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Corrigendum to Spectral Studies of Ocean Water with Space-borne Se...

By: T. Dinter; J. P. Burrows; A. Bracher; B. Sierk; M. Vountas

Description: Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee 1, 28359 Bremen, Germany. No abstract available.

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On the Time to Tracer Equilibrium in the Global Ocean : Volume 5, ...

By: E. Deleersnijder; F. Primeau

Description: Department of Earth System Science, University of California at Irvine, Rowland Hall, Irvine, CA 92697, USA. An important issue for the interpretation of data from deep-sea cores is the time for tracers to be transported from the sea surface to the deep ocean. Global ocean circulation models can help shed light on the timescales over which a tracer comes to equilibrium in different regions of the ocean. In this note, we discuss how the most slowly ...

Broecker, W. S. and Peng, T.-H.: Tracers in the sea, Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Palisades, NY., 690 pp., 1982.; Campin, J.-M., Fichefet, T., and Duplessy, J.-C.: Problems with using radiocarbon to infer ocean ventilation rates for past and present climates, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 165, 17–24, 1999.; Cox, M. D.: An Idealized Model of the World Ocean. Part I: The Global-Scale Water Masses., J. Phys. Oceanogr. 19, 1730–1752, 1989.; Delhez, E. J. M., Campin, J....

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Physical Forcing and Physical/Biochemical Variability of the Medit...

By: G. L. Borzelli-eusebi; A. Rubino; A. Crise; M. Sprovieri; M. Ribera D'Alcalà; V. Artale; K. Schroeder; I. Taupier-letage; E. Garcia-ladona; M. Gregoire; T. Tanhua; N. Kress; H. Kontoyannis; J. Font; A. Theocharis; G. Civitarese; M. G. Mazzocchi; J. Tintoré; P. Malanotte-rizzoli; S. Sofianos; A. Gogou; M. Gacic; F. D'Ortenzio; V. Kovacevic; S. Carniel; M. Orlic; J. M. Garcia-lafuente; P.-m. Poulain; D. Hainbucher; G. Triantafyllou; V. Cardin; J. Siokou-frangou; E. Krasakapoulou; M. Alvarez; E. Souvermezoglou; S. Brenner; Y. Ashkenazy; A. Bergamasco; S. Marullo; E. Ozsoy; A. Incarbona; A. Pascual; G. Krokos; W. Roether

Description: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA. The importance of the Mediterranean Sea for the world ocean has long been recognized. First, the Mediterranean sea has a profound impact on the Atlantic ocean circulation and, consequently, on the global thermohaline conveyor belt. Maps of the Mediterranean salty water tongue exiting from the Gibraltar strait at intermediate depths and spreading throughout the Atlantic interior are well known s...

Alemany, F., Quintanilla, L., Velez-Belchí, P., García, A., Cortés, D., Rodríguez, J. M., Fernández de Puelles, M. L., González-Pola, C., and López-Jurado, J. L.: Characterization of the spawning habitat of Atlantic bluefin tuna and related species in the Balearic Sea (western Mediterranean), Prog. Oceanogr., 86, 21–38 , 2010.; Alhammoud, B., Beranger, K., Mortier, L., Crepon, M., and Dekeyser, I.: Surface circulation of the Levantine Basin: comparison of model results w...

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N/P Ratio of Nutrient Uptake in the Baltic Sea : Volume 7, Issue 5...

By: H. Bi; L. Jonasson; Z. Wan

Description: Centre for Ocean and Ice, Danish Meteorological Institute, Lyngbyvey 100, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. The N/P ratio of nutrient uptake, the change of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) relative to the change of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP), is a key parameter for many ecological models. In the Baltic Sea ecosystem, the N/P ratio of nutrient uptake varies among different basins and different seasons. The N/P ratio of nutrient alteration, i.e., the r...

