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Dynamically Constrained Ensemble Perturbations – Application to Ti...

By: R. H. Weisberg; J.-m. Beckers; A. Alvera-azcárate; A. Barth; M. Rixen; F. Lenartz; L. Vandenbulcke

Description: GeoHydrodynamics and Environment Research (GHER), MARE, Allée du 6-Août 17, University of Liège, Sart-Tilman B5, 4000 Liège, Belgium. A method is presented to create an ensemble of perturbations that satisfies linear dynamical constraints. A cost function is formulated defining the probability of each perturbation. It is shown that the perturbations created with this approach take the land-sea mask into account in a similar way as variational analysis t...

Alvera-Azcárate, A., Barth, A., Beckers, J., and Weisberg, R H.: Multivariate reconstruction of missing data in sea surface temperature, chlorophyll and wind satellite field, J. Geophys. Res., 112, C03008, doi:10.1029/2006JC003660, 2007.; Arakawa, A. and Lamb, V.: A~potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for the shallow water equations, Mon. Weather Rev., 109, 18–36, 1981.; Barth,~A., Alvera-Azcárate,~A., Beckers,~J.-M., Rixen,~M., and Vandenbulcke,~L.: Multigr...

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Changes in Ventilation of the Mediterranean Sea During the Past 25...

By: A. Schneider; T. Tanhua; W. Roether; R. Steinfeldt

Description: GEOMAR Helmholtz Center for Ocean Research Kiel, Kiel, Germany. Significant changes in the overturning circulation of the Mediterranean Sea has been observed during the last few decades, the most prominent phenomena being the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT) in the early 1990s and the Western Mediterranean Transition (WMT) during the mid-2000s. During both of these events unusually large amounts of deep water were formed, and in the case of the EMT...

Astraldi, M., Gasparini, G., Sparnocchia, S., Moretti, M., and Sansone, E.: The characteristics of the water masses and the water transport in the Sicily Strait at long time scales, in Dynamics of Mediterranean straits and channels, Bulletin de l'Institut Océanographique, edited by: Briand, F., 17, 95–115, 1996.; Bergamasco, A. and Malanotte-Rizzoli, P.: The circulation of the Mediterranean Sea: a historical review of experimental investigations, Adv. Oceanogr. Limnol., ...

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Validation of Foam Near-surface Ocean Current Forecasts Using Lagr...

By: E. W. Blockley; P. Hyder; M. J. Martin

Description: Met Office, FitzRoy Road, Exeter, EX13PB, UK. In this study, the quality of near-surface current forecasts from the FOAM ocean forecasting system is assessed using the trajectories of Lagrangian drifting buoys. A method is presented for deriving pseudo-Eulerian estimates of ocean currents from the positions of Surface Velocity Program drifters and the resulting data are compared to velocities observed by the global tropical moored buoy array. A quantita...

Bonjean, F. and Lagerloef, G. S. E.: Diagnostic model and analysis of the surface currents in the tropical Pacific Ocean, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 2938–2954, 2002; Brushett, B. A., King, B. A., and Lemckert, C. J.: Evaluation of met-ocean forecast data effectiveness for tracking drifters deployed during operational oil spill response in Australian waters, J. Coastal Res., 64, 991–994, 2011; Burchard, H.: Energy-conserving discretisation of turbulent shear and buoyancy pro...

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Ventilation of the Mediterranean Sea Constrained by Multiple Trans...

By: T. Tanhua; T. Stöven

Description: Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, GEOMAR, Kiel, Germany. Ventilation is the primary pathway for atmosphere–ocean boundary perturbations, such as temperature anomalies, to be relayed to the ocean interior. It is also a conduit for gas exchange between the interface of atmosphere and ocean. Thus it is a mechanism whereby, for instance, the ocean interior is oxygenated and enriched in anthropogenic carbon. The ventilation of the Mediterranean Sea i...

