremen University/MARUM, Bremen, Germany. There is an international commitment to develop a comprehensive, coordinated and sustained ocean observation system. However, a foundation for any observing, monitoring or research effort is effective and reliable in situ sensor technologies that accurately measure key environmental parameters. Ultimately, the data used for modelling efforts, management decisions and rapid responses to ocean hazards are only as...

AMS Applied Microsystems: What is the difference between accuracy and precision?, online available at: http://www.appliedmicrosystems.com/Products/Services/Conductivity Calibration.aspx, 2008.; Bacon, S., Culkin, F., Higgs, N., and Ridout, P.: IAPSO standard seawater: definition of the uncertainty in the calibration procedure and stability of recent batches, J. Atmos. Ocean. Te...

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Southern Ocean Overturning Across Streamlines in an Eddying Simula...

By: S. R. Rintoul; G. Madec; M. H. England; J.-m. Molines; J. Le Sommer; A. M. Treguier

Description: Laboratoire de Physique de Oceans, CNRS-IFREMER-UBO, Plouzané, France. An eddying global model is used to study the characteristics of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) in a streamline-following framework. Previous model-based estimates of the meridional circulation were calculated using zonal averages: this method leads to a counter-intuitive poleward circulation of the less dense waters, and underestimates the eddy effects. We show that on the c...

Barnier, B., Madec, G., Penduff, T., Molines, J.M., Treguier, A.M., Le Sommer, J., Beckmann, A., Biastoch, A., Böning, C., Dengg, J., Derval, C., Durand, E., Gulev, S., Remy, E., Talandier, C., Theetten, S., Maltrud, M., McClean, J., and De Cuevas, B.: Impact of partial steps and momentum advection schemes in a global ocean circulation model at eddy permitting resolution, Ocean Dynam., doi:10.1007/s10236-006-0082-1, 2006. \bibitem[]brodeau2007 Brodeau L.: Contribution à ...

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Precipitation of Solid Phase Calcium Carbonates and Their Effect o...

By: F. J. Millero; R. Feistel; G. M. Marion

Description: Desert Research Institute, 2215 Raggio Parkway, Reno, NV 89512, USA. At the present time, little is known about how broad salinity and temperature ranges are for seawater thermodynamic models that are functions of absolute salinity (SA), temperature (T) and pressure (P). Such models rely on fixed compositional ratios of the major components (e.g., Na/Cl, Mg/Cl, Ca/Cl, SO4/Cl, etc.). As seawater evaporates or fre...

Assur, A.: Composition of sea ice and its tensile strength, in: Arctic Sea Ice, Publication 598, National Acad. Sci.-Nat. Res. Council, Washington, DC, 106–138, 1958.; Bischoff, J. L., Fitzpatrick, J. A., and Rosenbauer, R. J.: The solubility and stabilization of ikaite (CaCO36H2O) from 0° to 25°C: Environmental and paleoclimatic implications for thinolite tufa, J. Geol., 101, 21–33, 1993.; Feistel, R.: A new extended Gibbs thermodynamic potential o...

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Three Decades of Research on the Greater Agulhas Current : Volume ...

By: J. R. E. Lutjeharms

Description: Department of Oceanography, University of Cape Town, 7700 Rondebosch, South Africa. The greater Agulhas Current has been shown to be a key link in the global thermohaline circulation and an increased understanding of this current system is therefore of more than just local interest. Knowledge on the Agulhas Current system has in fact increased enormously over the past 30 years. This review covers some aspects of what has been learnt on the northern and ...

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On the Indonesian Throughflow in the Occam 1/4 Degree Ocean Model ...

By: D. J. Webb; U. W. Humphries

Description: King Monghut's Institute of Technology, Thailand. The Indonesian Throughflow is analysed in two runs of the OCCAM 1/4 degree global ocean model, one using monthly climatological winds and one using ECMWF analysed six-hourly winds for the period 1993 to 1998. The long-term model throughflow agrees with observations and the value predicted by Godfrey's Island Rule. The Island Rule has some skill in predicting the annual signal each year but is poor at pre...