Allen, J. I., Holt, T. J., Blackford, J., and Proctor, R.: Error quantification of a high-resolution coupled hydrodynamic-ecosystem coastal-ocean model: Part 2. Chlorophyll-a, nutrients and SPM, J. Marine Syst., 68, 381–404, 2007.; Anderson, T. R. and Pondaven, P.: Non-redfield carbon and nitrogen cycling in the Sargasso Sea: pelagic imbalances and export flux, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 50, 573–591, 2003.; Arrigo, K. R., Robinson, D. H., Worthen, D. L., Dunbar, R. B., ...

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Modelling the Cohesive Sediment Transport in the Marine Environmen...

By: K. D. Kombiadou; Y. G. Savvidis; Y. N. Krestenitis

Description: Laboratory of Maritime Engineering and Maritime Works, Division of Hydraulics and Environmental Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24, Thessaloniki, Greece. The transport of fine-grained sediments in the marine environment entails risks of pollutant intrusions from substances absorbed onto the cohesive flocks' surface, gradually released to the aquatic field. These substances include nutrients such as n...

Amos, C. L., Daborn, G. R., and Christian, H. A.: In situ erosion measurements on fine-grained sediments from the Bay of Fundy, Mar. Geology, 108, 175–196, 1992.; Amos, C. L., Feeney, T., Sutherland, T. F., and Luternauer, J. L.: The stability of fine-grained sediments from the Fraser River Delta, Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci., 45, 507–524, 1997.; Lykousis, V., Collins, M. B., and Ferentinos, G.: Modern sedimentation in the N.N. Aegean Sea, Mar. Geology, 43, 111–130, 1981.; ...

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Sensitivity Study of Wind Forcing in a Numerical Model of Mesoscal...

By: A. A. Petrenko; A. M. Doglioli; M. Kersalé

Description: Aix-Marseille Université, OSU/Centre d'Océanologie de Marseille, Marseille, France. The oceanic circulation around the Hawaiian archipelago is characterized by a complex circulation and the presence of mesoscale eddies west of the islands. These eddies typically develop and persist for weeks to several months in the area during persistent trade wind conditions. In order to find the best setup of a regional ocean model and to better understand the role of...

Aristegui, J., Sangra, P., Henandez-Leon, S., Canton, M., and Hernandez-Guerra, A.: Island-induced eddies in the Canary Islands, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 41, 1509–1525, 1994.; Aristegui, J., Tett, P., Hernandez-Guerra, A., Basterretxea, G., Montero, M. F., Wild, K., Sangra, P., Hernandez-Leon, S., Canton, M., Garcia-Braun, J. A., Pacheco, M., and Barton, E. D.: The influence of island generated eddies on chlorophyll distribution: a study of mesoscale variation around Gran Ca...

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Spectrophotometric High-precision Seawater Ph Determination for Us...

By: A. Körtzinger; C. Frank; S. Aßmann

Description: Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Coastal Research, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht, Germany. Autonomous sensors are required for a comprehensive documentation of the changes in the marine carbon system and thus to differentiate between its natural variability and anthropogenic impacts. Spectrophotometric determination of pH – a key variable of the seawater carbon system – is particularly suited to achieve precise and drift-f...

Bellerby, R. G. J., Olsen, A., Johannessen, T., and Croot, P.: A high precision spectrophotometric method for on-line shipboard seawater pH measurements: the automated marine pH sensor (AMpS), Talanta, 56, 61–69, doi:10.1016/S0039-9140(01)00541-0, 2002.; Clayton, T. D. and Byrne, R. H.: Spectrophotometric seawater pH measurements: total hydrogen ion concentration scale calibration of m-cresol purple and at-sea r...

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Impact of Data Assimilation of Physical Variables on the Spring Bl...

By: C. Hansen; L. Bertino; A. Samuelsen

Description: Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen, Norway. A reanalysis of the North Atlantic spring bloom in 2007 was produced using the real-time analysis from the TOPAZ North Atlantic and Arctic forecasting system. The TOPAZ system uses a hybrid coordinate general circulation ocean model and assimilates physical observations: sea surface anomalies, sea surface temperatures, and sea-ice concentrations using the Ensemble Kalman Filter. This ocean ...