Artegiani, A., Bregant, D., Paschini, E., Pinardi, N., Raicich, F., and Russo, A.: The Adriatic Sea General Circulation. Part I: Air-Sea Interactions and Water Mass Structure, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 1492–1514, 1996a.; Artegiani, A., Bregant, D., Paschini, E., Pinardi, N., Raicich, F., and Russo, A.: The Adriatic Sea General Circulation. Part II: Baroclinic Circulation Structure, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 1515–1532, 1996b.; Bullister, J., Wisegarver, D., and Menzia, F.: Th...

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Simulation of Tsunami Generation, Propagation and Coastal Inundati...

By: R. Archetti; A. G. Samaras; T. V. Karambas

Description: CIRI – EC, Fluid Dynamics Research Unit, University of Bologna, Via del Lazzaretto 15/5, 40131 Bologna, Italy. In the present work, an advanced tsunami generation, propagation and coastal inundation 2-DH model (i.e. 2-D Horizontal model) based on the higher-order Boussinesq equations – developed by the authors – is applied to simulate representative earthquake-induced tsunami scenarios in the Eastern Mediterranean. Two areas of interest were select...

Apotsos, A., Gelfenbaum, G., and Jaffe, B.: Process-based modeling of tsunami inundation and sediment transport, J. Geophys. Res.-Earth, 116, F01006, doi:10.1029/2010jf001797, 2011.; Ataie-Ashtiani, B. and Najafi Jilani, A.: A higher-order Boussinesq-type model with moving bottom boundary: applications to submarine landslide tsunami waves, Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fl., 53, 1019–1048, doi:

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Remote Detection of Water Property Changes from a Time Series of O...

By: M. Tomczak; A. Henry-edwards

Description: School of Chemistry Physics and Earth Sciences, Flinders University of South Australia, Australia. A water mass analysis method based on a constrained minimization technique is developed to derive water property changes in water mass formation regions from oceanographic station data taken at significant distance from the formation regions. The method is tested with two synthetic data sets, designed to mirror conditions in the North Atlantic at the Bermud...

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Deep Ocean Exchange with West-european Shelf Seas : Volume 5, Issu...

By: J. T. Holt; S. L. Wakelin; J. M. Huthnance

Description: Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory, 6 Brownlow Street, Liverpool L3 5DA, UK. We review mechanisms and studies of exchange between the north-east Atlantic and the adjacent shelf seas. Well-developed summer upwelling and associated filaments off Portugal and north-west Spain give exchange O(3 m2/s per unit length of shelf). Prevailing westerly winds further north drive exchange O(1 m2/s). Poleward flow along most of the upper slope has...

Allen, J. I., Blackford, J., Holt, J. T., Proctor, R., Ashworth M., and Siddorn, J.: A highly spatially resolved ecosystem model for the North West European continental shelf, Sarsia, 86, 423–440, 2001.; Booth, D. A.: Horizontal dispersion in the north east Atlantic, Deep-Sea Res., 35, 1937–1951, 1988.; Barton, E. D., Inall, M. E., Sherwin, T. J., and Torres, R.: Vertical structure, turbulent mixing and fluxes during Lagrangian observations of an upwelling filament syste...

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Problems with Estimating Oceanic Heat Transport – Conceptual Remar...

By: U. Schauer; A. Beszczynska-möller

Description: Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany. While the concept of oceanic heat transport – or rather heat transport divergence – is known since long, it is sometimes applied inaccurately. Often temperature transports are computed across sections with unbalanced volume flow which then depend entirely on the choice of the temperature scale. The consequences of such arbitrariness are demonstrated with a simple calculation e...