Molcard, R., Ilahude, A. G., Fieux, M., Swallow, J. C., and Banjarnahor, J.: Low frequency variability of the currents in Indonesian Channels (Savu-Roti M1 and Roti-Ashmore Reef M2), Deep Sea Res., 41, 1643–1662, 1994.; Murray, S. P. and Arief, D.: Throughflow into the Indian Ocean through the Lombok Strait, January 1985–January 1986. Nature 333, 444–447, 1988.; Murray, S. P., Arief, D., Kindle, J. C., and Hurlburt, H. E.: Characteristics of circulation in an Indonesian ...

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Numerical Simulations of Spreading of the Persian Gulf Outflow Int...

By: A. H. Javid; A. A. Bidokhti; M. Ezam

Description: Faculty of Marine Science and Technology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, P. O. Box 14155-775, Tehran, Iran. A three dimensional numerical model namely, (Princeton Ocean Model) and some observational data are used to study the Persian Gulf outflow structure and its spreading pathways during two different time of the year, mid-winter and early summer. A few available observations show that the Persian Gulf outflow source water exhibi...

Bidokhti, A. A. and Ezam, M.: The structure of the Persian Gulf outflow subjected to density variations, Ocean Sci., 5, 1–12, 2009.; Bidokhti, A. A.: Shear induced splitting of a plume outflow in a stratified enclosed basin, Indian J. Mar. Sci., 34(2), 192–211, 2005.; Blumberg, A. F. and Mellor, G. L.: A description of a three-dimensional coastal ocean circulation model, In Three-Dimensional Coastal Ocean Models, edited by: Heaps, N., American Geophysical Union, 1–16, 19...

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Chl A Trends in European Seas Estimated Using Ocean-colour Product...

By: V. Lyubarstev; N. Pinardi; S. Colella; R. Santoleri; G. Coppini; T. Christiansen

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Bologna, Italy. Ocean-colour remote-sensing products have been used to estimate Chl a trends in European seas. This work aims to develop a new indicator based on ocean-colour data for the European Environment Agency (EEA). The new indicator, called CSI023(+), produced from satellite ocean-colour products from the MyOcean Marine Core Service (www.myocean....

D'Ortenzio, F. and Ribera d'Alcalà, M.: On the trophic regimes of the Mediterranean Sea: a satellite analysis, Biogeosciences, 6, 139–148, doi:10.5194/bg-6-139-2009, 2009.; Ferreira, J. G., Andersen, J. H., Borja, A., Bricker, S. B., Camp, J., Cardoso da Silva, M., Garcés, E., Heiskanen, A.-S., Humborg, C., Ignatiades, L., Lancelot, C., Menesguen, A., Tett, P., Hoepffner, N., and Claussen, U.: Overview of eutrophication...

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A 20-yr Reanalysis Experiment in the Baltic Sea Using Three Dimens...

By: W. Fu; M. Dobrynin; J. She

Description: Center for Ocean and Ice (COI), Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI), Copenhagen, 2100, Denmark. A 20-year retrospective reanalysis of the ocean state in the Baltic Sea is constructed using three dimensional variational (3DVAR) data assimilation combining an operational numerical model with available historical temperature (T) and salinity (S) profiles. To determine the accuracy of the reanalysis, the authors present a series of comparison...

Byrd, R. H., Lu, P., Nocedal, J., and Zhu, C.: A limited memory algorithm for bound constrained optimization, SIAM J. Sci. Comput. 16, 1190–1208, 1995.; Bengtsson, L., Hagermann, S., and Hodges, K. I.: Can climate trends be calculated from reanalysis data? J. Geophys. Res., 109, D11111, doi:10.1029/2004JD004536, 2004.; Carton, J. A., Giese, B. S., and Grodsky, S. A.: Sea level rise and the warming of the oceans in the Si...

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Thermodynamic Properties of Standard Seawater : Volume 6, Issue 1 ...