Berline, L., Brankart, J.-M., Brasseur, P., Ourmieres, Y., and Verron, J.: Improving the physics of a coupled physical-biogeochemical model of the North Atlantic through data assimilation: Impact on the ecosystem, J. Mar. Syst., 64, 153–172, 2007.; Bleck, R.: An oceanic general circulation model framed in hybrid isopycnic-Cartesian coordinates, Ocean Modell., 4, 55–88, 2002.; % vor jede Referenz Aksnes, D. L. and Egge, J. K.: A theoretical model for nutrient uptake in ph...

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Distributions of Mixed Layer Properties in North Pacific Water Mas...

By: T. Suga; F. M. Bingham

Description: Univ. of North Carolina Wilmington, Center for Marine Science, 5600 Marvin K. Moss Lane, Wilmington, NC 28409, USA. Winter mixed layer characteristics in the North Pacific Ocean are examined and compared between Argo floats in 2006 and the World Ocean Atlas 2001 (WOA01) climatology for a series of named water masses, North Pacific Tropical Water (NPTW), Eastern Subtropical Mode Water (ESTMW), North Pacific Subtropical Mode Water (NPSTMW), Light Central M...

Argo Science Team: Argo: The global array of profiling floats, in: Observing the oceans in the 21st Century, edited by: Koblinsky, C. J. and Smith, N. R., GODAE Proj. Off., Melbourne, Australia, 248–258, 2001.; Bingham, F.: The Formation and Spreading of Subtropical Mode Water in the North Pacific, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 11 177–11 189, 1992.; Bingham, F. M., Suga, T., and Hanawa, K.: The Origin of Waters Observed along 137$^\circ$ E, J. Geophys. Res., 107, C7, doi:10.1029...

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Thermodynamic Properties of Standard Seawater: Extensions to High ...

By: R. Feistel; A. Heintz; J. Safarov; E. Hassel; F. Millero

Description: Lehrstuhl für Technische Thermodynamik, Universität Rostock, Albert-Einstein-Str. 2, 18059, Rostock, Germany. Measurements of (p, Ρ, T) properties of standard seawater with practical salinity S≈35, temperature T=(273.14 to 468.06) K and pressures, p, up to 140 MPa are reported with the reproducibility of the density measurements observed to be in the average percent deviation range ΔΡ/Ρ=±(0.01 to 0.03)%. The measurements are m...

Archer, D. G.: Thermodynamic Properties of the NaCl+H2O System. II. Thermodynamic Properites of NaCl (aq), NaCl·2H2O(cr) and Phase Equilibria, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 21, 793–829, 1992.; Bradshaw, A. and Schleicher, K. E.: Direct measurements of thermal expansion of seawater under pressure, Deep Sea Res., 17, 691–706, 1970.; Bradshaw, A. and Schleicher, K. E.: Compressibility of distilled water and seawater, Deep Sea Res., 23, 583–593, 1976.; Cald...

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Transient Residence and Exposure Times : Volume 2, Issue 1 (09/01/...

By: E. J. M. Delhez

Description: University of Liège, Mathematical Methods and Modelling, Belgium. The residence time measures the time spent by a water parcel or a pollutant in a given water body and is therefore widely used in environmental studies. The adjoint method introduced by Delhez et al. (2004) to compute this diagnostic is revised here to take into account the effect of the initialization and of the boundary conditions.

In addition to the equation for the mean...

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Laminar and Weakly Turbulent Oceanic Gravity Currents Performing I...

By: A. Wirth

Description: LEGI/MEIGE/CNRS, UMR5519, France. The small scale dynamics of a weakly turbulent oceanic gravity current is determined. The gravity current considered is initially at rest and adjusts by performing inertial oscillations to a geostrophic mean flow. The dynamics is explored with a hierarchy of mathematical models. The most involved are the fully 3-D Navier-Stokes equations subject to the Boussinesq approximation. A 1-D and 0-D mathematical model of the sa...

...; %

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Interannual Coherent Variability of Ssta and Ssha in the Tropical ...