Cuny, J., Rhines Peter B. , and Kwok, R.: Davis Strait volume, freshwater and heat fluxes, Deep-Sea Res. I, 52(3), 519–542, 2005.; Fahrbach, E., Meincke, J., Østerhus, S., Rohardt, G., Schauer, U., Tverberg, V., and Verduin, J.: Direct measurements of volume transports through Fram Strait, Polar Res., 20(2), 217–224, 2001.; Hall, M. M. and Bryden, H. L.: Direct estimates and mechanisms of ocean heat transport, Deep-Sea Res. I, 29, 339–359, 1982.; Ingvaldsen, R. B., Aspli...

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Towards an Integrated Forecasting System for Fisheries on Habitat-...

By: I. J. Allen; M. Butenschön; A. Christensen; Z. Gürkan

Description: DTU Aqua, Technical University of Denmark, 2920 Charlottenlund, Denmark. First results of a coupled modelling and forecasting system for fisheries on habitat-bound stocks are being presented. The system consists currently of three mathematically, fundamentally different model subsystems coupled offline: POLCOMS providing the physical environment implemented in the domain of the north-west European shelf, the SPAM model which describes sandeel stocks in ...

Alheit, J.: Consequences of regime shifts for marine food webs, Int. J. Earth. Sci., 98, 261–268, doi:10.1007/s00531-007-0232-9, 2009.; Arnott, S. A. and Ruxton, G. D.: Sandeel recruitment in the North Sea: demographic, climatic and trophic effects, Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 238, 199–210, 2002.; Allen, J. I., Blackford, J. C., Holt, J., Proctor, R., Ashworth, M., and Siddorn, J.: A highly spatially resolved ecosystem m...

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Corrigendum to Observed and Simulated Estimates of the Meridional ...

By: P. Heimbach; H. Haak; S. Cunningham; J. Marotzke; T. Kanzow; J. Baehr

Description: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA. No abstract available.

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Sea Level Variability in the Arctic Ocean Observed by Satellite Al...

By: M. Ablain; A. Cazenave; N. Picot; P. Prandi

Description: CLS, Space Oceanography Division, Ramonville St-Agne, France. We investigate sea level variability in the Arctic Ocean from observations. Variability estimates are derived both at the basin scale and on smaller local spatial scales. The periods of the signals studied vary from high frequency (intra-annual) to long term trends. We also investigate the mechanisms responsible for the observed variability. Different data types are used, the m...

Ablain, M., Cazenave, A., Valladeau, G., and Guinehut, S.: A new assessment of the error budget of global mean sea level rate estimated by satellite altimetry over 1993–2008, Ocean Sci., 5, 193–201, doi:10.5194/os-5-193-2009, 2009.; Bindoff, N., Willebrand, J., Artale, V., Cazenave, A., Gregory, J. M., Gulev, S., Hanawa, H., Le Quéré, C., Levitus, S., Nojiri, Y., Shum, C. K., Talley, L., and Unnikrishnan, A.: Observatio...

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Decadal Variability of Heat Content in South China Sea Inferred fr...

By: D. Wang; Q. Liu; W. Song; J. Lan

Description: College of Physical and Environmental Oceanography, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China. Using an observation dataset of temperature and the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA), the decadal variability of upper ocean heat content (0–400 m; hereafter, OHC) in the South China Sea (SCS) was investigated for the period from 1958 to 2007. Decadal variability was identified as the dominant mode of upper OHC besides the seasonal cycle. According to dec...

Carton, J. A. and Giese, B. S.: A Reanalysis of Ocean Climate Using Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA), Mon. Weather Rev., 136, 2999–3017, 2008.; Domingues, C. M., Church, J. A., White, N. J., Gleckler, P. J., Wijffels, S. E., Barker, P. M., and Dunn, J. R.: Improved estimates of upper-ocean warming and multi-decadal sea-level rise, Nature, 453, 1090–1093, doi:10.1038/nature07080, 2008.; Fang, G. H., Wei, Z. X., Choi, ...

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Numerical Implementation and Oceanographic Application of the Gibb...