By: R. Feistel; A. Heintz; F. Millero; E. Hassel; J. Safarov

Description: Lehrstuhl für Technische Thermodynamik, Universität Rostock, Albert-Einstein-Str. 2, 18059 Rostock, Germany. (p, ρ, T) data of standard seawater with practical salinity S≈35 (corresponding to an absolute salinity SA≈35.16504 g/kg) measured at T=(273.14 to 468.06) K and pressures up to p=140 MPa are reported with an estimated experimental relative combined standard uncertainty of 0.006% in density. The ...

Archer, D. G.: Thermodynamic Properties of the NaCl+H2O System. II. Thermodynamic Properites of NaCl (aq), NaCl·2H2O(cr) and Phase Equilibria, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 21, 793–829, 1992.; Bradshaw, A. and Schleicher, K. E.: Direct measurements of thermal expansion of seawater under pressure, Deep Sea Res., 17, 691–706, 1970.; Bradshaw, A. and Schleicher, K. E.: Compressibility of distilled water and seawater, Deep Sea Res., 23, 583–593, 1976.; Cald...

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The Low-resolution Ccsm2 Revisited: New Adjustments and a Present-...

By: M. Prange

Description: MARUM – Center for Marine Environmental Sciences and Department of Geosciences, University of Bremen, Klagenfurter Str., 28334 Bremen, Germany. The low-resolution (T31) version of the Community Climate System Model CCSM2.0.1 is revisited and adjusted by deepening the Greenland-Scotland ridge, changing oceanic mixing parameters, and applying a regional freshwater flux adjustment at high northern latitudes. The main purpose of these adjustments is to mainta...

AchutaRao, K. and Sperber, K. R.: Simulation of the El Niño Southern Oscillation: Results from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Clim. Dynam., 19, 191–209, 2002.; AchutaRao, K. and Sperber, K. R.: ENSO simulation in coupled ocean-atmosphere models: are the current models better?, Clim. Dynam., 27, 1–15, 2006.; Alley, R. B. and Agustsdottir, A. M.: The 8k event: Cause and consequences of major Holocene abrupt climate change, Quat. Sci. Rev., 24, 1123–1149, 2005.;...

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Controlling Atmospheric Forcing Parameters of Global Ocean Mode...

By: B. Barnier; J. Verron; N. Ferry; J.-m. Brankart; C. Skandrani; P. Brasseur

Description: LEGI/CNRS, Grenoble, France. In the context of stand alone ocean models, the atmospheric forcing is generally computed using atmospheric parameters that are derived from atmospheric reanalysis data and/or satellite products. With such a forcing, the sea surface temperature that is simulated by the ocean model is usually significantly less accurate than the synoptic maps that can be obtained from the satellite observations. This not only penalizes the...

Balmaseda, M., Alves, J., Arribas, A., Awaji, T. D. B., Ferry, N., Fujii, Y., Lee, T., Rienecker, M. T. R., and Stammer, D.: Ocean Initialisation for Seasonal Forecasts, Proceeding of final GODAE Symposiumi, Nice, France, 373–394, 2008.; Béal, D., Brasseur, P., Brankart, J.-M., Ourmières, Y., and Verron, J.: Controllability of mixing errors in a coupled physical biogeochmeical model of the {N}orth {A}tlantic: a nonlinear study using ensemble anamorphosis, Ocean Science, ...

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Regional Impacts of Ocean Color on Tropical Pacific Variability : ...

By: W. Anderson; A. Gnanadesikan; A. Wittenberg

Description: NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton NJ, USA. The role of the penetration length scale of shortwave radiation into the surface ocean and its impact on tropical Pacific variability is investigated with a fully coupled ocean, atmosphere, land and ice model. Previous work has shown that removal of all ocean color results in a system that tends strongly towards an El Niño state. Results from a suite of surface chlorophyll perturbation exper...