By: J. Q. Feng

Description: Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, 266071, China. Sea surface height derived from the multiple ocean satellite altimeter missions (TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, ERS, Envisat et al.) and sea surface temperature from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) over 1993–2008 are analyzed to investigate the coherent patterns between the interannual variability of the sea surface and subsurface in the Tropical Indian Ocean, ...

Bretherton, C. S., Smith, C., and Wallace, J. M.: An intercomparison of methods for finding coupled paterns in climate data, J. Climate, 5, 541–560, 1992.; Chambers, D. P., Tapley, B. D., and Stewart, R. H.: Anomalous warming in the Indian Ocean coincident with El Niño, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 3035–3047, 1999.; Chao, J. P. and Yuan, S. W.: Connection of air-sea interaction between Tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans, Progr. Nat. Sci., 13(12), 1280–1285, 2003, (in Chinese w...

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Evaluation of Real Time and Future Global Monitoring and Forecasti...

By: M. Drévillon; Y. Drillet; G. Garric; A. Daudin; B. Tranchant; C. De Nicola; C. Régnier; R. Bourdallé-badie; N. Ferry; J.-m. Lellouche; O. Le Galloudec; E. Greiner; M. Benkiran; C. Desportes; C.-e. Testut; C. Bricaud

Description: Mercator Océan, 8/10 Rue Hermès, Ramonville Saint Agne, France. Since December 2010, the global analysis and forecast of the MyOcean system consists in the Mercator Océan NEMO global 1/4° configuration with a 1/12° zoom over the Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea. The zoom open boundaries come from the global 1/4° at 20° S and 80° N.

The data assimilation uses a reduced order Kalman filter with a 3-D multivariate modal d...

Antonov, J. I., Locarnini, R. A., Boyer, T. P., Mishonov, A. V., and Garcia, H. E.: World Ocean Atlas 2005, Vol. 2: Salinity, in: NOAA Atlas NESDIS 62, edited by: Levitus, S., US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 182 pp., 2006.; Arakawa, A. and Lamb, V. R.: A potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for the shallow water equations, Mon. Weather. Rev., 109, 18–36, 1981.; Barnier, B., Madec, G., Penduff, T., Molines, J. M., Treguier, A. M., Le Sommer, J.,...

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An Ecoop Web Portal for Visualising and Comparing Distributed Coas...

By: K. Millard; J. D. Blower; R. M. Barciela; K. Haines; Q. Harpham; A. L. Gemmell; M. R. Price; A. Saulter

Description: Environmental Systems Science Centre, Harry Pitt Building, 3 Earley Gate, Whiteknights, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AL, UK. As part of a large European coastal operational oceanography project (ECOOP), we have developed a web portal for the display and comparison of model and in-situ marine data. The distributed model and in-situ datasets are accessed via an Open Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service (WMS) and Web Feature Service (WFS) respective...

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Combining in Situ Measurements and Altimetry to Estimate Volume, H...

By: B. Hansen; K. Jochumsen; K. M. Larsen; S. Østerhus; T. Sherwin; B. Berx

Description: Marine Scotland Science, Marine Laboratory, P.O. Box 101, Aberdeen, AB11 9DB, UK. From 1994 to 2011, instruments measuring ocean currents (Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers; ADCPs) have been moored on a section crossing the Faroe–Shetland Channel. Together with CTD (Conductivity Temperature Depth) measurements from regular research vessel occupations, they describe the flow field and water mass structure in the channel. Here, we use these data to calcu...

Blindheim, J.: Arctic intermediate water in the Norwegian Sea, Deep-Sea Res., 37, 1475–1489, 1990.; Bindoff, N. L., Willebrand, J., Artale, A., Cazenave, A., Gregory, J., Gulev, S., Hanawa, K., Le Quere, C., Levitus, S., Nojiri, Y., Shum, C. K., Talley, L. D., and Unnikrishnan, A.: Observations: Oceanic Climate Change and Sea Level, in: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group 1 to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmenta...

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Comparison of the Fall Rate and Structure of Recent T-7 Xbt Manufa...