By: V. Tchijov; C. Guder; W. Wagner; R. Feistel

Description: Baltic Sea Research Institute, Seestraße 15, 18119 Warnemünde, Germany. The 2004 Gibbs thermodynamic potential function of naturally abundant water ice is based on much more experimental data than its predecessors, is therefore significantly more accurate and reliable, and for the first time describes the entire temperature and pressure range of existence of this ice phase. It is expressed in the ITS-90 temperature scale and is consistent with the curre...

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Enso-correlated Fluctuations in Ocean Bottom Pressure and Wind-str...

By: D. P. Chambers

Description: College of Marine Science, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, FL, USA. We examine the magnitude of ENSO-correlated variations in wind-stress curl and ocean bottom pressure in the North Pacific between 1992 until 2010, using satellite observations and model output. Our analysis indicates that while there are significant fluctuations correlated with some El Niño and La Niña events, the correlation is still relatively low. Moreover, the ENSO-corr...

Chambers, D. P. and Willis, J. K.: Analysis of large-scale ocean bottom pressure variability in the North Pacific, {J. Geophys. Res., 113, }C11003, doi:10.1029/2008JC004930, 2008.; Chambers, D. P. and Willis, J. K.: A Global Evaluation of Ocean Bottom Pressure from GRACE, OMCT, and Steric-Corrected Altimetry, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 27, 1395–1402, doi:10.1175/2010JTECHO73...

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Extraction of Spatial-temporal Rules from Mesoscale Eddies in the ...

By: Z. He; X. Fan; C. Zhou; D. Wang; F. Su; Y. Du; H. Mao

Description: State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Science and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China. In this paper, a rough set theory is introduced to represent spatial-temporal relationships and extract the corresponding rules from typical mesoscale-eddy states in the South China Sea (SCS). Three decision attributes are adopted in this study, which make the approach ...

Bai, H., Ge, Y., Wang, J., and Liao, Y.: Using rough set theory to identify villages affected by birth defects: the example of Heshun, Shanxi, China, Int. J. Geogr. Inf. Sci., 24(4), 559–576, 2010.; Cheng, X., Qi, Y., and Wang, W.: Seasonal and Interannual Variabilities of Mesoscale Eddies in South China Sea, J. Trop. Oceanogr., 24(4), 51–59, 2005.; Fayyad, U. M. and Irani, K. B.: On the handling of continuous-valued attributes in decision tree generation, Mach. Learn., ...

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From Satellite Altimetry to Argo and Operational Oceanography: Thr...

By: P. Y. Le Traon

Description: Ifremer and Mercator Ocean, 8–10 rue Hermès – Parc Technologique du Canal, 31520 Ramonville St Agne, France. The launch of the US/French mission Topex/Poseidon (T/P) (CNES/NASA) in August 1992 was the start of a revolution in oceanography. For the first time, a very precise altimeter system optimized for large scale sea level and ocean circulation observations was flying. T/P alone could not observe the mesoscale circulation. In the 1990s, the ESA ...

Ablain, M., Cazenave, A., Valladeau, G., and Guinehut, S.: A new assessment of the error budget of global mean sea level rate estimated by satellite altimetry over 1993–2008, Ocean Sci., 5, 193–201, doi:10.5194/os-5-193-2009, 2009.; Arbic, B. K., Richman, J. G., Shriver, J. F., Timko, P. G., Metzger, E. J., and Wallcraft, A. J.: Global modeling of internal tides within an eddying ocean general circulation model, Oceanog...

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Towards an Improved Description of Ocean Uncertainties: Effect of ...

By: C.-e. Testut; D. Béal; M. Doron; J.-m. Brankart; P. Brasseur; C. Fontana; J. Verron; M. Meinvielle

Description: LEGI/CNRS, UMR5519, Grenoble, France. The objective of this paper is to investigate if the description of ocean uncertainties can be significantly improved by applying a local anamorphic transformation to each model variable, and by making the assumption of joint Gaussianity for the transformed variables, rather than for the original variables. For that purpose, it is first argued that a significant improvement can already be obtained by deriving the...