Anderson, W. G., Gnanadesikan, A., Hallberg, R., Dunne, J., and Samuels, B L.: Impact of ocean color on the maintenance of the Pacific Cold Tongue, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34(11), L11609, doi:10.1029/2007GL030100, 2007.; Bjerknes, J.: Atmospheric teleconnections from the equatorial pacific, Mon. Weather Rev., 97, 163–172, 1969.; Ballabrera-Poy, J., Murtugudde, R., Zhang, R. H., and Busalacchi, A. J.: Coupled ocean-atmosphere response to seasonal modulation of ocean color: I...

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Agulhas Ring Injection Into the South Atlantic During Glacials and...

By: V. Zharkov; D. Nof

Description: Geophysical Fluid Dynamics institute, Florida State University, FL, USA. Recent proxies analysis suggest that, at the end of the last glacial, there was a significant increase in the injection of Agulhas rings into the South Atlantic (SA). This brought about a dramatic increase in the salt-influx (from the Indian Ocean) into the SA helping re-start the then-collapsed meridional overturning cell (MOC), leading to the termination of the Younger Dryas (YD)....

Andrews, J. C. and Scully-Power, P.: The structure of an East Australian Current anticyclonic eddy, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 6, 756–765, 1976.; Arruda, W. Z., Nof,D., and O'Brien, J. J.: Does the Ulleung eddy owe its existence to β and nonlinearities?, Deep-Sea Res., 51, 2073–2090, 2004.; Bard, E.: Climate shock: abrupt changes over millennial time scales, Phys. Today, 55, 32–38, 2002.; Berger, W. H. and Wefer, G.: Expeditions into the past: paleoceanographic studies in the S...

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Silicon Pool Dynamics and Biogenic Silica Export in the Southern O...

By: L. André; F. Fripiat; F. Dehairs; D. Cardinal; A.-j. Cavagna; S. Speich

Description: Section of Mineralogy and Petrography, Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Belgium. Water column silicon isotopic signatures (Δ30Si) of silicic acid (Si(OH)4) in the Southern Ocean were measured along a meridional transect from South Africa (Subtropical Zone) down to 57° S (northern Weddell Gyre). These data are the first reported for a summer transect across the whole Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Δ30Si va...

Altabet, M. A. and Francois, R.: Nitrogen isotope biogeochemistry of the Antarctic Polar Frontal Zone at 170° W, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 48, 4247–4273, 2001.; Abraham, K., Opfergelt, S., Fripiat, F., Cavagna, A.-J., de Jong, J. T. M., Foley, S. F., André, L., and Cardinal, D.: $\delta ^{30}$Si and $\delta ^{29}$Si determinations on USGS BHVO-1 and BHVO-2 reference materials with a new configuration on a Nu Plasma Multi-Collector ICP-MS, Geostand. Geoanal. Res., 32(2), 193–...

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Transformation of Levantine Intermediate Water Tracked by Medargo ...

By: A. Turiel; J. Font; C. Millot; P.-m. Poulain; J. Solé; A. Julià; M. Emelianov; M.-r. Vitrià

Description: Institut de Ciències del Mar – CSIC, Passeig Marítim de la Barceloneta, 37–49, 08003 Barcelona, Spain. A clustering methodology is applied to investigate the thermohaline structure of Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) in the western Mediterranean basin. Sixteen free-drifting hydrographic profilers were deployed in the framework of the MFSTEP project (MEDARGO component) from September 2003. A total of 925 CTD profiles collected up to the beginning of Feb...

Astraldi, M., Balopoulos, S., Candela, J., Font, J., Gacic, M., Gasparini, G. P., Manca, B., Theocaris, A., and Tintoré, J.: The role of straits and channels in understanding the characteristics of Mediterranean circulation, Progress in Oceanography, 44, 65–108, 1999.; Bubnov, V. A.: Vertical turbulent exchange and transformation of Mediterranean waters in the Atlantic Ocean, Oceanology, 7(4), 586–592, 1967.; Davis, R. E., Webb, D. C., Regier, L. A., and Dufour, J.: The ...

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