By: C. Sukigara; K. Hanawa; S. Kizu

Description: Physical Oceanography Laboratory, Department of Geophysics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aza Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578, Japan. The fall rate of recent T-7 expendable bathythermograph (XBT) is evaluated based on a series of concurrent measurement with a calibrated Conductivity Temperature Depth profiler (CTD) in the sea east of Japan. An emphasis is placed on comparing the fall rates of T-7 produced by the t...

Anderson, E. R.: Expendable bathythermograph (XBT) accuracy studies – final report for period May 1971 – December 1979, NOSC-TR-550, Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, CA, USA, 212 pp., 1980.; Baker, D. J.: Ocean instruments and experiment design, in: Evolution of Physical Oceanography, edited by: Warren, B. A. and Wunsch, C., MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 396–433, 1981.; Barnett, T. P. and Bernstein, R. L.: Expendable measuring devices, in: Air-Sea Interaction: Instr...

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On the Time to Tracer Equilibrium in the Global Ocean : Volume 5, ...

By: E. Deleersnijder; F. Primeau

Description: Department of Earth System Science, University of California at Irvine, Rowland Hall, Irvine, CA 92697, USA. An important issue for the interpretation of data from deep-sea cores is the time for tracers to be transported from the sea surface to the deep ocean. Global ocean circulation models can help shed light on the timescales over which a tracer comes to equilibrium in different regions of the ocean. In this note, we discuss how the most slowly ...

Delhez, E. J. M., Campin, J.-M., Hirst, A. C., and Deleersnijder, E.: Toward a general theory of the age in ocean modelling, Ocean Model., 1, 17–27, 1999.; Campin, J.-M., Fichefet, T., and Duplessy, J.-C.: Problems with using radiocarbon to infer ocean ventilation rates for past and present climates, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 165, 17–24, 1999.; Deleersnijder, E., Mouchet, A., Delhez, E. J. M., and Beckers, J.-M.: Transient behaviour of water ages in the World Ocean, Math...

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Modeling the Effects of Size on Patch Dynamics of an Inert Tracer ...

By: F. Chai; P. Xiu

Description: School of Marine Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, Maine, USA. Mesoscale iron enrichment experiments have revealed that additional iron affects the phytoplankton productivity and carbon cycle. However, the role of initial size of fertilized patch in determining the patch evolution is poorly quantified due to the limited observational capability and complex of physical processes. Using a three-dimensional ocean circulation model, we simulated differe...

Boyd, P. W., Jickells, T., Law, C. S., Blain, S., Boyle, E. A., Buesseler, K. O., Coale, K. H., Cullen, J. J., de Baar, H. J. W., Follows, M., Harvey, M., Lancelot, C., Levasseur, M., Owens, N. P. J., Pollard, R., Rivikin, R. B., Sarmiento, J., Schoemann, V., Smetacek, V., Takeda, S., Tsuda, A., Turner, S., and Watson, A. J.: Mesoscale iron enrichment experiments 1993–2005: Synthesis and future directions, Science, 315, 612–617, 2007.; Buesseler, K. O. and Boyd, P. W.: W...

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Arctic Surface Temperatures from Metop Avhrr Compared to in Situ O...

By: R. Tonboe; J. L. Høyer; G. Dybkjær

Description: Center for Ocean and Ice, Danish Meteorological Institute, Lyngbyvej 100, 2100 København, Denmark. The ice surface temperature (IST) is an important boundary condition for both atmospheric and ocean and sea ice models and for coupled systems. An operational ice surface temperature product using satellite Metop AVHRR infra-red data was developed for MyOcean. The IST can be mapped in clear sky regions using a split window algorithm specially tuned for sea ...

Parrett, C.: Drifter and Ship blacklist, UK meteorological Office, personal communication, Oktober 2011.; Andersen, S., Tonboe, R., Kern, S., and Schyberg, H.: Improved retrieval of sea ice total concentration from spaceborne passive microwave observations using numerical weather prediction model fields: An intercomparison of nine algorithms, Remote Sens. Environ., 104, 4, 374–392, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2006.05.013, 200...

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