Béal, D., Brasseur, P., Brankart, J.-M., Ourmières, Y., and Verron, J.: Characterization of mixing errors in a coupled physical biogeochemical model of the North Atlantic: implications for nonlinear estimation using Gaussian anamorphosis, Ocean Sci., 6, 247–262, doi:10.5194/os-6-247-2010, 2010.; Bertino, L., Evensen, G., and Wackernagel, H.: Sequential data assimilation techniques in oceanography, Int. Stat. Rev., 71, 2...

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Investigation of Saline Water Intrusions Into the Curonian Lagoon ...

By: C. Ferrarin; G. Umgiesser; S. Gulbinskas; P. Zemlys; D. Bellafiore

Description: Coastal Research and Planning Institute, Klaipėda University, Manto 84, 92294 Klaipėda, Lithuania. This work is focused on the application of a modelling system to simulate 3-D interaction between the Curonian Lagoon and the Baltic Sea coastal waters and to reflect spatio-temporal dynamics of marine waters in the Curonian Lagoon. The model system is based on the finite element program package SHYFEM which can be used to resolve the hydrodynamic equ...

Bellafiore, D. and Umgiesser, G.: Hydrodynamic coastal processes in the North Adriatic investigated with a 3-D finite element model, Ocean Dynam., 60, 255–276, 2010.; Bellafiore, D., Guarnieri, A., Grilli, F., Penna, P., Bortoluzzi, G., Giglio, F., and Pinardi N.: Study of the hydrodynamical processes in the Boka Kotorska Bay with a finite element model, Dynam. Atmos. Oceans, 52, 298–321, 2011.; Blumberg, A. and Mellor, G. L.: A description of a three-dimensional coastal...

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The Role of Vertical Shear on the Horizontal Oceanic Dispersion : ...

By: R. Corrado; L. Palatella; G. Lacorata; I. Schipa; R. Santoleri; A. S. Lanotte; C. Pizzigalli

Description: CNR ISAC, GOS Team, Str. Prov. Lecce Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy. The effect of vertical shear on the horizontal dispersion properties of passive tracer particles on the continental shelf of South Mediterranean is investigated by means of observative and model data. In-situ current measurements reveal that vertical velocity gradients in the upper mixed layer decorrelate quite fast (∼ 1 day), whereas basin-scale ocean circulation models tend to overest...

Bennett, A. F.: A Lagrangian analysis of turbulent diffusion, Rev. Geophys., 25, 799–822, 1987.; Bennett, A. F.: Lagrangian Fluid Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2005.; Berloff, P. and McWilliams, J.: Material transport in Oceanic gyres – Part 2: Hierarchy of stochastic models, J. Phys. Ocean., 32, 797–830, 2002.; Boffetta, G., Celani, A., Cencini, M., Lacorata, G., and Vulpiani, A.: Non-asymptotic properties of transport and mixing, Chaos, 10, 50–60...

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A Simple and Self-consistent Geostrophic-force-balance Model of th...

By: J. Marotzke; J. Callies

Description: Ozean im Erdsystem, Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Bundesstraße 53, 20146 Hamburg, Germany. A simple model of the thermohaline circulation (THC) is formulated, with the objective to represent explicitly the geostrophic force balance of the basinwide THC. The model comprises advective-diffusive density balances in two meridional-vertical planes located at the eastern and the western walls of a hemispheric sector basin. Boundary mixi...

Adcroft, A., Scott, J. R., and Marotzke, J.: Impact of geothermal heating on the global ocean circulation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 1735–1738, doi:10.1029/2000GL012182, 2001.; Armi, L.: Some evidence for boundary mixing in the deep ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 83, 1971–1979, doi:10.1029/JC083iC04p01971, 1978.; Bryan, F.: High-latitude salinity effects and interhemispheric...

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